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  1. South African Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Attempts had been made in 1951 and 1952 to found a South African mathematical society but these were not successful.
    • The people who led the way in founding the Society in 1957 were Hendrik Stefanus Steyn and Johann van der Mark.
    • in statistics from the University of Edinburgh in 1947 for his thesis On Multivariate Sampling With and Without Replacement supervised by Alex Aitken, had been appointed to the Statistics Department in the University of Pretoria in 1949.
    • In 1967 the name was changed from 'The South African Mathematical Association' to the present 'The South African Mathematical Society'.
    • The Society grew steadily in size from a total of 73 members in 1957 to 218 in 1977 and in 1993 there were over 300 full members.
    • The American Mathematical Society agreed a reciprocity arrangement in 1972 after ensuring that the South African Society had no discriminatory rules but, after protests, they cancelled the agreement in 1974.
    • He wrote [',' P Hilton, Reflections on a visit to South Africa, Focus 1 (4) (1981), 1-2.','1]:- .
    • Towards the end of 1978 I was approached by the South African Mathematical Society about the possibility of making a lecture tour in South Africa in the summer of 1981.
    • Hilton told about his experiences, writing in [',' P Hilton, Reflections on a visit to South Africa, Focus 1 (4) (1981), 1-2.','1]:- .
    • However, he also explains why he went to South Africa [',' P Hilton, Reflections on a visit to South Africa, Focus 1 (4) (1981), 1-2.','1]:- .
    • The journal Quaestiones Mathematicae began publication in 1976.
    • The Notices of the South African Mathematical Society began publishing in 1969 with Niko Sauer as editor.
    • The first Congress of the Association in 1958 in Pietermaritzburg consisted of a Council Meeting, three plenary lectures of one hour each by Professors Hyslop, Isaacs and Van der Merwe, seven short lectures of thirty minutes each, an AGM on the Monday evening attended by 27 members, followed by a popular lecture by Prof D B Sears.
    • 1957-1959 J M Hyslop .
    • 1959-1961 J H van der Merwe .
    • 1961-1963 A P Burger .
    • 1963-1965 H J Schutte .
    • 1965-1967 H Rund .
    • 1967-1969 K O Househam .
    • 1969-1971 J H van der Merwe .
    • 1971-1973 H J Schutte .
    • 1973-1975 A P Burger .
    • 1975-1977 H S P Grasser .
    • 1977-1979 G J Hauptfleisch .
    • 1979-1981 D H Jacobson .
    • 1981-1983 K A Hardie .
    • 1983-1984 N Sauer .
    • 1984-1985 N Sauer .
    • 1985-1986 D H Martin .
    • 1986-1987 A P J van der Walt .
    • 1987-1988 J Swart .
    • 1988-1989 R I Becker .
    • 1989-1990 J J Grobler .
    • 1990-1991 A R Meijer .
    • 1991-1993 W J Kotze .
    • 1993-1995 C H Brink .
    • 1995-1997 N Sauer .
    • 1997-1999 J Persens .
    • 1999-2001 T G Schultz .
    • 2001-2003 E Bruning .
    • 2007-2015 H Siweya .

  2. Association for Women in Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Association for Women in Mathematics was founded in January 1971.
    • There was a joint meeting of the American Mathematical Society, the Mathematical Association of America and the Association for Symbolic Logic in Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA, from 21 to 24 January 1971.
    • There was a group of women mathematicians already in existence organised by Linda Rothschild and Alice Schafer at Wellesley College, a women's college in Wellesley, Massachusetts founded in 1875.
    • Carol Wood, president in 1991-93, said [',' L Blum, A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics: The Presidents’ Perspectives, Amer.
    • Notices 38 (7) (1991), 738-774.','2]:- .
    • Mary Gray produced the first Newsletter of the Association, still with its original title of 'Association of Women Mathematicians', in May 1971.
    • Here are two short pieces she wrote for this first Newsletter [',' M Gray, Association of Women Mathematicians Newsletter 1 (1) (May 1971).','4]:- .
    • The second Newsletter appeared in September 1971, still written almost entirely by Mary Gray.
    • In it the change of name is recorded [',' M Gray, Association for Women in Mathematics Newsletter 1 (2) (September 1971).','3]:- .
    • She wrote [',' L Blum, A Brief History of the Association for Women in Mathematics: The Presidents’ Perspectives, Amer.
    • Notices 38 (7) (1991), 738-774.','2]:- .
    • In the summer of 1976 at Toronto, Mary Gray talked about Sophie Germain, Linda Keen talked about Sonya Kovalevskaya, and Martha Smith about Emmy Noether.
    • At Atlanta in 1978 they held "Black Women in Mathematics" sessions.
    • By 1981 the Association had over 1000 members from sixteen different countries.
    • Note that Radcliffe College, where this meeting was held, was at that time a women's college but it became a part of Harvard University in 1999.
    • Notices 46 (1) (1999), 27-38.','5] write:- .
    • By 1991 the Association was a widely respected organization with a large influence internationally: AWM had a professional newsletter, an extensive program at the January Joint Meetings, and various projects for encouraging younger women to study mathematics.
    • Beginning in 1991 the Association for Women in Mathematics began regular workshops at each winter Joint Meeting and each summer meeting of the SIAM.
    • The website of the Association for Women in Mathematics states [',' Association for Women in Mathematics website.','1]:- .
    • The website of the Association for Women in Mathematics states [',' Association for Women in Mathematics website.','1]:- .
    • The website of the Association for Women in Mathematics states [',' Association for Women in Mathematics website.','1]:- .
    • The website of the Association for Women in Mathematics states [',' Association for Women in Mathematics website.','1]:- .
    • The website of the Association for Women in Mathematics states [',' Association for Women in Mathematics website.','1]:- .
    • The Schafer Prize was established in 1990 by the Executive Committee of the Association for Women in Mathematics and is named for the Association for Women in Mathematics former president and one of its founding members, Alice Turner Schafer, who contributed a great deal to women in mathematics throughout her career.
    • Finally, we list the Presidents of the Association for Women in Mathematics [',' Association for Women in Mathematics website.','1]: .
    • 1971-1973 Mary W Gray .
    • 1973-1975 Alice T Schafer .
    • 1975-1979 Lenore Blum .
    • 1979-1981 Judith Roitman .
    • 1981-1983 Bhama Srinivasan .
    • 1983-1985 Linda P Rothschild .
    • 1985-1987 Linda Keen .
    • 1987-1989 Rhonda J Hughes .
    • 1989-1991 Jill P Mesirov .
    • 1991-1993 Carol Wood .
    • 1993-1995 Cora Sadosky .
    • 1995-1997 Chuu-Lian Terng .
    • 1997-1999 Sylvia M Wiegand .
    • 1999-2001 Jean E Taylor .
    • 2001-2003 Suzanne Lenhart .
    • 2009-2011 Georgia Benkart .
    • 2011-2013 Jill Pipher .
    • 2013-2015 Ruth Chrney .
    • 2015-2017 Kristin Lauter .

  3. Statistical Society of Canada
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Statistical Society of Canada was founded in 1972.
    • Before that Canada had been served by Chapters of the American Statistical Association which opened its first Canadian Chapter in Montreal in 1955 followed by Chapters in Toronto and Ottawa in 1968.
    • The Canadian Mathematical Congress (now the Canadian Mathematical Society) held a meeting in Vancouver in the summer of 1968.
    • 14 (1) (1999), 80-125.','1]:- .
    • However, when Roger Fischler (University of Toronto) wrote a final report as secretary of the Committee, dated 29 March 1971, he suggested that:- .
    • A number of people were keen to push ahead and organised a statistics conference in Montreal from 31 May to 2 June 1971.
    • Plans for a Canadian Society were, however, opposed by some who were involved in the annual meeting of the American Statistical Association which was planned for Montreal in 1972.
    • 14 (1) (1999), 80-125.','1]:- .
    • The Society was set up and held its first Annual Meeting on 16 September 1972.
    • Disagreements followed and eventually a rival Canadian Statistical Society was set up on 1 February 1974.
    • Despite there now being two rival organisations, the Statistical Science Association of Canada went ahead with its next annual conference held in Toronto, Ontario from 30 May to 1 June 1974.
    • The rival Canadian Statistical Society held its first annual meeting in Edmonton, Alberta on 13 August 1974.
    • However the two rival Canadian Statistical Societies merged in 1977 to form the Statistical Society of Canada.
    • 14 (1) (1999), 80-125.','1] which gives full details of the two rival Societies and the political moves which eventually led to their coming together in 1977.

  4. Singapore Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Singapore had become a British Crown Colony in 1946 and in 1948 the Federation of Malaya was created which eventually (in 1957) gained independence.
    • During this time he was active in planning to create the University of Malaya in Singapore and, in 1949, he became Dean of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Malaya.
    • When the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore was founded in 1952, Oppenheim became the first president.
    • In 1953 the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore began publication of the Bulletin of Malayan Mathematical Society.
    • This was published from 1953 to 1959 and then in 1960 the name was changed to NABLA.
    • The publication NABLA stated [',' Singapore Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • Daniel Pedoe was appointed as head of the Mathematics Department at the University of Singapore in 1959.
    • He became the second president of the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore in 1960 following after Oppenheim.
    • Let us go back to 1956 for in that year the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore launched its first Inter-school Mathematical Competition.
    • We will say a little more about this Competition below but first let us note that in 1967 the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore was renamed the Singapore Mathematical Society, the name by which the Society is known today.
    • Returning to our discussion of the Mathematical Competition, after several changes of name, in 1995 it was renamed as the Singapore Mathematical Olympiad [',' Singapore Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • The current name Singapore Mathematical Olympiads (Junior, Senior and Open) started in 1995.
    • The Society takes its Olympiad materials into Primary Schools [',' Singapore Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • The Southeast Asian Mathematical Society was founded in 1972.
    • The Singapore Mathematical Society joined the Southeast Asian Mathematical Society as a founding member society in 1972.
    • Kumkum Kumar Sen, the President in 1973, wrote [',' Singapore Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • In 1975 the Society joined both the International Mathematical Union, where it represented Singapore, and in the same year the Society also became an Institutional Member of the Singapore National Academy of Science.
    • The Society initiated its Distinguished Visitor Programme in 1998.
    • However, the programme was much broader than this for it also had distinguished mathematicians visiting schools in Singapore to interact with both mathematics teachers and their pupils [',' Singapore Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • Experienced mathematics professors from Singapore universities go into schools with the following aim [',' Singapore Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • The Society also organises Lectures and Workshops [',' Singapore Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • 1952-1959 Alexander Oppenheim .
    • 1961 Jayaratnam Eliezer .
    • 1962-1972 P H Diananda .
    • 1972-1973 Kumkum Kumar Sen .
    • 1976-1977 Kumkum Kumar Sen .
    • 1978-1979 Chew Kim Lin .
    • 1980-1982 Peng Tsu Ann .
    • 1985-1986 Lam Lay Yong .
    • 1988-1990 Louis Chen Hsiao Yun .
    • 1991-1993 Leonard Y H Yap .
    • 1994-1995 Chong Chi Tat .
    • 1996-1997 Koh Khee Meng .
    • 2001-2005 Tan Eng Chye .
    • 2009-2012 Zhu ChengBo .
    • 2013-2016 Ling San .

  5. Spitalfields Mathematical Society (London)
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Spitalfields Mathematical Society was founded in 1717 by Joseph Middleton who taught mathematics to sailors who required mathematical skills for navigating.
    • In 1725 it moved to the White Horse in Wheeler Street, then in 1735 to the Ben Johnson's Head in Woodseer Street.
    • The original rules of the Society limited the number of members to "the square of eight" but clearly this proved hard to maintain for by 1735 it had been reduced to "the square of seven".
    • Basically it operated as a working men's club and we know that the members of 1744 [',' J W S Cassels, The Spitalfields Mathematical Society, Bull.
    • 11 (1979), 241-258.','1]:- .
    • Records of the Society written in 1784 give some information about its history (see for example [',' J W S Cassels, The Spitalfields Mathematical Society, Bull.
    • 11 (1979), 241-258.','1]):- .
    • The Mathematical Society flourished to the extent that in 1783 it increased its membership back to the square of eight.
    • In 1793 the Society moved into a permanent room in Crispin Street.
    • The Society produced a notebook in 1804 which gives the following information about public lecture the Society started to give [',' J W S Cassels, The Spitalfields Mathematical Society, Bull.
    • 11 (1979), 241-258.','1]:- .
    • However the case had a large effect since (according to the Minutes of the Society) the [',' R A Sampson, The decade 1840-1850, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 83-109.','3]:- .
    • produce of the lectures delivered in 1799 - 1800 had been very materially diminished by the effect of the information lodged against several of the members by the Gang of Informers, who have occasioned so much trouble and expense to the Society during the past year.
    • By 1804 the number of members was changed to the square of nine and now it started to look more like other mathematical societies in that it elected a president, secretary, treasurer, and six trustees.
    • More ambitious lecture programmes were started and, for example, in 1821 a course was put on [',' R A Sampson, The decade 1840-1850, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 83-109.','3]:- .
    • In 1825 the Minutes record that:- .
    • Membership dropped, being 54 in 1839, 30 in 1841 and 19 by 1845.
    • The Society wrote to the Royal Astronomical Society who responded on 10 May 1845:- .
    • A meeting of the Council of the Royal Astronomical Society took place yesterday, and I brought forward the suggestions contained in your recent letters to me relating to the venerable Mathematical Society of London, and the Council were unanimous in regretting that this ancient Society of 130 years standing should be on the eve of dissolution and decline.

  6. Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • A 'Mathematical Club' led by Anton Bilimovic had been founded by the mathematicians at the University of Belgrade in 1926 [',' Mathematical Society of Serbia website.','1]:- .
    • Also in 1926 the mathematics students from Belgrade set up the 'Union of Mathematics Students' which ran a library, held meetings and published textbooks, working in collaboration with similar unions in Zagreb and Ljubljana.
    • In 1937 the Mathematical Club became a broader society when mathematicians, physicists and astronomers from universities of Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana formed the Yugoslav Mathematical Society, based in Belgrade and with the Belgrade mathematician Tadija Pejovic as its President.
    • He attended the gymnasium in Kragujevac but his education was interrupted by the Balkan wars and then when World War I broke out in 1914 he was put into the military.
    • He served with distinction throughout the war and even after it ended in 1918 he remained in Dubrovnik as commander of a railway station until mid-June 1919.
    • He graduated in 1921 and taught mathematics in a high school as well as becoming an assistant at the University.
    • He was awarded a doctorate in 1923 for his thesis on the generalized Riccati differential equation which he defended on 6 February of that year.
    • When World War II affected Serbia in 1941 he became a lieutenant colonel in the Serbian army but was captured by the Germans and spent four years in German prisoner of war camps.
    • After his release in 1945 he was able to return to Belgrade and, after a year negotiating with the authorities, he was able to resume his work at the University.
    • When the Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia was founded in 1948 Serbia was part of Yugoslavia, as it had essentially been since 1919 when the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed.
    • Following the German invasion in 1941, Serbia was partitioned between Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Italy but, following World War II, Serbia became part of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
    • The report of this meeting by Dobrivoje Mihajlovic, at which the Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia was founded, set out the aims of the new Society [',' Mathematical Society of Serbia website.','1]:- .
    • Tadija Pejovic was President of the Society from 1948 to 1952, being re-elected in October 1948; February 1950; November 1950; and October 1951.
    • Mathematics competitions for secondary school pupils began to be held in the 1950s with the first in Belgrade being in 1958.
    • The Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia became the Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Serbia, then in 1981 it split into three separate societies.
    • The 1st Congress, Bled, 8-12 November 1949; .
    • The 5th Congress, Ohrid, 14-19 September 1970; .
    • The 7th Congress, Budva-Becici, 6-11 October 1980; .
    • The 10th Congress, Belgrade, 21-24 January 2001; .
    • The Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia had three publications prior to its split in 1981.
    • These were Matematicki Vesnik, a scientific journal which began publication in 1949; Nastava matematike, a journal intended for the use of primary and secondary school teachers, which began publication in 1952; and Matematicki list za ucenike osnovne skole, a popular journal for primary school pupils, which began publication in 1966.
    • We now give further information on these three publications (the information is taken from [',' V Micic, Z Kadelburg and B Popovic, The Mathematical Society of Serbia - 60 years, The Teaching of Mathematics 11 (1) (2008), 1-19.','2] so refers to the position in 2008).
    • The first issue of the journal was published in the beginning of 1949.
    • The first issue for 1951 contained the first article written in French.
    • Up to 1953 all the authors of articles were Serbian but, in that year, Einar Hille published in the journal.
    • The Society began publication of this journal in 1952.
    • From the year 1954 the title of the journal was Nastava matematike i fizike and in 1974, after 20 years of this title, a new series named Nastava matematike began having dropped the physics connection.
    • The 'Mathematical Newsletter for Primary Schools' was first published in 1967.
    • However, it soon turned into a journal for children between the ages of 10 and 15 used across the whole of Yugoslavia.
    • Two further publications began after the Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Serbia split into three separate societies in 1981.

  7. Mathematical Society of Serbia
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Mathematical Society of Serbia was founded in 1981 when the Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Serbia split into three separate societies.
    • The website [',' Mathematical Society of Serbia website.','1] gives the following information about the Mathematical Society of Serbia:- .
    • The journal "Nastava matematike" started in 1952 and it became the official bulletin of the Society, obtained by all members.
    • "Matematicki list za ucenike osnovnih skola" started in 1967 and it immediately became the most popular publication of the Society.
    • The journal "Tangenta", intended for high school pupils, started in 1995.
    • The article [',' V Micic, Z Kadelburg and B Popovic, The Mathematical Society of Serbia - 60 years, The Teaching of Mathematics 11 (1) (2008), 1-19.','2] gives the following information:- .
    • By 2008 the Society had a membership of 1800.
    • When Society split from the Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia, there were already three publications Matematicki Vesnik, a scientific journal which began publication in 1949; Nastava matematike, a journal intended for the use of primary and secondary school teachers, which began publication in 1952; Matematicki list za ucenike osnovne skole, a popular journal for primary school pupils, which began publication in 1966.
    • After the Mathematical Society of Serbia split off in 1981, two further publications were added: Tangenta, a journal for mathematics and computer science, intended for secondary school students, which began publication in 1995; and The Teaching of Mathematics, a journal which publishes research works in mathematical education, which began publication in 1998.
    • We now give further information on these two publications (the information is taken from [',' V Micic, Z Kadelburg and B Popovic, The Mathematical Society of Serbia - 60 years, The Teaching of Mathematics 11 (1) (2008), 1-19.','2] so refers to the position in 2008).
    • To fulfill this need, in 1998 the Society began publishing The Teaching of Mathematics.

  8. Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Montenegro
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Montenegro had been the Kingdom of Montenegro from 1910 to 1918 and it became part of Yugoslavia when it was created following World War I.
    • The Yugoslav Mathematical Society was formed in Belgrade in 1937 and this served mathematicians in Yugoslavia until the break-up of that country.
    • Many parts of Yugoslavia declared independence in 1991-92 but Montenegro remained a part of Serbia and Montenegro.
    • The Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia had been founded on 4 January 1948 and it had split into two societies, mathematics and physics, in 1981 and at that time the Mathematical Society of Serbia was founded.
    • Milojica Jacimovic was born in Kostenica, a village in the Bijelo Polje Municipality in northern Montenegro, on 1 March 1950.
    • He graduate with a mathematics degree from the University of Belgrade in 1973 and was appointed as an assistant at the University of Montenegro in Podgorica in November of that year.
    • He was awarded his doctorate in 1980 by the University of Belgrade for his thesis Iterative regularisation of a minimisation method.
    • He was promoted to assistant professor at the University of Montenegro in 1980, associate professor in 1986 and full professor in 1991.
    • In July 2010 it applied for membership of the International Mathematical Union and it was admitted as a member on 1 September 2010.
    • (vi) In recent years mathematicians living in Montenegro published 5-8 papers in respected mathematical journals and about 10-15 in other mathematical journals.
    • 58 Secretariat - International Mathematical Union (July 2010).','1]:- .
    • Some of the activities performed by our Society are as follows: the Society organised the Congress of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Yugoslavia in Becici, Montenegro; it also twice organised, in 1995 and 2004, the Congress of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia and Montenegro in Petrovac, Montenegro.
    • 58 Secretariat - International Mathematical Union (July 2010).','1]:- .
    • The first issue of the journal was in 1993.

  9. Cyprus Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Cyprus Mathematical Society was founded in 1983.
    • The Society states its aims, and the ways it attempts to achieve those aims, in its statutes [',' The Cyprus Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • This is written in Greek and began publication in 1984.
    • As an example of its contents, let us look at Volume 8 No 1 (2009) which was given over to publishing papers by plenary speakers from two previous conferences in the series 'Symposium on Elementary Maths Teaching' (SEMT).
    • Here is an extract from the Introduction [',' J Novotna and D Pitta-Pantazi (eds.), Introduction, Mediterranean Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 8 (1) (2009), i-ii.','3]:- .
    • The 9th Symposium being in August 2007, we can easily calculate that the 1st SEMT took place in August 1991.
    • Conceived in 1990, SEMT was born in 1991 as the only conference focusing on teaching and learning of elementary mathematics.
    • 1991: The teaching of mathematics to elementary mathematics pupils.
    • 1991: The changing face of elementary mathematics.
    • 2001: What is meant by the competence and confidence of people involved in the teaching of elementary mathematics.

