St Anselm (c1033-1109), known for his ontological 'proof' of the existence of God, was archbishop from 1093. A chapel was consecrated to him in 2006
See THIS LINK
John Pecham (c1230-1292), archbishop in 1279-1292, was a mathematician and student of optics.
William Laud (1573-1645), archbishop from 1633 until his execution at the Tower of London, was a mathematician and taught at St John's, Oxford, to which he left his collection of mathematical instruments.
Frederick Temple (1821-1902), archbishop from 1896, is, as a mathematician, best known for his earlier erroneous attempt on the Four Colour Theorem. He is buried in the cloister garth with a memorial stone carved by Eric Gill. A statue of him at prayer is nearby in the Corona.
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William Frend (1757 1841) was born in Canterbury. Perhaps best known as Augustus De Morgan's father-in-law, he was a radical Cambridge fellow and a leading opponent of the use of negative numbers in the early 19C. This sounds a bit negative, but a coherent definition did not arise for another generation and the opposition of mathematicians such as Frend was a major driving force in the development of proper foundations.
There are mathematical tiles in Canterbury: see THIS LINK
To see an Ordnance Survey map click at THIS LINK
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An extract from The Mathematical Gazetteer of the British Isles created by David Singmaster
The original site is at THIS LINK