(r2 - a2 + c2 + x2 + y2)2 = 4r2(x2 + c2)
In the formula of the curve given above the torus is formed from a circle of radius a whose centre is rotated along a circle of radius r. The value of c gives the distance of the cutting plane from the centre of the torus.
When c = 0 the curve consists of two circles of radius a whose centres are at (r, 0) and (-r, 0).
If c = r + a the curve consists of one point, namely the origin, while if c > r + a no point lies on the curve.
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