  10. Ramanujan Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • In 2014 the Society described itself in the following terms [',' Ramanujan Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • The Journal of the Ramanujan Mathematical Society first appeared in 1986 with the first volume containing papers from Indian, American, French and English mathematicians such as David A Brannan, Growth rates of subharmonic functions in the plane, Ashok K Agarwal and George E Andrews, On Asai's polynomials related to the twisting operators of Finite Classical Groups, and Bernard Malgrange, Deformations of Differential Systems, II.
    • K S Padmanabhan, the first editor-in-chief, continued in this role until 1991.
    • V Kannan succeeded him as editor-in-chief of the Journal in 1992 and continued in this role till 1996.
    • The next editor-in-chief was Kumar Murty who took on this position in 1997.
    • The Society stated in 2013 [',' Ramanujan Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • In 2013-14 the Society ran a large number of Undergraduate Teachers Enrichment programmes: Group-actions in Aurangabad, Group-actions in Nanded, Group-actions in Latur, Number Theory and Cryptography in Lady Shri Ram College for Women (New Delhi), Multivariable Calculus in Pune, Complex Analysis in Vivekananda Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan, Finite Group theory and applications in Deshbandhu College (New Delhi), Graph theory and Operations research in Holy Cross College, Tiruchirapalli, Euclidean Geometry from a Group-theoretic Viewpoint, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, Differential Geometry in Kuvempu, Euclidean Geometry from a Group-theoretic Viewpoint, and Differential Equations in Rani Channamma University, Belgaum, Rings and Modules in D A V College, Jalandhar, and Finite Group theory in Punjabi University, Patiala.
    • They described them as follows [',' Ramanujan Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • Also beginning in 2014, the Society organised Compact Courses for Post-graduate Students [',' Ramanujan Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • (i) The Prof C S Venkitaraman Memorial Lectures are named for C S Venkitaraman (1918-1994).
    • (ii) The Prof W H Abdi Memorial Lecture's named for Wazir Hasan Abdi (1922-1999).
    • He became the founder Professor and Head of the Department of Mathematics and Statistics of University of Cochin in 1977.
    • He published the book 'Toils and Triumphs of Srinivasa Ramanujan - The Man and the Mathematician' in 1992.
    • A memorial lecture has been given at the annual conference of the Ramanujan Mathematical Society since 2001.

  11. Hamburg Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Hamburg Mathematical Society (Mathematische Gesellschaft in Hamburg), founded in 1690, is the oldest mathematical society in the world which still exists today.
    • It was not, however, the only society founded in Hamburg in the 17th century for, after the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), various citizens of Hamburg got together and formed societies of people with similar interests.
    • For example, before the mathematical society, a medical society was founded in 1644 and a music society in 1660.
    • The need for such a mathematical Society was shown by the quotes in [',' J F Bubendey, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Mathematischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg 1690-1790, Mitteilungen der Mathematischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg 1 (1) (1881), 8-16.','1]:- .
    • To overcome these problems, the Society was founded as the 'Kunstrechnungsliebende Societat in Hamburg' by Heinrich Meissner (20 April 1644 - 1 September 1716) and Valentin Heins.
    • Heinrich Meissner was a pupil at the Knackenruggesche school in Hamburg, becoming a teacher there in 1669.
    • In 1688 he became a teacher at the St Jacobi Church school where he taught writing and calculating until shortly before his death.
    • Valentin Heins, the son of a linen weaver, taught arithmetic from 1651 in Hamburg, then he studied theology from 1658 to 1659 at Jena and Leipzig.
    • For example Heinrich Meissner published Stern und Kern der Algebrae in 1692 which begins with a discussion of basic arithmetic including the extraction of square and cubic roots.
    • Valentin Heins (15 May 1637 - 17 November 1704) published Tyrocinium Mercatorio-Arithmeticum (1694) which was a much more conventional commercial arithmetic.
    • Meissner, who died in 1716, was the last of the founding members.
    • After that the Society only had three members from Hamburg and by 1717 only two remained.
    • It certainly did not flourish so the Society revised its statutes in 1774, and again in 1789-90 to distinguish itself from other societies that were starting up aiming to include scholars, lawyers and merchants wishing to improve trade and commerce.
    • For example in 1819 the Society published a famous handbook of navigation by Reinhard Woltman (1757-1837), the Handbuch der Schiffahrtskunde.
    • One important person in the development of the Society was Hermann Schubert who moved to Hamburg in 1876 to take up an appointments as a teacher at the Johanneum, the renowned humanistic school.
    • This turned into the publication of its journal, the Mitteilungen der Mathematischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg, with volume 1 being published in 1881.
    • Plans to found the university had been made much earlier but had to be shelved when World War I broke out in 1914.
    • Only after the war ended in 1918 was it possible to continue with the plan.
    • With the opening of the university in 1919, Wilhelm Blaschke was appointed to the chair in the University of Hamburg.
    • For four years the Society was unable to operate but from around 1950, under the leadership of Werner Burau (1906-1994), the Society was rebuilt and by 1963 it had returned to have as many members as there had been in the 1920s.

  12. European Women in Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Berkeley, United States, from 3 August to 11 August 1986.
    • Bodil Branner writes [',' S Munday and E Resmerita (eds.), European Women in Mathematics Newsletter 18 (1) (2011).','2]:- .
    • The second meeting of the European Women in Mathematics was held in Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1987.
    • Bodil Branner describes that meeting [',' S Munday and E Resmerita (eds.), European Women in Mathematics Newsletter 18 (1) (2011).','2]:- .
    • The second meeting of European Women in Mathematics took place in 1987 at my university, the Technical University of Denmark, in Copenhagen.
    • Capi Corrales Rodriganez from the Departamento de Algebra, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, writes [',' S Munday and E Resmerita (eds.), European Women in Mathematics Newsletter 18 (1) (2011).','2]:- .
    • 1991 Marseille, France .
    • 2001 Malta .
    • 2011 Barcelona, Spain .
    • Now with the exception of 1989, this list shows that between 1986 and 1991 there was a meeting each year.
    • However, at the 1991 meeting, and at each meeting since, a standing committee and a convenor was elected and it was decided to hold the meetings every second year.
    • By 1993 European Women in Mathematics had obtained legal status, established an office in Helsinki and was registered as a legal organisation in Finland.
    • The main reason for choosing Finland was the fact that the European Mathematical Society had been registered there in 1990.
    • Sara Munday writes [',' S Munday and E Resmerita (eds.), European Women in Mathematics Newsletter 18 (1) (2011).','2]:- .
    • I did not think much more about it until the International Mathematical Congress in 1986 in Berkeley.

  13. Colombian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Colombian Mathematical Society was founded in 1955.
    • The National University of Colombia (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) was established in 1867 in Bogata.
    • These were Carlo Federici (1906-2004) and Janos Horvath (1924-2015) and since their role in the founding of the Colombian Mathematical Society is vital, we give some details of them.
    • He obtained a doctorate in physics from the University of Genoa in 1928 for his thesis Su un ds2 einsteiniano, then in 1930 a doctorate in mathematics for his thesis Sulle congruenze binomie.
    • He became an assistant to Alessandro Padoa, working on mathematical logic at the University of Genoa from 1932 to 1942, then became professor of mathematical logic at the Cristoforo Colombo Gymnasium 1942-1948.
    • As a Communist member of an anti-fascist group, he was arrested and imprisoned in 1945 and following this episode decided to emigrate to Colombia.
    • He studied at the University of Budapest working under Lipot Fejer and Frigyes Riesz for his doctorate which he was awarded in 1947.
    • He arrived in Bogota in 1951 to strengthen the area of mathematics in the departments of engineering, architecture and economics at the newly founded Universidad de los Andes.
    • He founded the Revista de Matematicas Elementales (Journal of Elementary Mathematics) in 1952 which was a joint publication of the National University of Colombia and the Universidad de los Andes.
    • He moved to the United States in 1958.
    • The Colombian Mathematical Society was founded on 10 August 1955, at a meeting held at 7 o'clock in the evening in the house of Julio Carrizosa Valenzuela (1895-1974).
    • In addition to Julio Carrizosa Valenzuela, Carlo Federici Casa and Juan Horvath, the founding members of the Society were: Antonio Maria Gomez (1913-1979); Dario Rozo (1881-1964); Erwin Von Der Walde (1927-2016); Gabriel Poveda Ramos (1931); Guillermo Castillo Torres (1923-2000); Gustavo Perry Zubieta (1912-1986); Henry Yerly (1901-1984); Jorge Acosta Villaveces (1891-1965); Jose Ignacio Nieto (1930); Leopoldo Guerra Portocarrero (1911-1964); Luciano Mora Osejo (1928-2016); Luis De Greiff Bravo (1908-1967); Luis Ignacio Soriano (1903-1973); Michel Valero (1928-2008); Otto De Greiff (1903-1995); and Pablo Casas Santofimio (1927-1983).
    • Julio Carrizosa Valenzuela was elected as President of the new Society and he served from 1955 to 1957.
    • The statutes of the Society began as follows [',' C H Sanchez, Homage to the Colombian Mathematical Society on the fortieth anniversary of its foundation (Spanish), Lecturas Matematicas 16 (2) (1995), 231-243.','1]:- .
    • On 13 May 1999 the Society revised its statutes.
    • It had its origin in the Journal of Elementary Mathematics created by Juan Horvath in 1952 and published by the National University of Colombia and the University of the Andes.
    • Lecturas Matematicas is the official newsletter of the Colombian Mathematical Society created in 1980 with the purpose of providing a platform for the Colombian community to publish works from the elementary to the advanced level.
    • It has been awarded every second year since 2011 and the presentation is made at the Colombian Mathematics Congress.
    • The first award was made in 2017 to Mauricio Fernando Velasco, professor in the Mathematics Department of the Universidad de los Andes in Bogota.
    • Having graduated with a mathematics degree from the Universidad del Valle in 1977, he obtained a master's degree at the Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics in Rio de Janeiro in 1979 and a Ph.D.
    • from the University of California at Berkeley in 1986, after overcoming a serious health problem.
    • 1955-1957 Julio Carrizosa Valenzuela .
    • 1957-1963 Gustavo Perry Zubieta .
    • 1963-1967 Carlos Lemoine Amaya .
    • 1967-1968 Ricardo Losada Marquez .
    • 1968-1970 Jaime Lesmes Camacho .
    • 1970-1971 Otto Raul Ruiz .
    • 1971-1973 Jairo Charris Castaneda .
    • 1973-1975 Carlos Ruiz Salguero .
    • 1975-1983 Alonso Takahashi Orozco .
    • 1983-1987 Jaime Lesmes Camacho .
    • 1987-1990 Myriam Munoz de Ozac .
    • 1990-1993 Victor Albis Gonzalez .
    • 1993-1998 Ernesto Acosta Gempeler .
    • 2003-2017 Carlos H Montenegro .

  14. Allahabad Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It is [',' Allahabad Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • He was born on 12 January 1899 in the Azamgarh District of Uttar Pradesh, India.
    • from the Banaras Hindu University in 1921.
    • He then undertook research at the Department of Mathematics of the Banaras Hindu University where he was appointed as an assistant lecturer in 1922.
    • He was given leave to travel to the UK in 1929 and, after spending a while at Edinburgh, he went to the University of Liverpool where he completed a Ph.D.
    • in 1931 supervised by E C Titchmarsh.
    • He then went to Paris where he worked under Arnaud Denjoy and was awarded a Docteur es Science in 1932 for his thesis Contribution a l'etude de la series conjuguee d'une serie de Fourier.
    • The Indian Journal of Mathematics, which is devoted to original research papers in different branches of mathematics and mathematical statistics, began publication in 1958 with Part 1 of Volume 1 appearing in December of that year.
    • The Journal has appeared annually with three parts per year since Volume 11 in 1969.
    • Volume 9 (1967) B N Prasad Memorial Volume.
    • Volume 20 (1978) P L Bhatnagar Memorial Volume.
    • Volume 22 (1980) C T Rajgopal Memorial Volume.
    • Volume 28 (1986) S R Sinha Memorial Volume.
    • Volume 29 (1987) Ramanujan Centenary Volume.
    • Volume 32 (1990) Hansraj Gupta Memorial Volume.
    • Volume 33 (1991) U N Singh Memorial Volume.
    • Volume 41 (1999) B N Prasad Birth Centenary Commemoration Volume I.
    • Volume 52 (2010) T Pati Memorial Volume.
    • Volume 56 (2014) Special Volume Dedicated to Professor Billy E Rhodes .
    • We note that Volume 33 is dedicated to U N Singh who was the President of the Allahabad Mathematical Society from 1976 to 1986.
    • The first paper in that Volume is [',' B S Yadav, U N Singh: His life and Work, Indian Journal of Mathematics 33 (1991), i-xxiv.','3], namely B S Yadav, U N Singh: His life and Work, Indian Journal of Mathematics 33 (1991), i-xxiv.
    • The Bulletin of the Allahabad Mathematical Society was first published in 1986.
    • Volume 25 (2010) T Pati Memorial Volume .
    • The Society also publishes a Lecture Note Series [',' Allahabad Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • The first conference of the Allahabad Mathematical Society was held in Allahabad on 18 November 1967.

  15. Columbian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Colombian Mathematical Society was founded in 1955.
    • The National University of Columbia (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) was established in 1867 in Bogata.
    • These were Carlo Federici (1906-2004) and Janos Horvath (1924-2015) and since their role in the founding of the Colombian Mathematical Society is vital, we give some details of them.
    • He obtained a doctorate in physics from the University of Genoa in 1928 for his thesis Su un ds2 einsteiniano, then in 1930 a doctorate in mathematics for his thesis Sulle congruenze binomie.
    • He became an assistant to Alessandro Padoa, working on mathematical logic at the University of Genoa from 1932 to 1942, then became professor of mathematical logic at the Cristoforo Colombo Gymnasium 1942-1948.
    • As a Communist member of an anti-fascist group, he was arrested and imprisoned in 1945 and following this episode decided to emigrate to Columbia.
    • He studied at the University of Budapest working under Lipot Fejer and Frigyes Riesz for his doctorate which he was awarded in 1947.
    • He arrived in Bogota in 1951 to strengthen the area of mathematics in the departments of engineering, architecture and economics at the newly founded Universidad de los Andes.
    • He founded the Revista de Matematicas Elementales (Journal of Elementary Mathematics) in 1952 which was a joint publication of the National University of Columbia and the Universidad de los Andes.
    • He moved to the United States in 1958.
    • The Colombian Mathematical Society was founded on 10 August 1955, at a meeting held at 7 o'clock in the evening in the house of Julio Carrizosa Valenzuela (1895-1974).
    • In addition to Julio Carrizosa Valenzuela, Carlo Federici Casa and Juan Horvath, the founding members of the Society were: Antonio Maria Gomez (1913-1979); Dario Rozo (1881-1964); Erwin Von Der Walde (1927-2016); Gabriel Poveda Ramos (1931); Guillermo Castillo Torres (1923-2000); Gustavo Perry Zubieta (1912-1986); Henry Yerly (1901-1984); Jorge Acosta Villaveces (1891-1965); Jose Ignacio Nieto (1930); Leopoldo Guerra Portocarrero (1911-1964); Luciano Mora Osejo (1928-2016); Luis De Greiff Bravo (1908-1967); Luis Ignacio Soriano (1903-1973); Michel Valero (1928-2008); Otto De Greiff (1903-1995); and Pablo Casas Santofimio (1927-1983).
    • Julio Carrizosa Valenzuela was elected as President of the new Society and he served from 1955 to 1957.
    • The statutes of the Society began as follows [',' C H Sanchez, Homage to the Colombian Mathematical Society on the fortieth anniversary of its foundation (Spanish), Lecturas Matematicas 16 (2) (1995), 231-243.','1]:- .
    • On 13 May 1999 the Society revised its statutes.
    • It had its origin in the Journal of Elementary Mathematics created by Juan Horvath in 1952 and published by the National University of Columbia and the University of the Andes.
    • Lecturas Matematicas is the official newsletter of the Colombian Mathematical Society created in 1980 with the purpose of providing a platform for the Colombian community to publish works from the elementary to the advanced level.
    • It has been awarded every second year since 2011 and the presentation is made at the Colombian Mathematics Congress.
    • The first award was made in 2017 to Mauricio Fernando Velasco, professor in the Mathematics Department of the Universidad de los Andes in Bogota.
    • Having graduated with a mathematics degree from the Universidad del Valle in 1977, he obtained a master's degree at the Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics in Rio de Janeiro in 1979 and a Ph.D.
    • from the University of California at Berkeley in 1986, after overcoming a serious health problem.
    • 1955-1957 Julio Carrizosa Valenzuela .
    • 1957-1963 Gustavo Perry Zubieta .
    • 1963-1967 Carlos Lemoine Amaya .
    • 1967-1968 Ricardo Losada Marquez .
    • 1968-1970 Jaime Lesmes Camacho .
    • 1970-1971 Otto Raul Ruiz .
    • 1971-1973 Jairo Charris Castaneda .
    • 1973-1975 Carlos Ruiz Salguero .
    • 1975-1983 Alonso Takahashi Orozco .
    • 1983-1987 Jaime Lesmes Camacho .
    • 1987-1990 Myriam Munoz de Ozac .
    • 1990-1993 Victor Albis Gonzalez .
    • 1993-1998 Ernesto Acosta Gempeler .
    • 2003-2017 Carlos H Montenegro .

  16. Association for Turkish Women in Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The first summer school for graduate students took place from 20 June to 1 July 2016 at the Middle East Technical University in Ankara.
    • In addition the Association organised the conference 'Women and Mathematics: Algebras', on 11 March 2017 at the Istanbul Centre for Mathematical Sciences.

  17. Japanese Association of Mathematical Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Japanese Association of Mathematical Sciences was founded by Professor Tatsujiro Shimizu in 1948.
    • Let us give a few details about Tatsujiro Shimizu (1897-1992) modifying material taken from [',' H Sugiyama, A sketch of the life of Dr Shimizu, Math.
    • 40 (1) (1994), 1-15.','2]:- .
    • In 1924, Tatsujiro Shimizu graduated from the Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Tokyo Imperial University and continued his work at the same department as a member of staff.
    • In 1932, he became professor of Osaka Imperial University and contributed to the establishment of the Department of Mathematics in the School of Science.
    • Actually, he started the publication of the journal "Mathematica Japonicae" using his own funds in 1948.
    • In 1949, he left Osaka University and became professor at Kobe University.
    • In 1951, he moved again to professor of mathematical sciences at the University of Osaka Prefecture and continued the publication of Mathematica Japonicae.
    • In 1961, he became professor at the Science University of Tokyo.
    • As noted above, Tatsujiro Shimizu established Mathematica Japonicae in 1948 and it was set up to publish papers in both pure and applied mathematics.
    • The Association also published nine issues over three volumes of the journal Scientiae Mathematicae in 1998, 1999, and 2000.
    • In 2001 the two journals were merged to form the Scientiae Mathematica Japonicae.
    • The numbering, however, was retained from Mathematica Japonicae so that the first volume of Mathematica Japonicae which appeared in 2001 was Volume 53.
    • On a personal note, let me [EFR] add that I reviewed one of the papers in the first issue to appear in 2001.
    • The Byelaws of the Society, amended in 2005, state that [',' International Society for Mathematical Sciences website.','1]:- .

  18. Malaysian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Malaysian Mathematical Society of was founded in 1970 by a group of mathematicians at the University of Malaya to replace the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore which had served both the mathematicians of Malaya and Singapore since 1952.
    • During this time he was active in planning to create the University of Malaya and, in 1949, he became Dean of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Malaya.
    • When the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore was founded in 1952, Oppenheim became the first president.
    • In 1953 the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore began publication of the Bulletin of Malayan Mathematical Society.
    • This was published from 1953 to 1959 and then in 1960 the name was changed to NABLA.
    • Now Daniel Pedoe was appointed as head of the Mathematics Department at the University of Singapore in 1959.
    • He became the second president of the Mathematical Society of Malaya and Singapore in 1960 following after Oppenheim.
    • The Malaysian Mathematical Society has undergone a number of changes of name over the years since its founding in 1970.
    • The Southeast Asian Mathematical Society was founded in 1972.
    • When the Malaysian Mathematical Society was founded in 1970 it set out its aims as follows (see [',' Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society.','1]): .
    • However, in 1996 the length of the term was changed so that elections only took place biennially.
    • When it began in 1970 the Society had 42 members, almost all from the University of Malaya.
    • The Malaysian Mathematical Society Bulletin began publication in 1978 and the last volume under this title was Volume 22 in 1999.
    • When the Society changed its name in 1999 the Bulletin began a second series under a slightly different name, namely the Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society.
    • The author of the article [',' A N Zainab, Internationalization of Malaysian Mathematical and Computer Science Journals, Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science 13 (1) (2008), 17-33.','3] looked at all issues of the Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society from 2000 to 2007.
    • Often the author, A N Zainab, comments on both journals but in these cases we have changed the text to just refer to the Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society [',' A N Zainab, Internationalization of Malaysian Mathematical and Computer Science Journals, Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science 13 (1) (2008), 17-33.','3]:- .

  19. Mathematical Society of South-Eastern Europe
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Mathematical Society of South-Eastern Europe (MASSEE) was established on 1 March 2003.
    • However, the Society might be considered as a continuation of the Balkan Mathematical Union founded in 1937 and re-founded in 1966.
    • Less than six months after the Mathematical Society of South-Eastern Europe was founded, their first Congress was held in Borovetz, Bulgaria, 15-21 September 2003.
    • The following few paragraphs are a slightly modified version of an article found on [',' Mathematical Society of South Eastern Europe (MASSEE) website.','1].
    • The first Balkan mathematical journal Revue Mathematique de l'Union Interbalkanique appeared in 1936 and in 1938.
    • The first contacts and discussions aimed at reviving the Union started in 1956.
    • The 70's were the golden era for the Balkan Mathematical Union: the Fourth Congress (Istanbul 1971), the Fifth Congress (Belgrade 1974), several conferences and symposiums, Balkaniads for university students and for young researchers, scientific sessions during the meetings of the Executive Council of Balkan Mathematical Union, etc.
    • It was published by the Union of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Yugoslavia and edited by Academician Djuro Kurepa (Volume 1 appeared in 1971 with Volume 6 published in 1980).
    • In accordance with the decision of the Executive Council of the Balkan Mathematical Union (taken in July 1984) in 1987, the National Committee for Mathematics of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences started the publication of Mathematica Balkanica - New Series, edited by Academician Blagovest Sendov.

