[On Ramanujan]

I remember once going to see him when he was lying ill at Putney. I had ridden in taxi cab number 1729 and remarked that the number seemed to me rather a dull one, and that I hoped it was not an unfavorable omen. "No," he replied, "it is a very interesting number; it is the smallest number expressible as the sum of two cubes in two different ways."

Reductio ad absurdum, which Euclid loved so much, is one of a mathematician's finest weapons. It is a far finer gambit than any chess play: a chess player may offer the sacrifice of a pawn or even a piece, but a mathematician offers the game.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

I am interested in mathematics only as a creative art.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

Pure mathematics is on the whole distinctly more useful than applied For what is useful above all is technique, and mathematical technique is taught mainly through pure mathematics.

In great mathematics there is a very high degree of unexpectedness, combined with inevitability and economy.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

There is no scorn more profound, or on the whole more justifiable, than that of the men who make for the men who explain. Exposition, criticism, appreciation, is work for second-rate minds.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

Young Men should prove theorems, old men should write books.

Quoted by Freeman Dyson in Freeman Dyson: Mathematician, Physicist, and Writer. Interview with D J Albers, The College Mathematics Journal, vol. 25, No. 1, January 1994.

A science is said to be useful if its development tends to accentuate the existing inequalities in the distribution of wealth, or more directly promotes the destruction of human life.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

The mathematician's patterns, like the painter's or the poet's must be beautiful; the ideas, like the colours or the words must fit together in a harmonious way. Beauty is the first test: there is no permanent place in this world for ugly mathematics.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a maker of patterns. If his patterns are more permanent than theirs, it is because they are made with ideas.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

I believe that mathematical reality lies outside us, that our function is to discover or observe it, and that the theorems which we prove, and which we describe grandiloquently as our "creations," are simply the notes of our observations.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

Archimedes will be remembered when Aeschylus is forgotten, because languages die and mathematical ideas do not. "Immortality" may be a silly word, but probably a mathematician has the best chance of whatever it may mean.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

The fact is that there are few more "popular" subjects than mathematics. Most people have some appreciation of mathematics, just as most people can enjoy a pleasant tune; and there are probably more people really interested in mathematics than in music. Appearances may suggest the contrary, but there are easy explanations. Music can be used to stimulate mass emotion, while mathematics cannot; and musical incapacity is recognized (no doubt rightly) as mildly discreditable, whereas most people are so frightened of the name of mathematics that they are ready, quite unaffectedly, to exaggerate their own mathematical stupidity.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).

No mathematician should ever allow him to forget that mathematics, more than any other art or science, is a young man's game. ... Galois died at twenty-one, Abel at twenty-seven, Ramanujan at thirty-three, Riemann at forty. There have been men who have done great work later; ... [but] I do not know of a single instance of a major mathematical advance initiated by a man past fifty. ... A mathematician may still be competent enough at sixty, but it is useless to expect him to have original ideas.

*A Mathematician's Apology* (London 1941).