  20. Royal Astronomical Society (London)
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Minutes taken that day record (see [',' H H Turner, The decade 1820-1830, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 1-49.','3]):- .
    • There are records of Pearson proposing an Astronomical Society in 1812, or earlier, and certainly Baily's recommendation that such a Society be formed appears in print in a 1819 article.
    • There was considerable activity in the days following the initial meeting on 12 January, mainly concerning the address that Herschel was drawing up.
    • Other aims of the Society which were listed in Herschel's address were [',' H H Turner, The decade 1820-1830, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 1-49.','3]:- .
    • In June 1831 the possibility of rooms in Somerset House in the Strand was suggested.
    • Seven further associate members were proposed in the first year and elected in January 1821.
    • Members of the Society read papers at the meetings and by 1821 the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society had been proposed which published these papers beginning in 1822.
    • The Monthly Notices began publication in 1827 but prior to this there had been reports of meetings of the Philosophical Magazine.
    • In May the President Sir James South petitioned the King and, on 15 December 1830 the King signed the book as Patron of the Society.
    • A charter was eventually agreed and signed by the King in March 1831.

  21. Mexican Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It was officially founded on 30 June 1943 for a period of 50 years and, on 1 July 1993, this was extended by a further period of 50 years.
    • The person who was very influential in the setting up of the Society, despite the fact that he died seven years before the Society was founded, was Sotero Prieto Rodriguez (1884-1935).
    • The son of the mining engineer and professor of mathematics Raul Prieto Gonzalez Bango and Teresa Rodriguez de Prieto, Prieto attended high school in Mexico City from 1897 to 1901, and then studied civil engineering at the National School of Engineers from 1902 to 1906.
    • He made a special study of higher mathematics and in 1932 founded the Mathematics Section of the National Academy of Sciences "Antonio Alzate", now the National Academy of Sciences of Mexico.
    • Several of those who were part of this group of mathematicians became founders of the Mexican Mathematical Society, but the person who perhaps was the most influential of these was Alfonso Napoles Gandara (1897-1992).
    • He was born in Cuernavaca, Morelos on 14 October 1897 and, from 1910, studied at the National Preparatory School.
    • In 1916 he entered the National School of Engineers where he was taught by Sotero Prieto.
    • He replaced Sotero Prieto as professor in that school in 1921.
    • In 1930 he was awarded a Guggenheim Foundation Scholarship to study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where, between 1930 and 1932, he attended fourteen courses.
    • He was part of Sotero Prieto's group of enthusiasts for higher mathematics and, after Sotero Prieto's death in 1935, he was the main figure to keep alive the idea of forming a group of mathematicians to promote the subject.
    • The Bulletin of the Mexican Mathematical Society (Boletin de la Sociedad Matematica Mexicana) began publication in 1943 with one volume per year and two parts per volume.
    • Alfonso Napoles Gandara was the editor of this first series which continued publication until volume 11 in 1954.
    • The Bulletin was not published in 1955, then the second series began publication in 1956 with Jose Adem and Emilio Lluis Riera as editors.
    • A third series of the Bulletin began publishing in 1995, with one volume consisting of two issues each year, and this series continues to be published.
    • The Mexican Mathematical Society began publishing Miscelanea Matematica in 1972.
    • Ana Meda Guardiola coordinates the present editorial board which consists of 13 Mexican mathematicians.
    • Examples are the International Symposium of Algebraic Topology held in 1956 and the International Symposium of Differential Equations held in 1959.
    • The Organizing Committee of the Mexican Mathematics Olympiad, established in 1987, looks for mathematically talented young Mexicans.
    • The "Sotero Prieto Prize" was established in 1991.
    • The following quote is from [',' The Mexican Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .

  22. Belgium Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • On 14 March 1921 a preliminary meeting took place which decided to set up a (according to their minute translated in [',' L Lemaire, A brief history of the Belgium Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 29 (September, 1998), 24-25.','1]):- .
    • In November 1921 the statutes for the Belgium Mathematical Circle were adopted and, in the following January, the 'Circle' decided to change their name to Belgium Mathematical Society.
    • The statutes state that [',' L Lemaire, A brief history of the Belgium Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 29 (September, 1998), 24-25.','1]:- .
    • As Lemaire notes in [',' L Lemaire, A brief history of the Belgium Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 29 (September, 1998), 24-25.','1], the Society was clearly not that certain that the Bulletin would continue publication since they did not number this first volume.
    • Guy Hirsch was elected deputy secretary of the Society in 1947 and he ran it almost single-handed for many years.
    • In 1977 the Bulletin split into two series, with Hirsch remaining the sole editor of one of the two series until 1993.

  23. Dutch Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Dutch Mathematical Society, the Wiskundig Genootschap, was founded in 1778.
    • The Society he founded in 1778 was designed to provide financial support for his periodicals which did prove the commercial success that he had hoped.
    • Rather its membership consisted of amateurs and [',' P P Bockstaele, Mathematics in the Netherlands from 1750 to 1830, Janus 65 (1-3) (1978), 67-95.','5]:- .
    • (3) 26 (1) (1978), 177-205.','2]:- .
    • The young Society was small and rather insignificant during the first years of its existence; it had 95 members by 1782.
    • In [',' D J Beckers, ’’Mathematics our goal!’’ Dutch mathematical societies around 1800, Nieuw Arch.
    • (4) 17 (3) (1999), 465-474.','3] Beckers points out that the gap between the social classes in the Netherlands was not as large as in other regions of Europe which helped the Society to make the necessary changes to provide a link between amateur and professional mathematicians.
    • The Society published from shortly after it was founded with the Wiskundig Genootschap appearing in 1782.
    • In 1856 the Archief first appeared and it 1875 it became the Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde and was distributed to all members of the Society.
    • Pieter Hendrik Schoute was an editor of this journal from 1898 until his death in 1923.
    • He was also a founding editor of another Dutch Mathematical Society Journal Revue semestrielle des publications mathematique from 1893, when the journal was founded, again until his death in 1923.
    • In more recent times L E J Brouwer, J A Schouten and T J Stieltjes have been important figures, and the Society published Stieltjes' Collected works in two volumes in 1914 and 1918, and Brouwer's Collected works in two volumes in 1975 and 1976.
    • A major event for the Society was hosting the International Congress of Mathematicians in Amsterdam in 1954 at which Kunihiko Kodaira and Jean-Pierre Serre were awarded Fields Medals.
    • By 1965 the monthly meetings of the Society were becoming less well attended despite the increased membership of the Society.
    • They were discontinued and yearly Dutch Mathematical Congresses were organized [',' P P Bockstaele, Mathematics in the Netherlands from 1750 to 1830, Janus 65 (1-3) (1978), 67-95.','5]:- .
    • The award of the medal was instituted in 1970 with the first award being made to Rene Thom.

  24. Argentina Mathematical Union
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Argentina Mathematical Union (Union Matematica Argentina) was founded in 1936 for [',' Union Matematica Argentina website.','4]:- .
    • They served from 1936 to 1938 with Alberto Gonzalez Dominguez and Yanny Prenkel as secretaries and Raquel Simonetti as treasurer.
    • In the first issue, Volume 1 No 1 (1936), they set out the aims of the Argentina Mathematical Union [',' Union Matematica Argentina website.','4]:- .
    • Information about all the early volumes is given in [',' Alphabetical index of authors (1936-1996), Rev.
    • Argentina 43 (2002), 113-181.','1] and [',' Index of Volumes (1936-1996), Rev.
    • Argentina 43 (2002), 49-112.','2].
    • In 1945 the Revista became the Revista de la Union Matematica Argentina y de la Asociacion Fisica Argentina (Journal of the Argentina Mathematical Union and of the Argentina Physics Association).
    • In 1968 it went back to its original title of Revista de la Union Matematica Argentina.
    • For example Volume 41 has four parts, two in 1998, and one in each of 1999 and 2000.
    • 1936-1938: .
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    • 1945-1947: .
    • 1947-1949: .
    • 1949-1951: .
    • 1951-1953: .
    • 1953-1955: .
    • 1955-1957: .
    • 1957-1963: .
    • 1963-1965: .
    • 1965-1967: .
    • 1967-1968: .
    • 1968-1970: .
    • 1970-1972: .
    • 1972-1974: .
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    • 1991-1993: .
    • 1993-1995: .
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    • 2001-2005: .
    • 2009-2011: .
    • 2011-2013: .
    • 2013-2015: .
    • 2015-2017: .

  25. Union of Bulgarian Mathematicians
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The original Society was named the Sofia Physical and Mathematical Society when it was founded on 14 February 1898.
    • The University of Sofia is the oldest establishment of higher education in Bulgaria and had been set up in Sofia in 1888.
    • This followed the ending of Ottoman rule in Bulgaria in 1878, and Sofia being designated the Bulgarian capital in the following year.
    • The aims of the original Society are given in [',' S Grozdev, Union of Bulgarian Mathematicians, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 31 (March, 1999), 20-21.','1].
    • It recognised this by changing its name to the Bulgarian Physical and Mathematical Society in 1938.
    • Grozdev writes in [',' S Grozdev, Union of Bulgarian Mathematicians, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 31 (March, 1999), 20-21.','1]:- .
    • For example the student section in the town of Stara Zagora had 120 members in 1939, while the one in the region of Rajkovo had 200 members in 1940.
    • On 17 October 1971 the formal split occurred, with the Society of Bulgarian Mathematicians serving the mathematicians and computer scientists, while the Society of Bulgarian Physicists was also created at this time.
    • Alipi Mateev was the first President of the Society of Bulgarian Mathematicians from its separate creation in 1971.
    • Grozdev writes [',' S Grozdev, Union of Bulgarian Mathematicians, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 31 (March, 1999), 20-21.','1]:- .
    • In 1998, the year of its centenary, the Union of Bulgarian Mathematicians has about 5000 members - teachers in Mathematics and Computer science, University lecturers, scholars and specialists from all parts of the country.

  26. Kharkov Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Kharkov Mathematical Society was founded in 1879 on the initiative of V G Imshenetskii who served as its first President.
    • A charter set the aims of the Society [',' I V Ostrovskii, Kharkov Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 34 (December, 1999), 26-27.','1]:- .
    • Imshenetskii left Kharkov and went to St Petersburg where he succeeded in founding the St Petersburg Mathematical Society in 1890.
    • However Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov, a former student of Chebyshev, moved from St Petersburg to Kharkov in 1885 and he remained there for 17 years.
    • During this time he played a leading role in running the Society and presented 27 reports to the monthly meetings [',' I V Ostrovskii, Kharkov Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 34 (December, 1999), 26-27.','1]:- .
    • When Lyapunov left Kharkov in 1902, his former student Vladimir Andreevich Steklov became chairman of the Mathematical Society.
    • The chairmanship of the Kharkov Mathematical Society was filled by Dmitrii M Sintsov who then held the position for forty years until 1946 [',' I V Ostrovskii, Kharkov Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 34 (December, 1999), 26-27.','1]:- .
    • The mathematical activity of the Society was strongly influenced by Bernstein during the years from 1906 to 1933 that he spent in Kharkov.
    • Naum Akhiezer was encouraged by Bernstein to leave Kiev and join the Kharkov School of function theory in 1933.
    • Akhiezer filled the position of Director of the Institute of Mathematics vacated by Bernstein in 1933 and after Sintsov's death in 1946 he also became Chairman of the Kharkov Mathematical Society.
    • In 1950 the Institute of Mathematics in Kharkov was closed by the Government, but the Mathematical Society continued to survive, largely thanks to the support of the newly opened Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering.

  27. Mathematical Society of Japan
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Mathematical Society of Japan was founded in 1877 as the Tokyo Mathematics Society (Tokyo Sugaku Kaisha).
    • In 1884, seven years after the Society was founded, it broadened itself by becoming the 'Tokyo Mathematical and Physical Society', still at this stage not considering itself as a national society.
    • However, in 1918 it did recognise its status as a national society and again changed its name to become the 'Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan'.
    • The present form of the 'Mathematical Society of Japan' came into existence in 1946 when the 'Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan' split into two separate societies, one whose primary interest was mathematics, namely 'The Mathematical Society of Japan' and one whose primary interest was physics, named 'The Physical Society of Japan'.
    • The Prize was established in 1987 funded from donations by the family of Yasuo Akizuki and others.
    • These prizes are named after Katahiro Takebe (1644-1739), a disciple of Seki Takakazu, who was noted for his creation of tables of trigonometric functions.
    • Fujioka City, which is associated with Seki Takakazu (1642-1708), awards certificates of merit and bronze statues of Seki to the winners of this prize.
    • The Takagi Lectures are named for Teiji Takagi (1875-1960), the creator of Class Field Theory and the person considered to be the father of modern mathematical research in Japan.
    • The Mathematical Society of Japan International Research Institute was inaugurated in 1993 and one or two were held most years until 2006 when its scope was expanded and it was renamed the Mathematical Society of Japan Seasonal Institute and held annually.
    • This journal, founded by the Mathematical Society of Japan in 1924, produces two issues per year.
    • This journal was founded in 1948 and publishes research articles across a wide range of mathematical topics.
    • It began publication in 1996.
    • This is a book series published by the Mathematical Society of Japan, the first volumes appearing in 1983.
    • The following is taken from [',' M Kotani, Mathematics in the advanced information age, The Mathematical Society of Japan.','1]:- .

  28. Jagiellonian University Mathematics Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • After operating for three years, there followed three years of inactivity, and then in 1900 Antoni Hoborski became President.
    • Another rather remarkable task that the Society took on was the production of textbooks from the lecture courses they were attending [',' K Ciesielski, 100th Anniversary of the Jagiellonian University Students’ Mathematics Society, Math.
    • Intelligencer 17 (4) (1991), 42-46.','1]:- .
    • The German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 followed by the Russian invasion on 17 September put a stop to any possible activities by the Society.
    • In June 1941 Germany attacked the Soviet Union, putting Poland into a very strange position.
    • One day in 1950 Society members turned up for one of the regular meetings to discover that the room they used had been sealed.
    • In 1959 rules were relaxed and the Society could again operate openly.
    • It renewed its activities of meetings, lectures, problem sessions, and joint meetings with other Polish student mathematics societies started up again (but stopped in 1976).

  29. Trinity Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Trinity Mathematical Society was founded in 1919 by a group of Cambridge undergraduates, supported by G H Hardy.
    • Theory Series B 25 (1978), 240-243.','2]).
    • Henry Dudeney produced a puzzle in 1902 which asked for a square to be dissected into squares, but there was a rectangle in this solution.
    • Several mathematicians examined the problem of dissecting squares into squares including Max Dehn in 1903.
    • Nikolai Luzin, in 1930, conjectured that it was impossible to dissect a square into a finite number of squares all of different sizes.
    • The problem was solved by four members of the Trinity Mathematical Society, namely Rowland Leonard Brooks (1916-1993), Cedric Austin Bardell Smith (1917-2002), Arthur Harold Stone (1916-2000) and William Thomas Tutte (who has a biography in this archive).
    • They all met in 1936 as follows [',' W T Tutte, Squaring the square, in Mathematical games, Scientific American (November 1958).','5]:- .
    • However he managed to dissect a 176 by 177 rectangle into 11 unequal squares.
    • Rowland Brooks, Cedric Smith, Arthur Stone and Bill Tutte published their results in the paper The dissection of rectangles into squares (1940), see [',' R L Brooks, C A B Smith, A H Stone and W T Tutte, The dissection of rectangles into squares, Duke Mathematical Journal 7 (1940), 312-340.','1].
    • 2 (1950), 197-209.','4].
    • Let us note that Rowland Brooks and Cedric Smith were successive Presidents of the Trinity Mathematical Society, Brooks in 1937 and Smith in 1938.
    • The smallest possible solution was discovered in 1978 and so the present logo of the Society is at THIS LINK.

  30. Norwegian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It was not the first time a national mathematical society had been proposed for Norway, however, for Lie had started moves to create such a Society in 1885.
    • The idea was brought up again in 1918 when Arnfinn Palmstrom, who became professor of actuarial mathematics in the following year, persuaded Norwegian insurance companies to put up the necessary finance.
    • Heegaard had been professor of mathematics at Copenhagen University, where he edited the Danish Mathematical Journal, but resigned in 1917 because of a heavy work load and disagreements with colleagues.
    • The Norsk Matematisk Tidsskrift (The Norwegian Mathematical Journal) first appeared in 1919.
    • Birkeland writes [',' B Birkeland, The Norwegian Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 41 (September, 2001), 17-18.','1]:- .
    • In 1950 there was an initiative by certain Danish mathematicians to create two Scandinavian journals of mathematics, one for research level mathematics and the other to cover more elementary mathematics.
    • 93 (2003), 5-18.','3]:- .
    • The first meeting of the editorial board was in May and the journal was first published in 1953.
    • Although negotiations for the joint publication of Nordisk Matematisk Tidskrift took a little longer to finalise, it first appeared in 1953.
    • Friederich Engel and Poul Heegaard were appointed as editors and they published the first volume in 1922.
    • However it was a major task which faced various problems, partly financial, and last volume, namely the seventh, only appeared in 1960.
    • Birkeland [',' B Birkeland, The Norwegian Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 41 (September, 2001), 17-18.','1] writes of other activities of the Society:- .
    • For many years starting in 1922, Crown Prince Olav awarded a prize for the best solutions to a series of problems posed in the Journal.

  31. Southeast Asian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Southeast Asian Mathematical Society was founded in 1972.
    • Much of the information given below is taken from [',' P Y Lee, Ten years of SEAMS, Southeast Asian Bulletin of Mathematics 7 (1983), 10-15.','1] which is the Presidential Address by Lee Peng Yee to the Sixth Biennial General Meeting of the Society at Manila on 5 June 1982.
    • The series came into existence due to a meeting between Yukiyoshi Kawada, Secretary of the International Congress on Mathematical Education from 1975 to 1978, and Lee Peng Yee, as the representative of the Southeast Asian Mathematical Society.
    • They met in Tokyo in 1976 and discussed setting up the Southeast Asian Conference on Mathematics Education and then, on his return journey, Lee Peng Yee met Bienvenido Nebres, the president of the Mathematical Society of the Philippines, in Manila and over a dinner they agreed to hold the Southeast Asian Conference on Mathematics Education in 1978 [',' P Y Lee, Ten years of SEAMS, Southeast Asian Bulletin of Mathematics 7 (1983), 10-15.','1]:- .
    • This conference series continued, one being held every three years in a Southeast Asian country: 1981 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 1984 Hat Yai, Thailand; 1987 Singapore; 1990 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei; 1993 Surabaya, Indonesia; 1996 Hanoi, Vietnam; 1999 Manila, the Philippines; 2002 Singapore.
    • The 2002 conference merged with the East Asian Regional Conference on Mathematics Education and this merged conference continued to be held under the name of East Asian Regional Conference on Mathematics Education: 2005 Shanghai, China; 2007 Penang, Malaysia; 2010 Tokyo, Japan; 2013 Phuket, Thailand; 2015 Cebu, the Philippines.
    • It began publication in 1977 and continues to publish research papers in all areas of mathematics with the primary aim of disseminating original research from mathematicians in Southeast Asia to both the regional and international scientific community.
    • 1973-1974 Wong Yung Chow (University of Hong Kong) .
    • 1975-1976 Teh Hoon Heng (Nanyang University) .
    • 1977-1978 Bienvenido F Nebres (Ateneo de Manila University) .
    • 1979-1980 Tan Wang Seng (Universiti Sains Malaysia) .
    • 1981-1982 Lee Peng Yee (Nanyang University) .
    • 1983-1984 Virool Boonyasombat (Chulalongkorn University, Thailand) .
    • 1985-1987 Lim Chong Keang (University of Malaya) .
    • 1988-1989 Kar Ping Shum (Chinese University of Hong Kong) .
    • 1990-1991 MariJo Ruiz (Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines) .
    • 1992-1993 Modin Mokta (Malaysia) .
    • 1994-1995 Suwon Tangmanee (Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand) .
    • 1996-1997 Soeparna Darmawijaya (Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia) .
    • 1998-1999 Polly W Sy (University of the Philippines) .
    • 2000-2001 Do Long Van (Institute of Mathematics, Hanoi) .
    • 2010-2011 Fidel R Nemenzo (University of the Philippines) .
    • 2012-2013 Le Tuan Hoa (Vietnam Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics) .
    • 2014-2015 Edy Tri Baskoro (Institut Teknologi Bandung) .
    • 2016-2017 San Ling (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore) .
    • 2018-2019 Jose Maria P Balmaceda (University of the Philippines Diliman) .

  32. Pakistan Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Pakistan Mathematical Society was founded on 26 June 2001.
    • The initiative to form such a body was made by mathematicians from the Quaid-e-Azam University who issued an invitation to those who were interested to meet in the Best Western Hotel in Islamabad on 15 May 2001.
    • The Quaid-e-Azam University, established in Islamabad in 1967, began offering postgraduate degrees of Ph.D.
    • The first meeting of the Society was held on 26 June 2001 at the Allama Iqbal Open University.
    • This university, based in Islamabad, was founded in 1974 and was modelled on the British Open University providing university level education to those who cannot take years out to study at a conventional university.
    • Mushtaq, born in Sheikhupura, Pakistan, in 1954, studied for an M.Sc.
    • Before the conference ended, it was decided to hold the 2nd Pure Mathematics Conference in Islamabad in August 2001.
    • At the Society's first meeting in the Allama Iqbal Open University in June 2001 the constitution, which had already been drawn up following the May meeting, was approved by those present.
    • The meeting, the Society's first AGM, then elected the officers of the Society to serve for the two years 2001-2002.
    • Although it was founded on 26 June 2001, it was still necessary for it to be officially registered [',' The Pakistan Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • The PakMS was registered on 16th November 2001.
    • The Society had to apply again for registration under the ACT XXI of 1860 to meet the requirement of the Pakistan Science Foundation for registration of the society with it.
    • It was finally registered under this Act on 17th February 2003.
    • This is the Society legitimacy and legal protection under the ACT XXI of 1860 of Societies.
    • The Pakistan Mathematical Society summarises its activities as follows [',' The Pakistan Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .

  33. Portuguese Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • A new constitution was put in place in 1933 which set up the National Assembly, all seats in which were filled by government supporters.
    • ','1]:- .
    • As part of its aims to promote mathematics, Mathematics Clubs were set up in schools, the first in 1942.
    • After this B Caraca took over, followed by A Ferreire de Macedo in 1945 and M Zaluar Nunes in 1947.
    • ','1]:- .
    • The political situation changed in 1974.
    • The Portuguese Mathematical Society became a legal entity in 1977 and once again could begin to function in the way it wished to promote the mathematical sciences at all levels throughout Portugal.
    • The Society also began the work of establishing Olympiad competitions in 1980, the first nations such competitions being three years later.
    • The first Portuguese team participated in the International Olympiad competition for the first time in 1989.

  34. International Society for Mathematical Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Byelaws of the Society, amended in 2005, state that [',' International Society for Mathematical Sciences website.','1]:- .

  35. Russian/St Petersburg Academy
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Krzemie'nska writes in [',' B Krzemie’nska, The founding of the Academy of Sciences and Arts in St Petersburg in 1724-1725 (some remarks on the 250th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences in the USSR) (Czech), DVT - Dejiny Ved.
    • a Techniky 7 (1974), 131-147.','7]:- .
    • In [',' M D Gordin, The importation of being earnest : the early St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Isis 91 (1) (2000), 1-31.','3] Gordin:- .
    • The name varied over the years, becoming The Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts 1747-1803), The Imperial Academy of Sciences (1803- 1836), and finally, The Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (from 1836 and until the end of the empire in 1917).
    • Following the Revolution in 1917 it was renamed the Russian Academy of Sciences.
    • In 1934 it moved from Leningrad (which is what St Petersburg had been renamed) to Moscow.
    • In 1991 its name of the Russian Academy of Sciences was reinstated.

  36. Turkish Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Turkish Mathematical Society was founded In 1948.
    • On its website the Society indicates the activities that it undertakes [',' Turkish Mathematical Society website.','1]: .
    • In 1960 the Society became a full member of the International Mathematical Union.
    • The magazine has been published since 1991 and, to illustrate the contents, we note that the first issue in 1991 contains articles on the following: Plane Geometric Angles and Measures; Four Colour Problems; Drawings that cannot be made with ruler and compass; The Extraordinary Features of Infinite Cardinals; 1, 2, 3, Endless Or Rapid Disaster!; Mathematics Teaching in the World.

  37. Swiss Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The three mathematicians most involved in the founding of the Society were: Rudolf Fueter, who had been appointed as professor of mathematics at the University of Basel in 1908; H Fehr, who was at the University of Geneva; and Marcel Grossmann, who had been appointed as professor of descriptive geometry at the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule in Zurich in 1907.
    • This project had been suggested at the time of the International Congress of Mathematicians which took place in Zurich in 1897.
    • The proposal had been made in 1883 (on the centenary of Euler's death) by Ferdinand Rudio, who was at that time a lecturer in mathematics at the Eidgenossisches Polytechnikum (later called the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich, and repeated by him at the Congress fourteen years later.
    • Karl Geiser, from Zurich, was the President of the 1897 Zurich Congress and in 1907 he joined Rudio and others in approaching the Swiss Academy of Natural Sciences with the proposal to publish Euler's complete works.
    • This, and other factors, led to the foundation of the Society in 1910 to bring pure mathematics into the foreground and to support its national and international promotion.
    • Fueter was appointed as the first editor but the its aim was not at first to be international, rather (see [',' U Stammbach, Swiss Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 33 (September, 1999), 18-20.','1]):- .
    • The Swiss Mathematical Society played a major role in organising the International Congress of Mathematicians which took place in Zurich in 1932.
    • In 1930 the Society set up a Committee to look after the archive of material left by Steiner and in 1937 the same committee was also given the responsibility for the archive left by Schlafli.
    • The Committee was given the task of (see [',' U Stammbach, Swiss Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 33 (September, 1999), 18-20.','1]):- .
    • In 1975 the Swiss Mathematical Society took over responsibility for publishing Elemente der Mathematik which had existed since 1946.
    • The Society also went on the organise a third International Congress of Mathematicians which took place in Zurich in 1994.

  38. Nepal Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Tribhuvan University in Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal is the oldest and largest university in Nepal; it was established in 1959.
    • The first group of students was small, about six in total, and they graduated with Master's degrees in 1961.
    • The Department published a half-yearly report The Nepali Mathematical Sciences Report containing research papers, research notes, expository articles and survey articles beginning in 1975.
    • After 15 years the dream of the first group of enthusiasts at Tribhuvan University was realised and the Nepal Mathematical Society was legally founded on 19 January 1979.
    • Beginning in 2004, the Society has organised its anniversary NMS-Day each year on 13 or 14 May with a formal programme followed by a "One day mathematics seminar".

  39. Indian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • On 16 May 1907, V Ramaswami Aiyar wrote to the Mathematical Gazette as follows [',' An Indian Mathematical Society, The Mathematical Gazette 4 (65) (1907), 106-107.','1]:- .
    • The annual subscription is 25 rupees (63;1.
    • A full account of V Ramaswami Aiyar founding of the Society is given in his presidential address of 1926, extracts of which are given at THIS LINK.
    • B Hanumantha Rao was the first President of the Society, serving in that role from 1907 to 1912 and seeing it through its initial stages.
    • In 1910, when the revised rules and constitution were adopted, the Society acquired its present name, the 'Indian Mathematical Society'.
    • The first conference of the Society was held at Madras in 1916.
    • The second conference was held at Bombay in 1919, the third in Lahore in 1921 and the fourth in Pune in 1924.
    • From that time on, a conference was held every two or three years until 1951 when it was decided to hold the conferences annually.
    • The Twenty Fifth conference of the Society, which was held at Allahabad in 1951, was inaugurated by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime minister of India.
    • The P L Bhatnagar Memorial Award Lecture (instituted in 1987).
    • The Srinivasa Ramanujan Memorial Award Lecture (instituted in 1990).
    • The V Ramaswamy Aiyar Memorial Award Lecture (instituted in 1990).
    • The Hansaraj Gupta Memorial Award Lecture (instituted in 1990).
    • The Ganesh Prasad Memorial Award Lecture (instituted in 1993 and delivered every alternate year).
    • At these celebrations the Society decided to publish a second journal, namely 'The Mathematics Student', which first appeared in 1933.
    • Ramanujan met with Ramaswami Aiyar at his office in 1910, and brought one of his famous notebooks to show Ramaswami Aiyar.
    • Ramanujan published a paper consisting of questions in the 1911 volume of the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society as well as a fifteen page paper entitled "Some properties of Bernoulli Numbers".
    • 1907-1912 B Hanumantha Rao .
    • 1912-1915 R N Apte .
    • 1915-1915 E W Middlemast .
    • 1915-1917 R Ramachandra Rao .
    • 1917-1921 A C L Wilkinson .
    • 1921-1926 H Balakram .
    • 1926-1930 V Ramaswamy Aiyar .
    • 1930-1932 M T Naraniengar .
    • 1932-1934 P V Sheshu Iyer .
    • 1934-1936 H G Gharpure .
    • 1936-1940 R P Paranjape .
    • 1940-1942 R Vaidyanathswam .
    • 1942-1947 F W Levy .
    • 1947-1949 M R Siddiqui .
    • 1949-1951 A Narasinga Rao .
    • 1951-1953 T Vijayraghavan .
    • 1953-1957 Ram Behar .
    • 1957-1959 V Ganapathy Iyer .
    • 1959-1960 B S Madhav Rao .
    • 1960-1961 B N Prasad .
    • 1961-1962 B S Madhav Rao .
    • 1962-1963 C N Srinivasienger .
    • 1963-1964 Hansaraj Gupta .
    • 1964-1966 P L Bhatanagar .
    • 1966-1968 R S Verma .
    • 1968-1969 P L Bhatanagar .
    • 1969-1970 R P Bambah .
    • 1970-1971 M Venkatraman .
    • 1971-1973 J N Kapoor .
    • 1973-1974 K G Ramanathan .
    • 1974-1975 V Krishnamurthy .
    • 1975-1977 P C Vaidya .
    • 1977-1979 U N Singh .
    • 1979-1981 K Venkatchelienger .
    • 1981-1982 V V Naralikar .
    • 1982-1984 R S Mishra .
    • 1984-1985 R P Agarwal .
    • 1985-1986 S D Chopra .
    • 1986-1987 H C Khare .
    • 1987-1988 V Singh .
    • 1988-1989 M K Singal .
    • 1989-1990 M P Singh .
    • 1990-1991 V M Shah .
    • 1991-1992 D K Sinha .
    • 1992-1993 V Kannan .
    • 1993-1994 U P Singh .
    • 1994-1995 H P Dixit .
    • 1995-1996 N K Thakare .
    • 1996-1997 S Bhargava .
    • 1997-1998 A R Singal .
    • 1998-1999 B K Lahiri .
    • 2000-2001 Satya Deo .
    • 2001-2002 P V Arunachalam .
    • 2009-2010 Peeyush Chandra .
    • 2010-2011 R.
    • 2011-2012 P K Banerji .
    • 2012-2013 Huzoor H Khan .
    • 2013-2014 Geetha S Rao .
    • 2014-2015 S G Dani .
    • 2015-2016 A M Mathai .

  40. Danish Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Danish Mathematical Society, named Dansk Matematisk Forening, was founded in 1873.
    • The original aim of the Society, as drawn up by the Board, was to (see for example [',' F D Pedersen (ed.), Dansk Matematisk Forening, 1923-1973 (Copenhagen, 1973).','1]):- .
    • All the three Board members were professors at the University of Copenhagen at the time the Society was created: Zeuthen had appointed as an extraordinary professor of mathematics in 1871; Petersen held the chair of mathematics; and Thiele was professor of astronomy.
    • The first foreign speaker to the Society was Mittag-Leffler in 1900.
    • The number of foreign speakers then grew and from 1921 an invitation was given every second year to a leading mathematician to give a series of lectures.
    • The first series was given in 1921 by Hilbert.
    • In this same year of 1921 the Society discussed whether it should join the International Mathematical Union, but there was strong opposition since the Union was actively discriminating against mathematicians from countries on the losing side in World War I.
    • Matematisk Tidsskrift was founded in 1859 and Zeuthen became an editor in 1871.
    • Shortly after he ended his editorial duties, the journal split into two parts in 1890.
    • The Mathematical Society took over the publication of these journals in 1919.
    • This Union came about in September 1951.
    • The first meeting of the editorial board was in May and the journal was first published in 1953.
    • Although negotiations for the joint publication of Nordisk Matematisk Tidskrift took a little longer to finalise, it first appeared in 1953.
    • The Danish Mathematical Society was established in 1952 and the statutes changed from those of the Mathematical Society.
    • The new statutes are given in full in [',' F D Pedersen (ed.), Dansk Matematisk Forening, 1923-1973 (Copenhagen, 1973).','1].
    • In [',' B Branner, Danish Mathematical Society : Dansk Matematisk Forening, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 35 (March, 2000), 14-15.','3] Branner writes of the changes to the activities of the Society in the years following 1954 when more mathematical seminars were organised by individual Danish university mathematics departments, and fewer by the Danish Mathematical Society:- .

  41. Royal Society of Edinburgh
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Royal Society of Edinburgh was founded in 1783.
    • The Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge was founded in Edinburgh in 1731 and Maclaurin became one of its members.
    • In 1737 the broader Society was formed with the full title "Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Sciences and particularly Natural Knowledge".
    • This Club was founded in 1716 nearly ten years before Maclaurin was appointed to the University of Edinburgh, and it was a Club which suited Maclaurin with its mixture of congenial fellowship and the aim of its members in pursuing knowledge.
    • Shapin describes the events which led to the founding of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in [',' S A Shapin, The Royal Society of Edinburgh : A study of the social context of Hanoverian science (Doctoral Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1971).','2], see also his paper [',' S A Shapin, The Royal Society of Edinburgh, British J.
    • 7 (1974), 1-.','4].
    • The authors of [',' N Campbell, R Martin and S Smellie, The Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783-1983 (Edinburgh, 1983).
    • ','1] write:- .
    • The beginning of the Royal Society of Edinburgh was described in the first volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh published in 1788.
    • In 1810 the Society purchased 42 George Street, and it occupied this building until 1826 when the Royal Institution Building on Princes Street was completed.
    • William Thomson, later Baron Kelvin of Largs, was President from 1873 to 1878 and again from 1886 to 1890.
    • From 1890 to 1895 Thomson was President of the Royal Society of London, then, this time as Lord Kelvin, he was President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for a third time from 1895 until his death in 1907.
    • Two others from our archive held the office of President: D'Arcy Thompson from 1934 to 1939, followed by Edmund Whittaker from 1939 to 1945.
    • Three mathematicians from our archive served the Royal Society of Edinburgh as General Secretaries: Playfair from 1798 to 1819, Tait from 1879 to 1901, and Chrystal from 1901 to 1912.
    • Aitken was Vice-President for six years, namely from 1948 to 1951 and then again from 1956 to 1959.
    • Joseph Wedderburn was elected a Fellow in 1903 when he was 21 years of age making him one of the youngest Fellows ever elected.
    • It is worth noting that Joseph Wedderburn's brother, Sir Ernest Wedderburn, served the Society as Treasurer for ten years from 1937 to 1947.

  42. Trinity College Dublin
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Trinity College Dublin Mathematical Society was founded following a meeting on 12 December 1923.
    • Charles Henry Rowe (1893-1943) had been born in Cork, studied for his bachelor's degree at Cork, then received his M.A.
    • from Trinity College, Dublin in 1917.
    • He won a fellowship of Trinity College, Dublin, in 1920 and held this until his death.
    • In 1921 he was appointed Donegal Lecturer in Mathematics at Trinity College and after a while, the Erasmus Smith Chair of Mathematics being vacant, he was made acting professor.
    • Charles Henry Rowe became Erasmus Smith Professor of Mathematics at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1926.
    • One of the students at this inaugural meeting was Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903-1995).
    • Walton, born in Abbeyside, Dungarvan, County Waterford, won a scholarship to study mathematics and physics at Trinity College, Dublin, and began his studies there in 1922.
    • After graduating with a Master's Degree in 1927 he studied for his doctorate in physics at Trinity College, Cambridge.
    • He was awarded his doctorate in 1931 and remained at Cambridge until 1934 when he returned to Ireland as a fellow of Trinity College, Dublin.
    • He was appointed Erasmus Smith Professor of Natural and Experimental there in 1946.
    • He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 for his work on particle-accelerators giving experimental verification of atomic structure.
    • In 1931 the Dublin University Mathematical Society moved into its own rooms in House No.
    • 7 and later, in 1944, it moved into No.
    • 39 to the room which it occupied until August 1991 when the Society moved, with the Department, to Westland Row.
    • 20 (1) (1945), 57-58.','1]:- .
    • He entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1881 and obtained a Fellowship in 1889.
    • In 1910 he was appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy.
    • He retired from the Chair in 1926 when he was succeeded by his former pupil, Dr J L Synge.
    • In 1909 he married Margaret Barker, daughter of the late Col.
    • The 2016-17 Trinity College Dublin Mathematical Society booklet for the 94th Session of the Society, gives the following information about the Society:- .

  43. Spanish Society of Applied Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Spanish Society of Applied Mathematics, in Spanish 'La Sociedad Espanola de Matematica Aplicada' (SEMA or SeMA) gives as its date of foundation the year 1991.
    • In some senses this date is too early since the Society was not formally registered until 1993 but, on the other hand, the date is somewhat too late in the sense that moves to found the Society began in 1988.
    • A number of decisions were taken, the most significant being the decision that the next Congress, which was to be in 1989, would be XI Spanish Congress of Differential Equations and Applications - I Congress of Applied Mathematics known by XI CEDYA - I CMA.
    • The XI CEDYA - I CMA meeting was held in September 1989 in Fuengirola (Malaga) organised by the Universidad de Malaga, After the XI CEDYA - I CMA meeting, Antonio Valle wrote to the members of the Commission suggesting that various applied mathematics research groups should be integrated into the next congress which would be XII CEDYA - II CMA to be held in September 1991 in Oviedo, organised by the Universidad de Oviedo.
    • On 2 September 1991 a letter, signed by A Bermudez, J I Diaz, A Linan, J M Sanz Serna, C Simo and A Valle was widely circulated inviting everyone who was interested to join their initiative of founding 'La Sociedad Espanola de Matematica Aplicada' (SEMA).
    • Included with the letter was a registration form for signing up to be a member of the Society, with a deadline for registration given as 15 October 1991.
    • This is considered the date of founding of the Society and explains the given date of 1991 as the date of its founding.
    • He was awarded his doctorate in 1965 by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid for his thesis Problemas de control optimo en ecuaciones diferenciales abstractas de evolucion.
    • Antonio Valle Sanchez [',' C Pares, C Vazquez and F Coquel, Preface, Advances in Numerical Simulation in Physics and Engineering (Springer, 2014), viii.','1]:- .
    • was the founder of a very large Spanish community of Numerical Methods in Partial Differential Equations that grew up from the three universities in which he was a Professor: Santiago de Compostela (1967-1973), Sevilla (1973-1984), and Malaga (1984-).
    • The French government made Antonio Valle a knight of the National Order of Merit in 1997.
    • It was renamed SeMA Journal with the numbering continuing, so the first with the new name was Issue No 53 in 2011.
    • The following information about the 'SEMA-SIMAI Book Series' appears on the Springer page [',' SEMA-SIMAI Springer Series, Springer International Publishing (2018).','4]:- .
    • The award was established in 1998, but it was only named for Antonio Valle from 2013 onwards.
    • 1993-1994: Antonio Valle, Universidad de Malaga.
    • 1994-1995: Jesus Ildefonso Diaz, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    • 1995-1996: Mariano Gasca, Universidad de Zaragoza.
    • 1996-1998: Juan Luis Vazquez Suarez, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid.
    • 2006-2010: Carlos Vazquez Cendon, Universidad de la Coruna.
    • 2010-2012: Pablo Pedregal Tercero, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha.
    • 2012-2016: Rafael Bru Garcia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia.
    • 2016-2018: Rosa M Donat Beneito, Universidad de Valencia .

  44. Academy of Plato
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chermiss writes [',' H Chermiss, The riddle of the early Academy (New York, London, 1980).','1]:- .
    • What then was Plato's Academy? Chermiss writes [',' H Chermiss, The riddle of the early Academy (New York, London, 1980).','1]:- .

  45. Indonesian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Indonesian Mathematical Society was founded on 15 July 1976 in Bandung.
    • In the late 1960s it ceased to function for both Singapore and Malaya and it became the Singapore Mathematical Society with the Malaysian Mathematical Society being founded in 1970.
    • The Southeast Asian Mathematical Society was founded in 1972.
    • The next was held in Penang in 1974 followed by Bandung in 1976.
    • There had been the "Mathematics Study Group", followed by the "Mathematics Learning Group" and then, in 1973, the "Mathematics Interest Association" had been founded by Slamet Dajono.
    • Slamet Dajono (born in Tulungagung on 24 June 1927) did his doctoral studies in mathematics in 1962-64 and became a lecturer at the State University of Surabaya.
    • Discovering that there was a "Mathematics Interest Association" in Surabaya encouraged Lee Peng Yee who returned to Bandung and encouraged those at the Bandung Institute of Technology to organise the first Indonesian National Mathematics Conference there in 1976 which was held in parallel with the Southeast Asian Mathematical Society Conference.
    • 1991 6th National Mathematics Conference.
    • In 2013 the Indonesian Mathematical Society made proposals to improve the quality of training for teachers of mathematics [',' B Kaur, O Nam Kwon and Y Hoong Leong (eds), Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers: An Asian Perspective (Springer, 2016).','1]:- .
    • The Indonesian Mathematical Society Team (2013) recommended that the curriculum for mathematics and mathematics education must consist of at least seven strands of study, they are: (1) general field of study (for example, science, humanities or knowledge subjects), (2) mathematics content field of study (for example, real analysis, abstract algebra, complex numbers, etc), (3) school mathematics field of study (for example, school mathematics topics such as number, geometry, algebra, etc), (4) mathematics education field of study (for example, learning theories of mathematics, use of teaching aids to develop conceptual knowledge, etc.), (5) pedagogy field of study (for example, psychology of teaching and learning, managing students, etc.), (6) additional skill field of study (for example, enrichment courses like academic writing, public communication, etc.), and (7) special field of study (this depends on the expertise of the university and their prime focus).

  46. Italian Society of Applied and Industrial Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Italian Society of Applied and Industrial Mathematics, in Italian, Societa italiana di matematica applicata e industriale (SIMAI), was founded by a deed dated 20 December 1988 although its date of foundation is usually given as 1989.
    • It was set up in the Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo "Mauro Picone" in the Italian National Research Council in Rome, which had been founded in 1923 with Volterra as a president.
    • 1996: III Congresso Nazionale della Societa Italiana di Matematica Applicata e Industriale, Salice Terme, PV, 27-31 May.
    • 2002: VI Congresso Nazionale della Societa Italiana di Matematica Applicata e Industriale, Grand Hotel Chia Laguna, 27-31 May.
    • 2008: IX Congresso Nazionale della Societa Italiana di Matematica Applicata e Industriale, Rome, 15-19 September.
    • 2014: XIII Congresso Nazionale della Societa Italiana di Matematica Applicata e Industriale, Hotel Villa Diodoro, Taormina, 7-10 July.
    • 2016: XIV Congresso Nazionale della Societa Italiana di Matematica Applicata e Industriale, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, 13-16 September.
    • The website of the journal states [',' Communications in Applied and Industrial Mathematics, Walter de Gruyter (2018).','1]:- .
    • The following information about the 'SEMA-SIMAI Book Series' appears on the Springer page [',' SEMA-SIMAI Springer Series, Springer International Publishing (2018).','3]:- .

  47. Serbian Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Serbian Academy of Sciences was founded on 1 November 1886 as the Serbian Royal Academy.
    • However this was established following the suspension of an earlier Society and we should go back to the Society of Serbian Letters founded in 1842 to understand the events which led to the foundation of the Academy.
    • In 1830 the Ottoman government granted Serbia full autonomy but internal dissension followed.
    • He was forced to abdicate in 1839 but gangs of bandits and lawlessness continued to create widespread problems.
    • It was in these difficult circumstances that Jovan Sterija Popovic and Atanasije Nikolic began in September 1841 to work towards founding the Society of Serbian Letters which formally existed from 31 May 1842.
    • In 1842 the national assembly elected Alexander as ruler.
    • In 1844 a series of laws were introduced concerning the administration and the education system in Serbia and the Society was able to recommence its work in August 1844.
    • Alexander was deposed in 1859 and Milos Obrenovic was brought back but he died in 1860 and was succeeded by his son Mihailo Obrenovic.
    • In 1863 the Society of Serbian Letters wanted to make Garibaldi a member and the resulting dispute between the Society and the Minister of Education led to Mihailo Obrenovic suspending it on 27 January 1864.
    • The Serbian Learned Society, like the previous Society, became involved in a dispute with the Minister of Education and was suspended on 13 May 1886.
    • The Serbian Royal Academy was created by a law passed on 1 November 1886 and the Academy was given the library, collections, and property of the Serbian Learned Society.
    • The Minister of Education saw that the only solution was to merge the two, which he did in 1892.
    • In 1954 new laws concerning scientific activity altered the way the Academy operated.

  48. New Zealand Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Royal Society of New Zealand began its existence as the New Zealand Institute which was set up by an act of parliament in 1867 for the study of science, art, philosophy and literature.
    • The name was changed to Royal Society of New Zealand in 1933 with royal assent and an Act of Parliament, and in 1965 the Society became more science oriented, adding Social Sciences and Technology.
    • This was discussed at the first two New Zealand Mathematics Colloquia in 1966 and 1967 when it was decided to approach the Royal Society of New Zealand to set up the necessary committee.
    • The first meeting of the committee took place in Wellington on 15 December 1967 when Simon Bernau was elected as chairman, and a constitution was agreed.
    • C J Seelye, Head of the Mathematics Department at Victoria, wrote to the Royal Society of New Zealand in a letter dated 4 September 1972 passing on a recommendation from a staff meeting [',' M Carter, The National Committee for Mathematics (1967-1996), Newsletter of the New Zealand Mathematical Society 88 (August 2003).','1]:- .
    • The Royal Society of New Zealand forwarded Seelye's letter to Cecil Segedin, acting chairman of the National Committee for Mathematics, who asked David Vere-Jones to present a detailed proposal to the Committee for a New Zealand Mathematics Society together with a draft constitution [',' M Carter, The National Committee for Mathematics (1967-1996), Newsletter of the New Zealand Mathematical Society 88 (August 2003).','1]:- .
    • Kevin Broughan takes up the story at this point, with the National Committee for Mathematics report being passed to the Colloquium Business Meeting held at the University of Waikato in 1973.
    • A working party consisting of David Vere-Jones, Donald Joyce and Kevin Broughan was elected to make a specific proposal which was considered and approved at the next meeting in 1974.
    • He was elected an Honorary Life Member at the first AGM in 1975.
    • At the first meeting in 1974, the new Society did elect two Honorary Life Members, Henry George Forder and Jim Campbell.
    • The publishing situation was somewhat complicated by the fact that the Mathematical Chronicle had been founded in 1969 by some members of the University of Auckland Department of Mathematics and was already playing a major role in publishing mathematical research papers in New Zealand.
    • As mentioned above, the Mathematical Chronicle had been published from 1969 onwards but in 1992, the University of Auckland Department of Mathematics and the New Zealand Mathematics Society came to an agreement to jointly publish the New Zealand Mathematical Journal.
    • There is the Research Award, first awarded in 1990, the Early Career Research Award first awarded in 2006, the Kalman Prize for Best Paper first awarded in 2016, and the Aitken Student Prize first awarded in 1995.
    • 1974-1975 David Vere-Jones .
    • 1975-1976 John C Butcher .
    • 1976-1978 Gordon M Petersen .
    • 1978-1979 Graeme C Wake .
    • 1979-1980 John C Turner .
    • 1980-1981 W Dean Halford .
    • 1981-1982 David B Gauld .
    • 1982-1983 Jim H Ansell .
    • 1983-1984 William Davidson .
    • 1984-1985 Michael R Carter .
    • 1985-1987 Ivan L Reilly .
    • 1987-1989 Brian Woods .
    • 1989-1991 Gillian Thornley .
    • 1991-1993 Derek Holton .
    • 1993-1995 Marston D E Conder .
    • 1995-1997 Douglas Bridges .
    • 1997-1999 Rob I Goldblatt .
    • 1999-2001 Graeme Wake .
    • 2001-2003 Rod Downey .
    • 2009-2011 Charles Semple .
    • 2011-2013 Graham Weir .
    • 2013-2015 Winston Sweatman .
    • 2015-2017 Astrid an Huef .
    • 2017-2019 Vivien Kirk .

  49. German Society for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • In 1923 Reissner was elected as vice president and these three were continually re-elected to their respective positions until 1933.
    • The meetings from 1922 to 1933 (inclusive) were held in Leipzig, Marburg, Innsbruck, Dresden and Danzig (two meetings), Zurich, Bad Kissingen, Hamburg, Prague, Berlin, Bad Elster, Berlin, and Wurzburg.
    • By 1933 the German Society for Applied Mathematics had around 450 members.
    • In fact this worked somewhat to their advantage when the political climate changed in 1933.
    • After the resignation of Reissner and von Mises in 1933, they were replaced by Trefftz and C Weber, respectively while Prandtl continued as president.
    • For example he wrote to the Ministry on 15 June 1938 [','','1]:- .
    • This viewpoint, which, since the breakthrough of 1933, has fallen somewhat in the background, must generally be helped to become again valid if Germany does not wish to suffer damage.
    • There was then a break from 1944 to 1949 when it was impossible to organise the annual meeting, but they recommenced in 1950 with a meeting in Darmstadt.
    • Richard Grammel, from Stuttgart, had been elected vice-president of the Society in 1937 and held the post until the end of World War II in 1945.
    • The Society essentially ceased to exist until operations restarted in 1950 and at this time Grammel was elected president.
    • The structure of the Society changed in 1973 with posts of President, Vice-president, Secretary, Vice-secretary, and Treasurer.

  50. American Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The American Mathematical Society started its existence as the New York Mathematical Society which was founded in 1888.
    • The New York Mathematical Society certainly become a national society in name on 1 July 1894 when it renamed itself the American Mathematical Society.
    • At first, of course, little changed as the Society was firmly based in New York and it held its first meeting as the American Mathematical Society in Brooklyn in 1894.
    • He was vice-president of the Society from 1898 to 1901, an editor of the Transactions of the American Mathematical Society from 1899 to 1905, and President of the Society from 1903 to 1904.
    • He was appointed professor at Columbia University in 1895, and in the following year he was appointed as Secretary of the American Mathematical Society, a post he held until 1920.
    • This was not his only work for the American Mathematical Society for in 1897 he was appointed as editor-in-chief of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, holding this position until just before his death in 1926.
    • The first was held in Springfield, Massachusetts in the summer of 1895, the second at Buffalo, New York in the summer of 1896.
    • The summer meeting at Buffalo in 1896 is memorable for the first colloquium of the Society.
    • White's suggestion was supported by the Society and the first Colloquium speaker was James Pierpont of Yale who lectured at the summer meeting at Buffalo in 1896.
    • By 1901 the American Mathematical Society had 357 members and in the previous year 112 papers were read at Society meetings.
    • By 1902 156 papers were read and the Society had elected its first President who was not from the North East, namely Eliakim Moore.
    • Matters came to a head in 1911 when the Chicago section complained bitterly about the place of the meeting at which Bocher would give his Presidential address.

  51. Norwegian Statistical Association
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The journal began publication in 1974 and the journal has the following overview, aims and scope: .
    • It was founded in 1974 by four Scandinavian statistical societies.
    • It is named for Erling Sverdrup who was the professor of mathematical statistics and insurance mathematics in the Department of Mathematics at Oslo University from 1953 to 1984.

  52. Latvian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Latvian Mathematical Society was founded on 15 January 1993 with 66 founding members.
    • Uldis Eaitums was elected as the first Chair in 1993 and held this position until 1997, Alexander Sostak was elected as the second Chair in 1997 and held this position until 2000, Andreja Reinfelds was elected as the third Chair of the Society.
    • The aims of the Society are set out in [',' A Sostak, The Latvian Mathematical Society after 10 years, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 48 (June, 2003), 21-25.
    • ','1]:- .

  53. Hong Kong Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • He held a meeting in Hong Kong in June 1970 which prepared the way to the founding of the Southeast Asian Mathematical Society in 1972.
    • The Hong Kong Mathematical Society was founded in 1979 with Wong Yung Chow elected as its first president.
    • The Society website states [',' Hong Kong Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • Our institutional members have increased from 4 to 14 and have included all tertiary institutions in Hong Kong.
    • The Society is responsible for editing of the Bulletin of South East Asian Mathematical Society, and in 1997 the Society began to publish its own Bulletin of the Hong Kong Mathematical Society.
    • Among the major conferences which the Society assisted in organising was the South East Asian Mathematical Society Conference in 1980 and the First Asian Mathematical Conference in 1990.
    • They assisted in organising the First International Conference on Scientific Computing and Partial Differential Equations at the Honk Kong Baptist University, 12-15 December 2002.
    • The Second in this series was held in conjunction with the First East Asian SIAM Symposium at the Honk Kong Baptist University, 12-16 December 2005.
    • Four further conferences in the Scientific Computing and Partial Differential Equations series were held, also in the Honk Kong Baptist University, the Third conference, 8-12 December 2008, the Fourth conference, 5-9 December 2011, the Fifth conference, 8-12 December 2015, and the Sixth conference, 5-8 June 2017.
    • They also organised the International Mathematical Olympiad in 1994.
    • In 1974, the Northcote College of Education held the first Hong Kong Inter-school Mathematics Olympiad, which is now known as the Hong Kong Mathematical Olympiad.
    • In 1986, the International Mathematical Olympiad Hong Kong Committee was founded which paved the way for the International Mathematical Olympiad being held in Hong Kong in 1994.
    • This was held at the Lam Woo Conference Centre of Hong Kong Baptist University from 13 to 16 December 2000.
    • The Chinese Mathematical Society wrote to the Hong Kong Mathematical Society in 1996 asking them to support the Chinese Mathematical Society's application to host the International Congress of Mathematicians in Beijing in 2002.

  54. Mathematical Society of Chile
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Mathematical Society of Chile (Sociedad de Matematica de Chile) (known by the abbreviation SOMACHI) was founded in 1975 when mathematicians met informally but the Society was only formally registered in 1983.
    • When it was registered it had the following mission [',' The Mathematical Society of Chile website.','1]:- .
    • This journal was founded in 1994 with the aim of contributing to the training of teachers, allowing them to maintain a continuing study of mathematics and, above all, to make contributions to lifting their spirits by learning new things that motivate them and so encourage them to enthusiastically convey to their students new ideas and challenges.

  55. Academy of Scientists Leopoldina
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Academia Naturae Curiosorum was founded in the Free Imperial City of Schweinfurt on 1 January 1652.
    • The statutes of 1662 give the Academy's purpose in the following terms:- .
    • The Academy began to publish a journal, Ephemeriden, in 1670, which they dedicated to the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I.
    • In 1677 Leopold awarded the Academy the title 'Sacri Romani Imperii Academia Naturae Curiosorum'.
    • The reputation of the Academy continued to grow and in 1687 Leopold gave it numerous privileges as wll as yet a further new title 'Sacri Romani Imperii Academia Caesareo- Leopoldina Naturae Curiosorum'.
    • After this return to Halle in 1878 (the first period in Halle had been 1745-1769), this city became its permanent home.
    • The Academy library was built in Halle in 1904.
    • The next President Emil Abderhalden reorganised the Sections of the Academy in 1932 and introduced the series Lebensdarstel-lungen deutscher Naturforscher (Biographies of German Natural Scientists).
    • In 1949 the Soviet Occupation Zone became the GDR while the other three Occupation Zones were merged to form West Germany.
    • This, however, failed after the construction of the Wall in 1961.
    • In December of 1990 elections were held within the new united country.
    • A resolution of 5 April 1991 registered the Academy and its statutes (which have been modified in minor ways in the succeeding years) established that:- .
    • Founded in Schweinfurt in 1652, and vested with privileges by Emperor Leopold I in 1687 that were confirmed by Emperor Karl VII in 1742, the Academy is identical with and constitutes the uninterrupted continuation of its predecessor, the 'Imperial Leopoldina Carolina German Academy of Natural Scientists'.

  56. Israel Mathematical Union
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Also in 1954 Moshe Jarden recalls attending a meeting of the Union with his father Dov Jarden.
    • both Mathematics and the Hebrew language resulted in 1946 in establishing a journal in Mathematics entitled "Riveon LeMathematika" (i.e.
    • I still remember that when I was 12, that is in 1954, my father took me to a meeting of the Israel Mathematical Union that took place at the Institute of Mathematics of the Hebrew University.
    • Although Agmon is 95 years old today, he just joined the Institute of Mathematics at the Hebrew University in 1952.
    • However, he told me, he believed that the Union had been established after the war of independence (which ended in 1949), so may be some time after 1950.
    • The Israel Mathematical Union maintains contacts with other mathematical associations worldwide: it is a corporate member of the European Mathematical Society [since 1991], an associate member of the International Council for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and has a reciprocity membership agreement with the American Mathematical Society, and with the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
    • This prize was first awarded in 1977 and was, at that time, known as the Erdős Prize.
    • The name was changed in 1996 to the Anna and Lajos Erdős Prize reflecting the original wish of Paul Erdős.
    • Charlotte Levitzki (nee Ascher) was born in Berlin in 1910.
    • She became a librarian and worked in a large bookstore until the Nazis led by Hitler came to power in 1933.
    • In 1939 she married Jacob Levitzki and the family settled in Jerusalem.
    • She rose quickly through the ranks of the Hebrew University National Library and became head of the acquisition department, a role she held until she retired in 1972.
    • From that time, almost until her death in 1997, she volunteered in various institutions, including Hadassah hospital.
    • Before describing the prize, let us give some information about Haim Nessyahu following the biography in [',' Israel Mathematical Union website.','1]: .
    • His formal education began in 1970 in the "Gavrieli" school, in Tel Aviv.
    • Then, in 1973, Haim joined a newly formed class of gifted children, the first of its kind in Israel.
    • In 1982, Haim joined the military academic reserve, in the framework of which he studied towards a B.Sc.
    • He graduated in 1984, Summa Cum Laude.
    • After resigning from the army, in 1989, he joined Professor Tadmor at NASA Langley Research Center, in Hampton Virginia, as a graduate fellow, where he continued his mathematical research.
    • He completed his doctoral dissertation in 1994 and was accepted for a post-doctoral position as Assistant Professor of Computational and Applied Mathematics at the University of Los Angeles.

  57. Alphabetical List of Mathematical Societies
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .

  58. French Statistical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Societe Francaise de Statistique (French Statistical Society) was founded in 1997.
    • However, this date gives a totally wrong impression of the history of the Society since it really dates back to 1860 when the 'Societe de Statistique de Paris' (Statistical Society of Paris) was founded.
    • It was also built on the 'Association pour la Statistique et ses Utilisations' (Association for Statistics and its Uses) which was itself originally the 'Association des Statisticiens Universitaires' (Association of University Statisticians) founded in 1969 and became the 'Association for Statistics and its Uses' in 1987.
    • Let us give some details here of the French Statistical Society since its founding in 1997.
    • The SFdS is a learned society founded in 1997, specialising in statistics, whose mission is to promote the use of statistics and its understanding and to promote its methodological developments.
    • These were begun by the Association of University Statisticians, the first being held in Lyon in 1970.
    • The SFdS has organised these workshops since 2001 for professional statisticians.

  59. List of societies by date of foundation
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • 1751 Gottingen Academy of Sciences .
    • 1831 British Association for the Advancement of Science .
    • 1861 Croatian Academy of Sciences .
    • 1891 Janos Bolyai Mathematical Society .
    • 1900 to 1939 .
    • 1911 German Statistical Society .
    • 1911 Kaiser Wilhelm Society .
    • 1911 Spanish Mathematical Society .
    • 1921 Belgium Mathematical Society .
    • 1921 Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .
    • 1931 Catalan Society for Physics .
    • 1940 to 1969 .
    • 1941 Georgian Academy of Sciences .
    • 1941 Lithuanian Academy of Sciences .
    • 1971 Iranian Mathematical Society .
    • 1971 Korean Statistical Society .
    • 1971 Women in Mathematics Association .
    • 1981 Serbian Mathematical Society .
    • 1991 Armenian Mathematical Union .
    • 1991 Bulgarian Statistical Society .
    • 1991 Spanish Society of Applied Mathematics .
    • 2001 Pakistan Mathematical Society .

  60. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Skoropadsky was descended from an 18th-century Cossack hetman and, proud of the fact, he took the title "Hetman of Ukraine".
    • He had been kept in power by German-Austrian support and when they were defeated in November Skoropadsky's regime could not survive and he resigned on 14 December.
    • Nikolai Krylov was appointed chairman of the physics and mathematics department in 1922.
    • Throughout this article we shall call the Academy the "Ukrainian Academy of Sciences" but it only had this name from 1918 until 1921 when it became the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
    • In 1936 it was renamed the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR which was its name until 1991.
    • Russia and ten other former Soviet republics declared themselves independent on 21 December 1991 and founded the Commonwealth of Independent States.
    • The USSR legally ceased to exist on 31 December 1991.
    • From 1991 to 1993 the Academy reverted to its original name, the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, then in 1994 it adopted its current name which is the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
    • The Mechanics Institute in Kiev was founded in 1919:- .
    • The Hydromechanics Institute in Kiev was founded in 1926, joining the Ukrainian Academy in 1934:- .
    • Outlines of its development (Ukrainian) (Kiev, 1997).','1].
    • The Institute was founded in Kiev in 1934 from several existing commissions and Grave served as its first Director from its foundation until his death in 1939.
    • From 1939 to 1941 and then again from 1944 to 1949, Lavrentev was the Director of the Institute in Kiev.
    • Gnedenko became Director of the Institute of Mathematics in 1949.
    • Mytropolshy moved to the Institute of Mathematics in 1951 and was made Director in 1958 after Gnedenko left for Moscow.
    • The Applied Mathematics and Mechanics Institute was set up in Donetsk in 1965 with I I Daniliuk as its first director:- .
    • The Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics Institute in Lvov was founded in 1978:- .

  61. Göttingen Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Gottingen Mathematical Society was founded in 1892 by Felix Klein and Heinrich Weber.
    • William Henry Young, who was at Gottingen from 1899 to 1908, described the working of the young Mathematical Society (see [',' V Peckhaus, Ernst Zermelo in Gottingen, History and Philosophy of Logic 11 (1990), 19-58.','1]):- .
    • Caratheodory, who went to Gottingen as a research student in 1902, described it as resembling:- .

  62. Hellenic Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Hellenic Mathematical Society was founded in 1918 [','','1]:- .
    • The first President of the Society was Nikolaos Hatzidakis who served in this role from 1918 to 1925.
    • He undertook research into differential geometry and when he became a founder member of the Hellenic Mathematical Society he had been a professor at the University of Athens since 1901.
    • He undertook research in function theory and had been appointed as professor of Higher Mathematical Analysis at the University of Athens in 1912 and he had also been appointed to the Technical University of Athens in 1916.
    • The Society began publication of the Bulletin of the Greek Mathematical Society in 1919 and Remoundos was a member of the editorial board.
    • Remoundos was President from 1925 to 1927 and then Konstantinos Maltezos was President in 1927.
    • Maltezos, who worked on mechanics and theoretical physics, had been dismissed by the University of Athens in 1920 by the royalist Minister of Education after the exiled King Constantine I had been restored to his throne.
    • In 1931, under Sakellariou's Presidency, the Society organised the first Panhellenic Mathematical Competition.
    • In particular he interfered in the running of the Society and N Kritikos resigned from the executive committee of the Hellenic Mathematical Society in 1936 due to political interference in the affairs of the Society.

  63. Icelandic Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • He completed his matriculation examination from Laerða School in Reykjavik in 1897 and, later that year, entered the University of Copenhagen to study mathematics.
    • He was awarded his Master's Degree in 1904 and, returning to Iceland, he applied for a vacant teacher position at the High School in Reykjavik where he had himself been a pupil a few years earlier.
    • In 1909 he submitted his thesis to the University of Copenhagen and was awarded a doctorate, becoming the first Icelander to be awarded a doctorate in mathematics.
    • But it was something he had been thinking about for a very long time for the first fundamentals of this material is found in an article he wrote in the same journal as a twenty-two year old in 1900.
    • Danielsson agreed that the Society would participate in publishing these journals in 1951 and the two journals appeared in 1953.
    • The minutes of a meeting of the Society in 1952 record that it had received a formal request from the Danish Mathematical Society to be involved in publishing Mathematica Scandinavica.
    • The Statutes of the Icelandic Mathematical Society were revised at the Society's Annual General Meeting on 12 January 2010.
    • Leifur Asgeirsson (born 25 May 1903, died 19 August 1990) graduated from the University of Reykjavik in 1927 and then undertook research at the University of Gottingen with Richard Courant as his supervisor.
    • He graduated from Gottingen in 1933, and returned to Iceland where he was head of the district school at Laugum in Reykjadalur from 1933 to 1943.
    • He was appointed as a lecturer in mathematics at the University of Iceland in 1943 and became the first full-time professor of mathematics at the University of Iceland in 1945.
    • He became a full professor at Princeton in 1960.
    • He was made an Honorary member of the Icelandic Mathematical Society in 1997.
    • Sadly no complete record of the winners of this award exists despite strenuous efforts by the Society in 1989 to find the names of all the winners.
    • The Society played a major role in organising the Nineteenth Nordic Mathematical Congress held in Reykjavik in 1984.
    • They organised another major conference in 1990 which was to honour Bjarni Jonsson on his 70th birthday.

  64. Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • This was, however a reconstitution of the Academy, the origins of which go back to the reign of Alfonso el Sabio in the 13th century, to the Madrid Mathematical Academy of Phillip II, and also to the Academia Naturae curiosorum founded in 1657.
    • The Madrid Mathematical Academy (Academia de Matematicas de Madrid) was founded in 1582 (some sources give the date 1575) by Phillip II of Spain.
    • The Academy, which ceased to exist in 1625, is examined in detail in [',' P Garcia-Barreno, The Madrid Mathematical Academy of Phillip II, Boll.
    • 20 (2000), 87-188.
    • ','1].
    • The Royal Academy of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of 1847 was largely due to Jorge Juan y Santacilia (1713-1773) who was an expert on navigation.
    • Madrid 67 (1973), 11-26.','2] for details).

  65. Union of Czech Mathematicians and Physicists
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Professor Ernst Mach was also very supportive and, in 1868, he suggested that the Society might wish to meet in one of his lecture theatres and have the use of one of his physics laboratories in which Society members could carry out any experimental work.
    • In 1869 the Society was officially registered but now it was under the name Union of Czech Mathematicians.
    • Publishing a journal was also high on the agenda and by the time the 10th anniversary of the Union came round in 1872 they could celebrate with launching the publication The Journal for the Cultivation of Mathematics and Physics.
    • The Union continued to expand its operations outside Prague and it opened a number of branches, in particular one in Brno in 1911 and one in Bratislava in 1929.
    • In 1919 it went into the business of publishing in a big way obtaining a licence to print, publish, and sell books.
    • A National Assembly was formed and a new democratic constitution was adopted in 1920.
    • In 1921 the Union of Czech Mathematicians changed its name to reflect its involvement in both mathematics and physics and renamed itself the Union of Czech Mathematicians and Physicists.
    • The Union purchased a house in 1930 and erected a new building to the rear of the house which was their bookshop and later the library.
    • The Union moved into its new headquarters in 1938.
    • Hitler's armies invaded on 14 March 1939 and Hitler installed his representative in Prague to run the country.
    • In 1952 the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences was founded in Prague and a number of specialised institutions were attached to it including the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists as the Union was now called.
    • Reforms in Czechoslovakia in the 1960s came to an end in the spring of 1968 when Soviet troops entered the country.
    • The Union of Slovak Mathematicians and Physicists split off from the old Union in 1969.
    • The modern Czech Republic came into being on 1 January 1993, when the union with Slovakia was ended.

  66. Spanish Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Spanish Mathematical Society, the Sociedad Matematica Espanola (later the Royal Spanish Mathematical Society, the Real Sociedad Matematica Espanola) was founded in 1911.
    • For example Zoel Garcia de Galdeano (1846-1924) was professor of mathematics at various schools and institutes throughout Spain.
    • In 1891 he founded the first Spanish mathematics journal El progresso Matematico.
    • It stopped publishing in 1895 but was restarted in 1899, failing again after only one year.
    • In 1907 the Board for Advanced Studies and Scientific Research, the Junta para Ampliacion de Estudios e Investigaciones (JAE), was founded.
    • In 1908 the Spanish Association for the Advancement of Science, the Asociacion Espanola para el Progreso de la Ciencia (AEPC), was founded.
    • At the first Congress of the AEPC it was proposed by Manuel Benitez y Parodi (1845-1911), a military general, that a mathematics society be founded and this led to the founding of the Spanish Mathematical Society in 1911.
    • Manuel Benitez, Jose Echegaray y Eizaguirre (1832-1916) who was a civil engineer, and Julio Rey Pastor played a major role in establishing the Society.
    • In May 1911 the Society published the first part of its journal, the Revista de la Sociedad Matematica Espanola.
    • However, the journal suffered from the same problems that had forced the closure of El progresso Matematico in 1900.
    • The problems came to a head in 1915 when Rey Pastor criticised senior members of the Society and argued that it was necessary for Spanish mathematics to become a part of the Europe wide mathematics scene.
    • Rey Pastor had certainly played his part in supporting the journal, particularly in the period 1911-13, with a series of papers.
    • Our discussion of the Revista has taken us up to 1917 but we should go back to 1915 for in that year, at the suggestion of the Spanish Mathematical Society, the Mathematical Laboratory and Seminar of the Board for Advanced Studies and Scientific Research was created.
    • In 1916 Zoel Garcia de Galdeano who had founded the first failed Spanish mathematical journal became the second president of the Spanish Mathematical Society.
    • It must have been a great sadness to him to see this second Spanish mathematical journal, the Revista, fail in 1917.
    • With the Society in crisis, it was Rey Pastor who revitalised it in 1919.
    • A new journal, the Revista Matematica Hispano-Americana, was founded in 1919 and this was mentioned by G A Miller in an article in Science in 1919.
    • The second one was a result of the civil war, 1936-39, and in 1941 the Society was again re-established, this time by Franco's dictatorship.
    • A third crisis in 1961 was followed by a fourth, very deep crisis, which began in 1990 and continued until the Society was again re-established in 1996.
    • Revista Matematica Hispano-Americana which was founded by Rey Pastor in 1919 has continued to be published but it changed its name to Revista Matematica Iberoamericana in 1985 when it began again from Volume 1.
    • Starting with Volume 28 (2012), Revista Matematica Iberoamericana has been printed and distributed by the Publishing House of the European Mathematical Society.
    • The Society published the journal Gaceta Matematica beginning in 1949.
    • La Gaceta de la Real Sociedad Matematica Espanola began publication in 1998, with 3 issues per volume per year.

  67. International Mathematical Union
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The International Mathematical Union traces its origins back to 1920.
    • Wilson's proposal was accepted and in 1919 the International Research Council was founded and, in the following year, the International Mathematical Union was established.
    • The series of International Congresses of Mathematicians had begun in Zurich in 1897 but no congress was held during World War I (1914-18).
    • The first post World War I International Congress of Mathematicians was held in Strasbourg in 1920.
    • In 1922, following the collapse of a bid from New York to hold the 1924 Congress, John Charles Fields made a bid to hold it in Toronto under the auspices of the International Mathematical Union.
    • In 1925 the International Research Council invited Germany, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria to join the Council and all associated Unions.
    • In 1931 it was replaced by the International Council of Scientific Unions which had no restrictions on membership.
    • Pincherle invited all mathematicians to the International Congress of Mathematicians to be held in 1928 in Bologna, Italy.
    • An argument at the General Assembly of the International Mathematical Union during the International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich in 1932 voted to suspend the Union and set up a Commission, chaired by Francesco Severi with Gaston Julia as vice-chairman, to discuss re-establishing it.
    • Julia reported to the International Congress of Mathematicians at Oslo in 1936 that the recommendation was that the Union should not be re-established.
    • Much of the groundwork was done during the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1950 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    • The International Mathematical Union was formally refounded in 1951 and the first General Assembly of the new International Mathematical Union was held in 1952.

  68. Mathematical Circle of Palermo
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Mathematical Circle of Palermo (Circolo matematico di Palermo) was founded in 1884 and it is the oldest Italian Mathematical Society (except for the Academies).
    • Speziali writes in [',' P Speziali, Giovanni Battista Guccia, Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).','3] that Guccia provided:- .

  69. National Academy of Sciences of Italy
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The National Academy of Sciences of Italy (the "Academy of Forty") was founded in 1782 as the 'Societa Italiana' by the mathematician Antonio Mario Lorgna.
    • Two of these are Boscovich and Malfatti while the other two are Carlo Barletti (1735-1800) and Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799).
    • Over the following ten years discussions went on and by 1776 Lorgna and Malfatti were discussing Lorgna's "idea of forming an Academy for all Italian scholars".
    • On 1 March 1781, Lorgna went ahead with his proposal sending out a circular letter to leading scientists.
    • He published the first part of the 'Memorie', the Society's Memoirs, in 1782 the year the Society was founded in Verona.
    • The Society, he wrote, "belongs to the whole of Italy, not just to a single city." Lorgna was the first President of the Societa Italiana, holding this role until his death in 1796.
    • It is worth realising that this "Italian Society" was proposed by Lorgna about 100 years before the unification of Italy which took place in 1861.
    • Originally set up in Verona, the Society relocated to Milan, then to Modena, and in 1875, when Rome was declared the capital of Italy, the headquarters of the Society moved there where it remains to this day.
    • Here is a list of 28 Italian scientists who became members of the Societa Italiana, the "Academy of Forty", when it was founded in 1782.
    • Carlo Barletti (1735-1800).
    • Teodoro Bonati (1724-1820).
    • Ruggero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1787).
    • Sebastiano Canterzani (1734-1818).
    • Angelo Cesaris (1749-1832).
    • Felice Fontana (1730-1805).
    • Gregorio Fontana (1735-1803).
    • Michele Girardi (1731-1797).
    • Marsilio Landriani (1751-1815).
    • Antonio Mario Lorgna (1735-1796).
    • Vincenzo Malacarne (1744-1816).
    • Gianfrancesco Malfatti (1731-1807).
    • Carlo Lodovico Morozzo (1743-1804).
    • Pietro Moscati (1739-1824).
    • Pietro Paoli (1759-1839).
    • Tommaso Perelli (1704-1783).
    • Ermenegildo Pini (1739-1825).
    • Giordano Riccati (1709-1790).
    • Giuseppe Angelo Saluzzo (1734-1810).
    • Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832).
    • Giuseppe Slop De Cadenberg (1740-1808).
    • Made extensive studies of Uranus after its discovery in 1781.
    • Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799).
    • Giuseppe Toaldo (1719-1797).
    • Giuseppe Torelli (1721-1781).
    • Alessandro Volta (1745-1827).
    • Leonardo Ximenes (1716-1786).
    • Eustachio Zanotti (1709-1782).
    • He observed the 1761 transit of Venus in Bologna and made many observations of the moon, the sun and the planets.
    • Giovanni Verardo Zeviani (1725-1808).
    • By 1786, 13 new Italian members had been added.
    • Giovanni Arduino (1714-1795).
    • Antonio Cagnoli (1743-1816).
    • Leopoldo Marco Antonio Caldani (1725-1813).
    • Giovanni Francesco Cigna (1734-1790).
    • Domenico Cirillo (1739-1799).
    • Domenico Cotugno (1736-1822).
    • Luigi Lagrange (1736-1813).
    • Paolo De Langes (-1810).
    • Pietro Ferroni (1745-1825).
    • Vittorio Fossombroni (1754-1844).
    • Barnaba Oriani (1752-1832).
    • He worked at the Observatory of Brera in Milan, becoming its director in 1802.
    • Pietro Rossi (1738-1804).
    • An entomologist who was professor of logic at Pisa, becoming professor of natural history there in 1801.
    • Leonardo Salimbeni (1752-1823).
    • Simone Stratico (1733-1824).
    • Giuseppe Vairo (1741-1795).
    • Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746-1822).

  70. Estonian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Estonian Mathematical Society can trace its origins back to 1926.
    • Although Estonia had been dominated by Russia for a long period, it had gained its independence in 1917 only to come under German control.
    • In 1920 Estonia was again able to assert its independence.
    • Tamme writes in [',' M Abel, 75 Years of the Estonian Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 41 (September, 2001), 18-19.','1]:- .
    • On 17 June 1940 Soviet troops occupied the whole of Estonia and on 21 July the Estonian government, having little choice, adopted a resolution to join the USSR.
    • Over 10,000 people were deported on the night of 13 June 1941 alone.
    • Political events again intervened, for on 22 June 22 1941 Germany attacked the USSR, Estonians then attacked the occupying Soviet forces, largely defeating them before the German army took control of Estonia.
    • These suggestions came to nothing, as did a more serious attempt to establish a mathematical society in 1983.
    • A Soviet liberalization campaign in the late 1980s provided an opportunity and, in 1987, mathematicians achieved their aim.
    • The first meeting of the Estonian Mathematical Society was held on 17 September in the same Festival Hall that the Academic Mathematical Society had held its first meeting in 61 years before.
    • The 1987 meeting was attended by 118 members of the new Society together with 52 guests.

  71. Hungarian Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Hungarian Academy of Sciences was named the Hungarian Scholarly Society when it was founded in Pest in 1825.
    • The Society published an Hungarian Mathematical Dictionary in 1834 but it failed to achieve the aims we have described [',' B Szenassy, History of Mathematics in Hungary until the 20th Century (Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 1992).
    • ','1]:- .
    • The publication of Euclid's Elements in Hungarian by the Society in 1832 was probably more significant.
    • The first such foreign member was Babbage, elected in 1833, followed by Gauss and Poncelet in 1847 and John Herschel and Quetelet in 1858.
    • The journal was split into two in 1859, then three covering different areas.
    • The Academy hit real problems in 1849 following the Hungarian War of Independence.
    • In that year the Hungarians had defeated the Habsburgs and declared Hungarian independence on 14 April.
    • Following this a combined force from Russia and Austria retook the country and the Hungarian army surrendered on 13 August.
    • This allowed the Academy to begin again to support ventures to strengthen Hungarian scholarship and, in 1860, a committee was set up to give special support to mathematics and natural science.
    • In the Compromise of 1867 the Hungarian Kingdom and the Austrian Empire became independent states within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
    • The Compromise led to rising standards of education in mathematics and the sciences and after pressure from the Academy, the Technical University of Budapest was set up from the polytechnic school in 1871.

  72. Warsaw Scientific Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • With the Polish education system controlled by the Russian rulers, Dickstein decided to do what he could to promote a Polish education and he directed his own private school for ten years beginning in 1878.
    • In 1884 he was one of the two founders of a series of mathematics and physics textbooks which were written in Polish.
    • He also continued publication of Circle of Polish Mathematicians which had begun publishing in St Petersburg in 1880.
    • Kuratowski, thinking about the development of Polish mathematics, notes in [',' K Kuratowski, Half a century of Polish mathematics (Warsaw, 1973).','1] the importance of the publications:- .
    • In 1903 Dickstein was a founder of the Warsaw Scientific Society and he was important in the development of the Polish Mathematical Society.
    • Despite the fact that the Polish Mathematical Society was set up in 1919, the Warsaw Scientific Society continued to play a major role in mathematics.
    • For example in 1928 Sierpinski was elected vice-chairman of the Warsaw Scientific Society.

  73. Australian Academy of Science
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Australian Academy of Science was founded on 16 February 1954 by Queen Elizabeth II.
    • In 1951 a meeting of leading scientists, technologists and industrialists was held in Canberra to discuss the future of science and technology in Australia.
    • A council of 10 was set up with Professor Oliphant as the first President.
    • Thomas Cherry was the third President of the Academy, serving in that role from 1961 to 1964.
    • This building, now called the Shine Dome [',' Australian Academy of Science website.','1]:- .
    • 14 (3) (1987), 59-62.','5]).
    • The Moran Medal is named for Patrick Alfred Pierce Moran (1917-1988), an Australian statistician who made significant contributions to probability theory and its application to population and evolutionary genetics.
    • The Hannan Medal is named for Edward James Hannan (1921-1994), an Australian statistician who is the co-discoverer of the Hannan-Quinn information criterion.
    • For example it sponsored the First International Conference on the Theory of Groups held in 1965 and the Second International Conference on the Theory of Groups held in Canberra in August 1973.

  74. Chinese Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The reason is that the Chinese Society for Mathematical Sciences was founded in 1929 and carried out the same functions as the Chinese Mathematical Society until 1936.
    • The first President of the Society was Hu T-F who appointed on the foundation of the Society in 1935.
    • At first the Society prospered and in 1936 it began publication of two journals, one a research publication, the other a low level popular one.
    • By 1938 the country was divided between the part controlled by Japan and the remaining Free China which refused to submit.
    • The Chinese Mathematical Society was no longer able to operate and although in some sense it continued to exist, from 1938 to 1945 it could not function.
    • Japan surrendered in 1945 but China's problems did not end for the country suffered a civil war for four years between Nationalists and Communists.
    • Attempts were made to refound the Chinese Mathematical Society and in 1948 it began again to function in support of mathematics throughout China.
    • Hu T-F, the first President ended his term of office in 1948.
    • The Communist victory led to the creation of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949.
    • The Chinese Mathematical Society rapidly expanded under the next President Hua Loo-Keng who was appointed in 1951 and served until 1983.

  75. Statistical Society of Australia
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Statistical Society of Australia was founded in 1962:- .
    • B) (1988), 99-109.','2]) which was founded in 1947.
    • Henry Oliver Lancaster was one of the founders of this Society and his contributions are detailed in [',' E Seneta, In memoriam Emeritus Professor Henry Oliver Lancaster, AO FAA (1 February 1913-2 December 2001),','3].
    • In 1998 the Statistical Society of Australia and the New Zealand Statistical Association amalgamated their two journals and from that time jointly published The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Statistics.

  76. Union of Slovak Mathematicians and Physicists
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Reforms in Czechoslovakia in the 1960s came to an end in the spring of 1968 when Soviet troops entered the country.
    • The Union of Slovak Mathematicians and Physicists split off from the old Union in 1969 at the fifth congress of the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists.
    • The following description of the Union is taken from [',' Union of Slovak Mathematicians and Physicists website.','1].
    • It was founded in 1969 as part of the "Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists", established in 1921 from the original 'Association for Free Lectures in Mathematics and Physics', founded in 1862.
    • Following this, they have been involved in the organisation of the Conference on Differential and Difference Equations held in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2017.
    • The first was held in Prague in 1962 and the 26th was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, in July 2017.
    • The following is taken from the report made in 2011 [',' D Velichova, Report from Slovakia, Meeting of Representatives of European Organisations for Women in Mathematics (Barcelona, 4 September 2011.','2]:- .
    • There are about 61 active mathematicians (15 female) working at the Mathematical Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences and about 500 mathematicians (200 female) working as university lecturers at 10 universities in Slovakia.

  77. Lisbon Academy
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • In 1797 the first volume of the Academy's journal appeared.
    • This first volume was named Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon and contained papers written from the founding of the Academy up to 1788.
    • The second volume of the Memoirs appeared in 1799 but was renamed Memoirs of Mathematics and Physics of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon.
    • For example, Spain invaded in 1801 and a short war followed, then a more serious conflict occurred in 1807 when Napoleon invaded.
    • The Academy of Sciences of Lisbon managed to operate by 1812 when the third volume of the Memoirs appeared.
    • After a Civil War in 1832-34, a period of stability in Portugal allowed educational reform in 1836 but the 1846-47 Civil War again led to turbulence.
    • In May 1851 a military putsch led to longer term political stability.
    • The Academy of Sciences of Lisbon was reorganised in 1851 and this led to a marked increase in mathematical research in the country.
    • The 1851 Statutes required the foundation of two new publications, a bulletin for the proceedings of the meetings of the Academy and a journal which would contain scientific papers which could not be published in the Academy's Memoirs.
    • The Annaes de Sciencias e Lettras was established in 1857 but was quickly discontinued in 1858.
    • The Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes was established in 1866 and continued to be published until 1923.

  78. French Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The French Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society, Societe de Mathematique Appliquees et Industrielle, was founded in 1983 [',' C Picard and M Martin-Deschamps, SMAI (France), European Mathematical Society Newsletter 40 (June, 2001), 18-19.','1]:- .
    • One might, however, see the creation of the Society being ten years earlier for, in 1973, the Groupe pour l'Advancemant des Methodes Numerique de l'Ingenieure was founded.
    • When the French Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society was founded in 1983 the Groupe pour l'Advancemant des Methodes Numerique de l'Ingenieure became part of the broader organisation.

  79. Academy of Sciences of Belarus
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus was founded in Minsk on 1 January 1929 (as the Belarusian Academy of Sciences), the date being chosen as it was the tenth anniversary of the founding of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.
    • An earlier organisation, the Institute of Belarusian Culture, had been established in 1922 and a decree made on 13 October 1928 set up the Belarusian Academy of Sciences by reorganising the Institute.
    • In 1936 the name of the Academy was changed to the Academy of Sciences of Byelorussian SSR.
    • Russia and ten other former Soviet republics declared themselves independent on 21 December 1991 and founded the Commonwealth of Independent States.
    • The USSR legally ceased to exist on 31 December 1991.
    • In 1991 the Academy of Sciences of Byelorussian SSR became the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, adopting its present name in 1997.
    • The Academy had a staff of 128 when it was first established but by 1941 this had risen to about 750 with nine Institutes.
    • By the end of the war the staff was less than half of the 1941 total with around 360 staff in post.
    • Following the end of World War II the Academy was rebuilt, with eight Institutes beginning work in 1945 increasing to 29 by 1951.
    • The Institute of Mathematics of the Academy was founded in Minsk in 1959.
    • Their journal Doklady Akademii Nauk BSSR was renamed in 1951 Akademiya Nauk Belarusi.
    • Doklady, which then became Doklady Akademii Nauk Belarusi in 1996, finally adopting its present name Doklady Natsional'noi Akademii Nauk Belarusi in 1998.
    • Seryya Fizika-Matematychnykh Navuk in1992.
    • Seriya Fiziko-Matematicheskikh Nauk in 2001.

  80. Armenian Mathematical Union
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Armenian Mathematical Union was founded in 1991 but there were societies in Armenia dealing with mathematics before that date.
    • There was an informal Union of Young Mathematicians that organised meetings at which members reported on their research and even organised conferences, the first being in 1982 on 'Modern problems of mathematical physics'.
    • It was founded on 16 May 1919 and it established the Department of Physics and Mathematics in the Faculty of Social Sciences in 1924.
    • In 1933 a Physico-mathematical Faculty was set up but in 1959 this was split into two faculties, namely a Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics and a Faculty of Physics.
    • A separate Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Informatics was set up in 1972.
    • The main aims of the Union are given in [',' Armenian Mathematical Union website.','1] which we now give in a slightly modified form:- .
    • Let us first note that the founding of the Union in 1991 was at a particularly difficult time given the political situation.
    • In 1988 there had been large scale demonstrations and strikes in Armenia.
    • In the midst of this breaking up of the Soviet Union, the Armenian Mathematical Union held its first Congress on 18 May 1991.
    • Alexandr Andraniki Talalyan (born 22 September, 1928; died 9 August, 2016) studied for his Candidate's Degree at the Steklov Mathematical Institute and was awarded the degree in 1956 for his thesis On the convergence of orthogonal series.
    • In 1958 he became a docent in the Department of Mathematics at Yerevan State University and in 1965 he was promoted to professor.
    • He was awarded a doctorate (equivalent to a D.Sc.) from the Steklov Mathematical Institute in 1962 for his thesis Representation of measurable functions by series.
    • He served as Dean of the Department of Mathematics of Yerevan State University from 1970 to 1973.
    • In 1971 he was also made Head of the Division of Real Analysis in the Institute of Mathematics of the National Academy of Sciences.
    • He served again as Dean of the Department of Mathematics of Yerevan State University, this time from 1988 to 1991.
    • He was Director of the Institute of Mathematics of the National Academy of Sciences from 1991 to 1996.
    • On 24 May 1991, the Armenian Mathematical Union elected the Executive Committee from among those elected to the Council.
    • The Armenian Mathematical Union was officially registered by the Justice Ministry of the Republic of Armenia on 10 July 1991.
    • The Union joined the International Mathematical Union in 1993.
    • 1991: Alexandr Talalyan .
    • 2001: Norayr Yengibaryan .
    • 2011: Tigran Harutunyan .

  81. Kosovar Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Yugoslav Mathematical Society was formed in Belgrade in 1937 and this served mathematicians in Yugoslavia until the break-up of that country.
    • Many parts of Yugoslavia declared independence in 1991-92 but Kosovo remained a part of Serbia and Montenegro.
    • The Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Serbia had been founded on 4 January 1948 and it had split into two societies, mathematics and physics, in 1981 and at that time the Mathematical Society of Serbia was founded.
    • The report [',' Prime Minister Thaci meets the winners of the Mathematical Olympiad of Kosovo, The Republic of Kosovo, Office of the Prime Minister (26 May 2009).','1] gives details of the reception for the winners in May 2009:- .
    • He was born on 4 June 1984 and, while at secondary school, won First Prize in the Kosovo Mathematical Olympiad held in Shtimje, Kosovo in 1997.
    • He studied at the University of Prishtina, making a study visit to Paris in 2001 funded by the World University Service, Austria.
    • In addition to his university position, in 2011 he was appointed Foreign Affairs Advisor to the President of the Republic before becoming, successively, a member of the Board of Directors of the Pro Credit Kosovo Bank, the Kosovo-American Education Fund and the State Council on Quality.
    • In fact Qendrim Gashi, the Society's first President was also Chief Coordinator of the Kosovo Mathematical Olympiad in 2009-2012.
    • He attended both elementary and secondary school in Gjakove and began his university studies at the Higher Education Institution in Prishtina in 1967.
    • This Higher Education Institution became the University of Prishtina in 1970.
    • He graduated in 1971 and in that year began his postgraduate studies at the University of Zagreb.
    • He was awarded a Master's Degree in 1974 and was appointed as an assistant at the University of Prishtina while continuing to undertake research for his doctorate at Zagreb advised by Sibe Mardesic.
    • He was awarded the degree in 1981 for his thesis Shape fibrations for topological spaces.
    • He was steadily promoted at Prishtina becoming a docent in 1982, an extraordinary professor in 1987 and a full professor in 1994.
    • Sentenced to ten years in prison, he was held in various prisons until March 2001 when he, along with many others held by the Serbs, was released.
    • An important aspect of Haxhibeqiri's contribution to the scientific community has been his authorship of university textbooks (among which is the book "Topology" published in 1989).

  82. Estonian Statistical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • She attended school in Tallinn, graduating in 1952, and then studied at the University of Tartu, being awarded her first degree in 1957.
    • She studied for her doctorate advised by Gunnar Kangro (1913-1975), who was an expert in summation theory and held the Chair of Mathematical Analysis at the University of Tartu.
    • She was awarded her doctorate in 1963.
    • In 1995 a new Council was elected: Ene-Margit Tiit was re-elected President for three years; Ulo Randaru, Helina Vigla and Reet Malbe were elected Vice-Directors of the Statistical Office; Villem Tamm, Tonu Kollo and Ebu Tamm were elected as Ordinary Council Members.
    • Here is the details of some of these conferences in 1995-97.
    • 17-18 April 1997, in Rakvere.
    • The Society began publication of the Eesti Statistikaseltsi Teabevihik (Journal of Estonian Statistical Society) in 1993.
    • Ene-Margit Tiit writes [',' E-M Tiit, Experiences in Publishing a Statistics Journal in Estonia, Proceedings International Conference on Teaching Statistics 5 (1998), 502-504.','2]:- .
    • the Estonian Statistical Society was founded [in 1992] and since then has publish a journal twice a year.
    • 15-16 April 2008, in Tallinn.
    • 13-14 April 2010, in Tartu.
    • 20-21 April 2011, in Tallinn.
    • 12-13 November 2013, in the National Library of Estonia.
    • Here is the first paragraph of one from the Lithuanian Statistical Society [',' Estonian Statistical Society website.','1]:- .
    • He received a licentiate in statistics from Lund University in 1954 and he was appointed to the Department of Statistics there.
    • in 1961 for his thesis Contributions to the theory of estimation from grouped and partially grouped samples.
    • He became the first professor of statistics at Umea University in 1965.
    • He was elected to the International Statistical Institute in 1968 and served in several roles including president in 1989-91.
    • After the Baltic countries became independent in 1991 he made visits leading to exchange programmes in statistics between Nordic and Baltic countries.
    • 2007-2010 Kalev Parna .
    • 2010-2013 Imbi Traat .
    • 2013-2016 Kaja Sostra .

  83. Irish Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Irish Mathematical Society (Cumann Matamaitice na heireann) came into being on 14 April 1976 when a constitution, based on that of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, was accepted by a meeting held in Trinity College Dublin following a symposium organised by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
    • This informal group, which met in the late 1960's and consisted of J Kennedy (University College Dublin), F Holland (University College Cork), D McAlister (Queens University Belfast), and T West (Trinity College Dublin), decided in 1967 to circulate the Irish mathematical community, north and south, to determine the possibility of organised research symposia or summer schools on selected topics.
    • The success of this Summer School led to further Summer Schools each year from 1971.
    • These were 'Complex Function Theory' (1971), 'Numerical Analysis' (1972), 'Group Theory and Computation' (1973), 'Spectral Theory' (1974) and a symposium on 'Harmonic Analysis and Topological Algebra' in December 1975 at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies.
    • In [',' T C Hurley, Report of the First Year’s Activities, Newsletter of the Irish Mathematical Society 1 (1978), 6-7.','3] the events of the first year of the Society are recorded:- .
    • The first was a 'Group Theory' conference held at University College Galway 12-13 May 1978.
    • In the Newsletter of 1979 T C Hurley writes [',' T C Hurley, Report on the Activities of the Society, Newsletter of the Irish Mathematical Society 2 (1979), 3-5.','4]:- .
    • In 1986 it was given the new title of the Bulletin of the Irish Mathematical Society which continues to appear twice a year.
    • The conference is held in September, the first being held in 1988 at Trinity College Dublin.
    • In 2016 the annual conference was held in Trinity College Dublin on 15-16 April to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Irish Mathematical Society.
    • 1981 J J H Miller .
    • 1991 R Timoney .
    • 2001 E Gath .
    • 2011 S Wills .

  84. Catalan Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans) was founded in 1907 and the Catalan Society for Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics was founded in 1931 within its Science Section.
    • The Mathematics section with that Society expanded so rapidly that in 1986 the four branches of the Catalan Society for Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics each became a separate Society.
    • The Society set out its aims in its statutes which include a mission [',' S Xambo-Descamps, The Catalan Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 36 (June, 2000), 3.','1]:- .
    • The Society publishes two journals in Catalan [',' J de Sola-Morales, The Catalan Mathematical Society and Mathematics in Catalonia, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 93 (2014), 47-48.','2]:- .

  85. Mathematical Association of America
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Mathematical Association of America was set up to manage publication of the American Mathematical Monthly which had begun publication in 1894.
    • Herbert E Slaught who edited the Monthly from 1913 to 1916 approached the American Mathematical Society asking if it would take over support for the Monthly.
    • He received 450 positive responses, and on 30-31 December 1915 Earl R Hedrick chaired a founding meeting of 104 people.
    • Hedrick was elected president, Huntington was elected vice president, and Council consisting of 12 members was appointed.
    • Straley writes in [',' T H Straley, A Brief History of the Mathematical Association of America.','1]:- .
    • 1921 George A Miller .
    • 1931-32 Eric T Bell .
    • 1941-42 Raymond W Brink .
    • 1951-52 Saunders Mac Lane .
    • 1961-62 Albert W Tucker .
    • 1971-72 Victor Klee .
    • 1981-82 Richard D Anderson .
    • 1991-92 Deborah Tepper Haimo .
    • 2001-02 Ann E Watkins .

  86. Croatian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Croatian Mathematical Society was founded in 1990.
    • However the Society has a much longer history than that date would suggest since it was on 18 April 1990 that the Croatian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists made the decision to split into two separate societies, namely the Croatian Mathematical Society and the Croatian Physics Society.
    • The Croatian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists had been founded in 1949 but long before that there had been a mathematics section of the Croatian Natural History Society, itself founded in 1885, which was the beginnings of the Mathematical Society.
    • The Croatian Natural History Society was founded in 1885 in Zagreb with a view to developing and popularising the natural sciences.
    • From 1886 to 1938, the Society also published Glasnik Hrvatskog naravoslovnog društva, in which research papers on mathematics appeared.
    • The Croatian Natural History Society founded the Mathematical-Physical Section in 1945 and a year later, the Department of Mathematics and Physics in the University of Zagreb was established, which started organising workshops for teachers and popular lectures on mathematics and physics.
    • The Croatian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists was founded in 1949 and existed until 1990.
    • When the Society was founded in 1949 Croatia was a federal unit in Yugoslavia so the Croatian Society became a member of the Alliance of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Yugoslavia.
    • In 1953, summer courses in mathematics and physics for high school teachers began to be organised, which later developed into the present 'Seminars for Elementary and High School Teachers'.
    • The journal Glasnik matematički began publication in 1966 and has continued following the split and the foundation of the Croatian Mathematical Society.
    • Now before looking at the events of 1990, we should note that the Croatian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists was most active in Zagreb.
    • However the Rijeka Society of Mathematicians and Physicists was founded in 1951 as a branch of the Croatian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists.
    • on 18 April 1990 in the Mathematical Lecture Theatre in the Faculty of Science on Marko Maruli Square in Zagreb.
    • You can read a version of the minutes [',' S Martinović, XXXIX Annual General Assembly of the Society of Mathematicians and Physicists of Croatia, Glasnik matematički (3) 25 (45) (1990), 430-431.','2] taken at that discussion at THIS LINK.
    • It was attended by 187 participants and had 24 invited addresses.
    • 2000: Second Croatian Mathematical Congress, 15-17 June, University of Zagreb.
    • 2004: Third Croatian Mathematical Congress, 16-18 June, University of Split.
    • 2012: Fifth Croatian Mathematical Congress, 18-21 June, University of Rijeka.
    • 2016: Sixth Croatian Mathematical Congress, 14-17 June, University of Zagreb.
    • This journal was taken over by the Croatian Mathematical Society when the Croatian Society of Mathematicians and Physicists split in two in 1990.

  87. Polish Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Polish Mathematical Society began its existence in Krakow as the Mathematical Society in 1917.
    • Steinhaus lived in Krakow during 1916 and he relates in [',' H Steinhaus, Reminiscences (Polish) (Cracow, 1970).','1] how, despite the war, it was safe to walk in Krakow:- .
    • The informal Mathematical Society, established in 1917, became officially constituted after the end of World War I.
    • on 2 April 1919 a meeting was held in the Philosophy Seminar at 12 St Anne Street, Krakow, at which the Mathematical Society was constituted.
    • The session was introduced by Zorawski who said [',' J Piorek, Polish Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 32 (June, 1999), 17-18.','7]:- .
    • However, after some months of deliberation, five leading Warsaw mathematicians joined the Mathematical Society in Krakow on 19 September 1919.
    • It was announced at that meeting of the Krakow Society that an Extraordinary Meeting would be held on 29 September [',' J Piorek, Polish Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 32 (June, 1999), 17-18.','7]:- .
    • Other leading mathematicians served the Society in the period between the two wars including Sierpinski who was elected president of the Polish Mathematical Society in 1928 and Mazurkiewicz who was president in 1933-35.
    • In 1939, just before the start of World War II, Banach was elected as President of the Society.
    • In 1936 a committee had been set up by the Polish Academy of Learning to look at the way forward for Polish science.
    • They prepared a report "On the present state and needs of mathematics in Poland", completed in 1937, which formulated future requirements.
    • The Polish Mathematical Society was unable to operate during the war but was reborn in 1945.

  88. Luxembourg Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Luxembourg Mathematical Society began its existence in 1970 under the name Seminaire de Mathematique de Luxembourg.
    • In 1988 the members of the Seminaire de Mathematique de Luxembourg planned to create the Societe Mathematique du Luxembourg, or in English "The Luxembourg Mathematical Society".
    • Let us give a few details about Jean-Paul Pier (1933-2016).
    • He taught mathematics at the Lycee de Garcons in Esch-sur-Alzette from 1956 to 1980 and he was a professor at the Centre universitaire de Luxembourg (now the University of Luxembourg) from its founding in 1974 until he retired in 1998.
    • He founded the Mathematics Seminar at the University in 1971.
    • Vingt-cinq siecles de mathematiques (1996) and Mathematical analysis during the 20th century (2001).
    • After the present Society was founded in 1989 it has continued to organise symposia, for example The Development of Mathematics 1900-1950 (1992), Developments in Mathematics at the Eve of 2000 (1998), Conference on Harmonic Analysis (2002), Conference on Poisson Geometry (2005).
    • Seminar sessions take place at Campus Belval on Tuesdays [',' Luxembourg Mathematical Society website.','1]:- .
    • The first volume of the journal appeared in 1989.
    • A special part of the journal, Volume 11 in 1999, published the proceedings of the conference Developments in Mathematics at the Eve of 2000 which we mentioned above.
    • Special issues have also appeared in 2007, 2008, and 2011.
    • Here is a version of the article [',' J-P Pier, Luxembourg Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 34 (December, 1999), 26.','2] written by Jean-Paul Pier about the Luxembourg Mathematical Society in 1999:- .
    • In 1988, the members of that group created the Societe Mathematique du Luxembourg, which became a founding member of the European Mathematical Society.
    • A regular congress of the Groupement des Mathematiciens d'Expression Latine was held in Luxembourg in 1981.
    • (i) 'The Development of mathematics 1900-1950', at Bourglinster Castle in 1992; foreign speakers were J L Doob, G Fichera, I Gelfand, M Guillaume, W K Hayman, C Houzel, A Lichnerowicz, L Nirenberg and W Schwarz; .
    • (ii) 'Developments in mathematics at the eve of 2000', at Centre universitaire de Luxembourg in 1998; foreign speakers were J P Bourguignon, C Houzel, V Kac, J-P Kahane, J Mawhin, N Nikolskii, R Penrose and R Remmert.
    • At the end of 1997 UNESCO unanimously adopted a motion introduced by Luxembourg, declaring its sponsorship for WMY2000 (draft resolution 29C/DR126).
    • 1989-1992: Jean-Paul Pier .
    • 1992-1993: Jean Ludwig .
    • 2006-2010: Norbert Poncin .

  89. London Royal Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Boyle, in his letters written in 1646 and 1647, refers to our Invisible College or the Philosophical College.
    • We are particularly lucky to have a description of the beginnings of the Society from John Wallis (see for example [',' H Lyons, The Royal Society 1660-1940 (Cambridge, 1944).','7]):- .
    • Lyons writes [',' H Lyons, The Royal Society 1660-1940 (Cambridge, 1944).','7]:- .
    • On the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660 those who were living in London resumed their meetings that had been discontinued in 1658, and others who had been at Oxford joined them; by the end of the year they had a number of their friends having similar interests resolved to constitute themselves a Society of Philosophers which they succeeded in doing.
    • Lyons writes [',' H Lyons, The Royal Society 1660-1940 (Cambridge, 1944).','7]:- .
    • By the summer of 1661 the members were discussing the name of the Society and how they might obtain a Royal Charter of incorporation.
    • By the meeting of 18 September 1661 they had agreed a draft Charter and by the 16 October Moray and Neile had:- .
    • The Charter of Incorporation passed the Great Seal on 15 July 1662 and the Royal Society of London officially existed from that date with the name of 'The Royal Society'.
    • By the meeting of the Society on 20 May 1663, 150 Fellows had been elected.
    • The number rose from the original 150 to over 200 by 1675 but then dropped to around 100 by 1690.
    • The numbers then fell rapidly to around 450 by 1880.
    • Another related topic was the pendulum clock, and Huygens, who was the first foreign scientist to visit and work with the Society which he did in 1661, was the leading expert.
    • As early as September 1661 Moray wrote to Huygens (see for example [',' R Lomas, The Invisible College (London, 2002).','6]):- .

  90. Berlin Academy of Science
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The population of the city grew from 12,000 in 1670 to 61,000 in 1712, while the University of Halle was founded in 1694, the Academy of the Arts in 1696.
    • On 16 November of that year Austria and Prussia signed a secret treaty that permitted Frederick to crown himself king in Prussia, which he did in Konigsberg on 18 January 1701.
    • On 12 July 1700, one day after the Berlin-Brandenburg Society of Scientists was founded, Leibniz was named as President of the Society.
    • At the time the Berlin Society was founded, Leibniz was still employed in Hanover, now by Georg Ludwig who had become elector in 1698.
    • He was President for ten terms over the years 1700 to 1711, and this covered a total of three years.
    • The first volume of the Miscellanea Berolinensia appeared in 1710 and of the 61 papers printed in this volume, twelve were written by Leibniz.
    • Frederick I's son Frederick William I began his reign in 1713 and his son, Frederick II, succeeded him in 1740.
    • He began to invite top people to participate in his Academy and he approached both Voltaire and Maupertuis in 1740.
    • In 1741 Frederick II invited Euler to join in the reorganisation of the Society into an Academy.
    • Euler accepted, arrived in Berlin on 25 July 1741, and became Head of the Observatory of the Academy later that year.
    • By 1743 Frederick's reorganisation was complete and the Academy was given the title of Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles Lettres.
    • The first session of the new Academy took place in January 1744 and, on 12 May 1746, Maupertuis was officially appointed as president of the Berlin Academy.
    • Euler was appointed as Director of the Mathematics Section of the Academy and, after Maupertuis' death in 1759, Euler took charge of the Academy (although he was never given the title of President).
    • The king also charged Euler with practical problems, such as the project in 1749 of correcting the level of the Finow Canal ..
    • The book [',' W Knobloch, Leonhard Eulers Wirken an der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1741-1766, Studien zur Geschichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR 11 (Berlin, 1984).','1] includes fascinating detail of Euler's day to day life at the Academy.
    • these summaries enable one to follow Euler's scientific, organisational and administrative activities between 1741 and 1766 almost day by day.
    • Johann(III) Bernoulli was appointed to the Academy in 1764, at the age of 19, and Frederick II asked him to revive the astronomical observatory of the Academy.
    • In the same year of 1764 Lambert was appointed to the Academy and two years later, on 6 November 1766, Lagrange succeeded Euler as Director of Mathematics at the Academy.
    • In 1765 Frederick II had arranged for Lagrange to be offered a position in the Berlin Academy but he had turned it down, writing:- .
    • After the University of Berlin was founded in founded in 1809 the Academy had a less important role in the development of mathematics, as the University became a centre of mathematical research.
    • For example in [',' W Eccarius, August Leopold Crelle und die Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, in Mathematical perspectives (New York-London, 1981), 37-46.','2] Crelle's contribution to the Academy is detailed:- .
    • He is especially important for the history of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, to which he was elected in 1827 with the strong support of Alexander von Humboldt.

  91. Austrian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Mathematical Society of Vienna (Mathematische Gesellschaft in Wien) was founded in 1903 by Ludwig Boltzmann, Gustav von Escherich and Emil Muller.
    • Gustav von Escherich (1849-1935) was born in Mantua, now in Italy but at that time part of the Austrian Empire, and after studying at the University of Vienna, went on to become Professor of Mathematics at the University of Graz.
    • He was appointed to the University of Vienna in 1884 and in 1903-04 he was president of the University.
    • Before his role in founding the Mathematical Society of Vienna, he had founded the journal Monatshefte fur Mathematik und Physik in 1890 in collaboration with Emil Weyr.
    • Emil Muller (1861-1927) was born in Lanskron, now in the Czech Republic but at that time part of the Austrian Empire, and he studied at the University of Vienna.
    • He habilitated at the University of Konigsberg and worked there from 1898 to 1902.
    • Ludwig Boltzmann was appointed to the chair of theoretical physics at the University of Vienna in 1894 but left Vienna in 1900 because of a dispute with Ernst Mach.
    • After Mach left Vienna, Boltzmann returned to the chair of theoretical physics at the University of Vienna in 1902.
    • The first meeting of the new Society took place on 14 January 1904 and a report of the meeting appeared in [',' Mathematische Gesellschaft in Wien, Jahresberichte der Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung 13 (1904), 135.','3]:- .
    • - On 14 January 1904, a mathematical society was formed with the aim of cultivating pure and applied mathematics through lectures, presentations, etc.
    • At the first few meetings of the new Society, the following lectures were given (see [',' Mathematische Gesellschaft in Wien, Jahresberichte der Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung 13 (1904), 135.','3]): .
    • Rudolf Inzinger formally re-registered the Society on 10 August 1946.
    • The Society continued to operate under the same rules that had been in place in 1938 and at this first general meeting they elected the committee.
    • In the autumn of 1948, at the General Assembly on 29 October, the Mathematical Society of Vienna formally changed its name to the Austrian Mathematical Society.
    • As we noted above, the Monatshefte fur Mathematik und Physik had been founded in 1890 by Gustav Ritter von Escherich (1849-1935) and Emil Weyr.
    • Due to World War II, it stopped publishing in 1941 with Volume 50.
    • The decision to award this prize was made at the board meeting on 18 November 1955 at the request of Hans Hornich.

  92. New York Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The New York Academy of Sciences was founded in 1817 but at that time it was named The Lyceum of Natural History in the City of New York.
    • In 1823 the Lyceum published the first volume of the Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New-York which was to become an extremely important series consisting of:- .
    • One of the important steps taken by members of the newly formed Lyceum was to press for the founding of New York University in 1831.
    • In 1877 the Lyceum was renamed the New York Academy of Science and the Annals became the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences although for the first few volumes the title of the publication appeared as the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, late Lyceum of Natural History.
    • In 1881 the Academy began publication of the Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences.
    • The Academy formed a centre for scientific organisations in New York named the Scientific Alliance in 1891.
    • The Academy introduced a further publication in 1895, namely the Memoirs of the New York Academy of Sciences.
    • Frank Harary, a leading graph theorist, was "Scientist-in-Residence" at the New York Academy of Sciences in 1977.
    • The conference held in Madison, Wisconsin from 26 June to 29 June 1991, the seventh in the series, was in honour of Mary Ellen Rudin.
    • In 1990 the Academy published a volume of the Annals containing papers which had been read to the Mathematics Section.
    • In 1935 there were 317 members, by 1967 this had grown to over 20000, and today there are around 24000 members from about 150 countries.

  93. Iranian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Iranian Mathematical Society was founded in 1971.
    • This was one of the institutions that became part of Iran's first university, the University of Tehran, established in 1934.
    • The University of Tabriz was founded in 1947, becoming the second Iranian university.
    • The Faculty of Mathematical Sciences started in 1950 with 47 students.
    • In 1949 the University of Mashhad was founded, the third Iranian university, but only from 1961 was there a Faculty of Science.
    • In the 1960s several other Iranian universities were founded, beginning with the National University of Iran in Tehran in 1960 and Pahlavi University in Shiraz in 1962 (now called the University of Shiraz).
    • In 1970, the 1st National Mathematics Conference was held in University of Shiraz.
    • The Iranian Mathematical Society was officially registered in 1971.
    • The Society has supported the annual National Mathematics Conference since it was founded [',' Report on the state of mathematics in Iran (2007-2013).','3]:- .
    • The first Iranian Mathematics Education Conference was held in Esfahan in the summer of 1996.
    • The Society has been involved with the annual University Student Mathematics Contests since the first which was held in 1973.
    • In 1973 the Society began publication of the Bulletin of the Iranian Mathematical Society.
    • In 1979 the Society began publication of a quarterly newsletter in Persian.
    • In 1982 they began the twice yearly publication of Farhang va Andishe-ye Riazi (The Culture and Thoughts of Mathematics), also in Persian.

  94. Lithuanian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • In 1983 the Museum of Lithuanian Mathematicians was founded.

  95. American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The American Academy of Arts and Sciences was established in 1779 by a group of Harvard College graduates.
    • The Academy was founded largely to rival the American Philosophical Society which had been established earlier in Philadelphia in 1743.
    • 1780-1790 James Bowdoin .
    • 1791-1814 John Adams .
    • 1814-1820 Edward Augustus Holyoke .
    • 1820-1829 John Quincy Adams .
    • 1829-1838 Nathaniel Bowditch .
    • The original series had four volumes published between 1785 and 1821; a second series contained nineteen volumes published between 1833 and 1946; no volumes appeared between 1947 and 1956, then in 1957 one further volume, called Series 3, Volume 24 was published.
    • Volume 1 (Adams and Nourse, Boston, 1783).','1]:- .
    • The Proceeding of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences began publication in 1848 with the first volume recording the proceedings of the Academy from May 1846 to May 1848.
    • At the meeting on 12 August 1846 Benjamin Peirce gave a lengthy report on the astronomical observations which had been made by the Cambridge Observatory and communicated to him by William Cranch Bond, the Director.
    • At the 12 August meeting there was an interesting report on "Henry Safford, the young Vermont mathematician." Safford (1836-1901) was a calculating prodigy who was ten years old at the time.

  96. Mathematical Association of Quebec
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • This month was also marked by the holding of the Association's first congress on 16 April 1959.

  97. Catalan Society for Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans) was founded in 1907.
    • The Catalan Society for Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics was founded in 1931 within the Science Section of the Institute of Catalan Studies.
    • In 1968 there was a restructuring of the Catalan Society for Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.
    • In 1973, however, the Mathematics and Engineering was split into two, making now four branches with Mathematics as one of these.
    • This led to the creation of a new mathematical society, the Catalan Mathematical Society in 1986.

  98. Mathematical Society of Philippines
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It began publication in 1977.
    • In the summer of 1974 they held a lecture series on Graph Theory followed by further seminars during 1974-75.
    • The Philippine participation began in 1988 with Jose Marasigan as the first Team Leader.

  99. German Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The German Mathematical Society (Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung) was founded in 1890 at a meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians which took place in Bremen from 15 to 20 September.
    • In 1867 Clebsch lectured on binary forms to the meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians held in Frankfurt-am-Main.
    • When Clebsch died in 1872 his role as the leading advocate of a German mathematical society was taken up by Klein, who was Clebsch's student.
    • The first meeting of the new German Mathematical Society took place in Halle in 1891 at a meeting timed to coincide with the 64th meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians.
    • Intelligencer 13 (2) (1991), 8-11.','3]:- .
    • The meeting in Halle of the German Mathematical Society in 1891 is famous for another reason.
    • Intelligencer 13 (2) (1991), 8-11.','3]):- .
    • Despite the bitter antagonism that existed between Cantor and Kronecker, Cantor invited Kronecker to address this first meeting of the Society in 1891 as a sign of respect for one of the senior and most eminent figures in German mathematics.
    • In 1893 the German Mathematical Society requested a survey of algebraic number theory from Hilbert.
    • His major report of 370 pages appeared the Zahlbericht in 1897.
    • We have indicated that Cantor was the first President of the German Mathematical Society from 1890 to 1893.
    • Klein served as President in 1897, 1903, and 1908.
    • Hilbert served as President in 1900, so he held this role at the time that he gave his famous talk on the mathematical challenges for the 20th century at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris.
    • Other Presidents before the Second World War included Weyl who was President in 1932.
    • Problems began for the German Mathematical Society in 1933.
    • The German Mathematical Society heatedly discussed the issue in 1934, some pointing out that the Society could not carry out its aim to elevate [mathematics] to its rightful place in the intellectual life of the nation when 40% of its members were non-Aryan.
    • Attempts to change the statutes failed, however, but in 1938 only those of Aryan descent were allowed to be members of the Society and all others were forced out.
    • The present activities of the Society are set out in [',' I Kersten, Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 29 (September, 1998), 9-10.','4]:- .

  100. Royal Danish Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (Kongelige danske videnskabernes selskab) was founded in Copenhagen on 13 November 1742 by King Christian VI when the King gathered together a group of experts to sort out his collection of medals.
    • In 1745 the Academy produced its first publication, and it has continued publishing uninterrupted since that time.
    • The Academy began conducting surveys of Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein by the method of triangulation in 1761 and it eventually produced 24 accurate maps of the region.
    • The Academy, which at this time met in buildings provided by the King, produced its first bylaws in 1776.
    • The Academy split into two classes, namely science and humanities, in 1866 and this split remains to the present day.
    • The Academy and the Carlsberg Foundation moved into shared accommodation in 1899.
    • I C Jacobsen's mansion house became part of the property of the Academy in 1914 and, now named the Carlsberg Academy, small conferences and workshops organised by the Danish Academy are held there.

  101. European Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Council, containing about 20 representatives of European mathematical societies, met in 1980, 1982, 1983 and 1984.
    • At a meeting of the Council in 1986 the original two ideas of a Federation of European Mathematical Societies and a European Mathematical Society with individual members was again discussed.
    • This took two years, the details of which are described in [',' A Lahtinen, The Pre-history of the EMS, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 38 (December, 2000), 14-15.','5].
    • Lahtinen writes in [',' A Lahtinen, The Pre-history of the EMS, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 38 (December, 2000), 14-15.','5]:- .
    • The Society began to produce a Newsletter in 1991.
    • At that meeting an invitation from the Janos Bolyai Mathematical Society to hold the Second European Congress of Mathematics in Budapest in 1996 was accepted.
    • A European Mathematical Society lectureship was established in 1993 and at a Council meeting of the Society in Zurich in August 1994 discussions took place on the publication of a mathematical journal.
    • The Society also set up the Diderot Mathematical Forum with the first conference 'Mathematics and Finance' taking place in 1996.
    • Work on producing the journal was underway in 1995, the title having been chosen to be the Journal of the European Mathematical Society and a publisher having been found by December 1994.
    • The first issue of the Journal appeared in 1999.

  102. Paris Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Academy was founded in Paris in 1666 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert.
    • In 1699 the Academy was reorganized under the royal patronage of Louis XIV and transferred to meet in the Louvre.
    • The Academy established a system of prizes in 1721.
    • In 1727 Bouguer and Camus shared the Grand Prix for their submissions on masts of ships.
    • In 1729 Bouguer again won the Grand Prix, this time with an essay on observing the altitudes of stars at sea.
    • In 1731 Bouguer won his third Grand Prix from the Academie for his work on the observation of the magnetic declination at sea.
    • Euler shared the Grand Prize in 1738 and again in 1740.
    • Coulomb's major work on friction Theorie des machines simples won him the Grand Prix from the Academie in 1781.
    • A major reform of the Academy's structure was undertaken by Lavoisier and introduced in 1785.
    • The French Revolution began with the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 and this would have a major impact on the Academy.
    • In 1793 the Reign of Terror commenced and the Academy, along with the other learned societies, was abolished on 8 August of that year.
    • In 1795 more moderate republicans then in power in France established the National Institute and the functions of the Academy were assumed by a branch of the new Institute.
    • Napoleon became 1st Consul in 1800 and then Emperor in 1804.
    • Even before he became Emperor, however, Napoleon had become dissatisfied with the National Institute, of which he made himself President in 1801, and he reorganised it in 1803.
    • Following the Restoration of King Louis XVIII in 1816, the name of the Academy was restored but it remained part of the Institute of France.
    • In 1816 Cauchy won the Grand Prix of the Academy for a memoir on waves.
    • Abel and Jacobi won the Grand Prix in 1830.
    • In 1859 Bonnet, Bour and Codazzi submitted entries for the prize 'to find all surfaces of a given linear element'.
    • The 1861 topic was on polyhedra.
    • In 1862 Jonquieres was awarded two-thirds of the Prize for his work on fourth order plane curves.
    • In 1880 Halphen won the Grand Prix for his work on linear differential equations.

  103. Association for Statistics and its Uses
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Association pour la Statistique et ses Utilisations (Association for Statistics and its Uses) started life in 1969 as the 'Association des Statisticiens Universitaires' (Association of University Statisticians).
    • It changed its name to the 'Association for Statistics and its Uses' in 1987.
    • However, it no longer exists today, since it is one of the societies that merged to form the 'Societe Francaise de Statistique' (French Statistical Society) in 1997.
    • The initiative in 1969 to set up the 'Association for Statistics and its Uses' came from Roger Huron who encouraged other colleagues such as Daniel Dugue, Gustave Malecot and Marie-Jeanne Laurent-Duhamel to join the new venture.
    • They were among around thirty statisticians who met in Toulouse in 1969 and decided to go ahead with setting up the new Association.
    • The next meeting was on 13 June 1970, again in Toulouse, when this time 43 statisticians met to draw up statutes and plan their first events.
    • These 'Days' still happen as they were taken over by the combined Society, the French Statistical Society, when it formed in 1997.
    • The 'Association for Statistics and its Uses' deposited its Statutes with the National Pedagogical Institute, rue Ulm, Paris in February 1971.
    • Other events organised by the 'Association for Statistics and its Uses' included 'Study Days in Statistics' which they began running in 1984.

  104. Norwegian Academy of Science
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi) was founded at Oslo in 1857.
    • It should not be confused with the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters (Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskab) which is a much older society founded in Trondheim in 1760.
    • The first university in Norway was the Royal Frederick University which was established in Christiania (later renamed Oslo) in 1811.
    • The first serious attempt to establish an academy in Christiania was made in 1841 but there were difficulties such as a lack of financial support and a general feeling that at the time Norway did not have a sufficiently broad scientific base to merit the founding of an academy.
    • A scientific meeting which took place in Christiania in 1844, however, proved an important step [',' G Hestmark, ’’A primitive country of rocks and people’’ - R I Murchison’s Silurian campaign in Norway, 1844, Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 88 (2) (2008), 117-141.','5]:- .
    • The meeting, held in Christiania 11-18th July 1844, was the first scientific congress ever to take place in Norway.
    • This congress gave Christiania the confidence to move forward and the Professor of Medicine, Frantz Christian Faye (1806-1890), came up with both the initiative and the finance to found the 'Videnskabsselskabet i Christiania' which was inaugurated on 3 May 1857.
    • Later 'Christiania' was changed to 'Kristiania' after the city made the change in 1877.
    • In the 20th century the name was changed again, this time to 'The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters of Kristiania', and in 1924 'Kristiania' was removed from the name, only shortly before the city of Kristiania was renamed Oslo.
    • The first volume was published in 1881.
    • It was the geologist Waldemar Christofer Brøgger (1851-1940) who turned round the finances of the Academy.
    • His Royal Society of London obituary states [',' C E Tilly, Waldemar Christopher Brogger, 1851-1940, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 3 (10) (1941), 502-517.','7]:- .
    • Beyond the realm of science his wide interests and public spirit were extended in the service of his colleagues and countrymen as the first Rector of Oslo University (1907-1911) and as member of the Storthing (1907-1909), and it is due largely to his personality, initiative and outstanding executive ability that numerous public funds were established for education and research.
    • Hans Rasmus Astrup (1831-1898) was a highly successful businessman who became the Minister of Labour in the Norwegian Government in 1885.
    • The Villa was completed in 1887 and after Astrup's death in 1898, two of his daughters, Ebba and Elisabeth, inherited it.
    • Brøgger acquired the Villa for the Academy from the daughters in 1911 thus consolidating its identity as a cultural institution and driving force for Norwegian research development.
    • It was through pressure from the Academy that the basic research-oriented Norwegian Research Council was set up in 1949.
    • The establishment of the Centre for Basic Research at the Norwegian Academy of Sciences in 1992 was an important step.
    • The Kavli Prize for each of the three scientific prizes consists of 1 million dollar and is awarded every two years.

  105. American Statistical Association
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The expansion of the Association into a national body began under the sixth president Francis A Walker who was elected in 1883.
    • He was deeply involved in statistics being head of the American Economic Association, and the Census Director in both 1870 and in 1880.
    • By 1889 the membership had risen to 160 and by 1898 to over 500.
    • For a single volume in 1920-21 it was renamed the Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association and from 1922 it became the Journal of the American Statistical Association.
    • The Association also introduced specialist sections dealing with specific areas of statistics, the first being the Biometrics Section which was established in 1938.
    • By 1939 the Association had over 3000 members.

  106. French Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The French Mathematical Society, Societe Mathematique de France, was founded in 1872 although moves towards the creation of the Society began two years earlier.
    • The Revue d'Histoire des mathematiques began publication in 1995.
    • 1881 E Laguerre .
    • 1891 Collignon .
    • 1901 Doocagne .
    • 1911 Levy .
    • 1921 Boulanger .
    • 1931 A Denjoy .
    • 1941 ? .
    • 1951 Lamothe .
    • 1961 G Choquet .
    • 1971 Cerf .
    • 1972-1973 J-P Kahane .
    • 1981 Herve .
    • 1982-1983 C Houzel .
    • 1986-1987 J-F Mela .
    • 1990-1992 J-P Bourguignon .
    • 1992-1994 D Barlet .
    • 1994 - 1996 R Langevin .
    • 1996- 1998 J-J Risler .
    • 1998- 2001 M Martin-Deschamps .
    • 2001 - Michel Waldschmidt .

  107. Korean Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • In fact it was originally named the Chosun Mathematical and Physical Society and renamed the Korean Mathematical and Physical Society in 1948.
    • The Korean Mathematical Society joined the International Mathematical Union in 1981.
    • The Society has been involved with mathematical Olympiads, organising the first Korean Mathematical Olympiad in 1987 and the International Mathematical Olympiad in 2000.

  108. Czech Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Czech Academy of Sciences was founded in 1890 as the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts (Ceska Akademie Veda Umeni).
    • Most important was the Royal Czech Learned Society which was founded in 1784, making it the oldest learned society in the Austrian Empire.
    • Before that there had existed the Private Society in the Czech Lands for the Development of Mathematics, History of the Homeland and Natural Sciences which had been founded in 1770.
    • In 1890 Emperor Franz Joseph issued a decree founding the Emperor Franz Joseph Czech Academy of Sciences, Letters and Arts.
    • Following World War I, a declaration favouring political union of the Czechs and Slovaks was issued in 1918 and a democratic constitution was adopted on 29 February 1920.
    • The Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences was founded in 1952.
    • The Mathematical Institute of the Czech Academy of the Sciences and Arts had been established in 1947 and in 1950 it was reorganized to form the Central Mathematical Institute.
    • After the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences was founded in 1952 the Mathematical Institute was incorporated into the Academy, which happened in 1953.
    • Most were arrested but the protest gathered pace and a popular uprising, the Velvet Revolution, ended communist rule of Czechoslovakia in the autumn of 1989:- .
    • After the Velvet Revolution in 1989, the Academy was the first scientific and research institution in the Czech Republic to separate its decision-making, control and executive functions ..
    • In 1992 the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic was established and at midnight on 31 December of that year Czechoslovakia ceased to exist.
    • The Mathematical Institute became one of the Institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 1993.
    • This has been published since 1872, first as Casopis pro pestovani matematiky a fyziky (Journal for Cultivation of Mathematics and Physics) from 1872 to 1950, and then as Casopis pro pestovani matematiky by the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences from 1951 to 1990.
    • From 1991 it was published as Mathematica Bohemica by the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, becoming a publication of the Czech Academy of Sciences in 1993.
    • In addition to Mathematica Bohemica, the Mathematical Institute publishes the Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal which was founded in 1951 and Applications of Mathematics which was founded as Aplikace matematiky in 1956.

  109. Australian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Australian Mathematical Society was founded on 15 August 1956 after a period of planning which began in 1952.
    • Since 1981 the Society has awarded the Australian Mathematical Society Medal which recognises distinguished mathematical sciences research by members of the Australian Mathematical Society.
    • In 2001 the Society established the George Szekeres Medal for outstanding research contributions over a fifteen-year period.
    • This medal commemorates the achievements of the Hungarian born George Szekeres (1911-2005) in number theory, combinatorics, analysis, and relativity.
    • The Gavin Brown Prize was established in 2011 for an outstanding single article, monograph or book consisting of original research in pure mathematics.
    • The Medal was first awarded at the 1995 ANZIAM Conference and has been awarded biennially since 1995 (with the exception of three years between the 2001 and the 2004 awards).
    • The John Henry Michell Medal was instituted by ANZIAM in 1999 for outstanding new researchers.
    • The Thomas MacFarland Cherry Prize was instituted in 1969 (but not given that name) as a prize for the best student paper at the Conference.
    • It was named the T M Cherry Prize in 1976 in honour of Thomas MacFarland Cherry.

  110. Brazilian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • These three officials served until 31 July 1971.
    • The Brazilian Mathematical Society is based in Rio De Janeiro and, since 1981, has been based in the Instituto de Matematica e Aplicada at 110 Dona Castorina Street, Jardim Botanico.
    • In 1989 the Bulletin was relaunched with the English title Bulletin of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, beginning a new series and with an international editorial board.
    • Beginning in 1985 they published the University Mathematical Magazine which deals with matters of mathematical education.
    • Also, since 1991, The Contemporary Mathematical Magazine has been published and, since 1998, Eureka! a magazine associated with the Olympiad competitions.

  111. British Association
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The British Association for the Advancement of Science was founded in 1831.
    • He is perhaps best known for his invention of the kaleidoscope in 1816.
    • He had been elected to the Royal Society in 1815 but felt that that organisation was too elitist and conservative to fully support the development of science in Britain.
    • Brewster arranged the first meeting of the new Association to be held in York beginning on 26 September 1831.
    • The result was a fascinating collection of addresses by presidents such as Sylvester in 1869 Cayley in 1883, and Forsyth in 1897.
    • Before we end this article, let us note that Brewster became principal of the United College of St Salvator and St Leonard of the University of St Andrews in 1838 and then, in 1859, became principal of the University of Edinburgh.

  112. London Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The London Mathematical Society dates back to 1864.
    • Cayley, Clifford, De Morgan, Hirst, Maxwell, Salmon, Smith, Spottiswoode and Sylvester had all joined by the end of 1865.
    • The Society rapidly gained international status, and two years after it was founded, in 1867, it instituted a category of honorary foreign member.
    • Only a donation of 63;1000 by Rayleigh in 1874 allowed the Society to become financially secure.
    • The quantity and quality of papers published in the Proceeding was impressive, over 900 papers appearing by 1900.
    • It was awarded once every three years, the first award being made to Cayley in 1884.
    • He was President in 1926-28 and again in 1939-41.
    • He pressed for the Society to expand its range of mathematical publications and in 1926 the Journal of the London Mathematical Society was founded.
    • The Society further expanded its list of journals in 1969 when the Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society began publication.
    • Most recently, in 1997, the electronic journal the London Mathematical Society Journal of Computation and Mathematics was set up.
    • The Society moved into a building in Russell Square in 1998, which was named De Morgan House.

  113. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Society began publishing a journal in 1870 and nine years after its foundation, in October 1878, the General Assembly of the Society voted to move the headquarters to Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria.
    • By 1882 the Society had resumed functioning after a short break.
    • In 1884 the areas covered by the Society were extended to include some natural sciences, but at this stage mathematics and the physical sciences were still not among the Society's interests.
    • On 6 March 1911 the Bulgarian Learned Society changed its name to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    • The Academy began to construct a new building in 1925 and three years later the building was completed and the General Assembly met in the new building for the first time on 24 June 1928.
    • New statutes were drawn up and accepted but in 1941 a dispute arose when the government demanded that the Scientific Secretary of the Academy should be appointed by the government and not elected by the Academy.
    • In 1944 the Academy buildings were damaged by shelling during World War II and the Academy had to suspend its activities.
    • Reorganisation in 1945 saw plans put in place to found a number of new scientific institutes as part of the Academy.
    • The first institutes were set up in 1946 and the Institute of Mathematics was founded in 1947.
    • It was renamed Institute of Mathematics and Informatics in 1995.
    • In 1947 the Academy's statutes were cancelled and replaced by legal regulations.
    • However, the statutes were reinstalled in 1957 when a law was enacted so that:- .
    • A second example is the Sixth International Summer School on Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics took place at the house of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Varna (Golden Sands) from 28 September to 10 October 1988.
    • As third and final example we mention that in 1980 the Centre for Mathematics and Mechanics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences organised a conference on mathematical logic dedicated to the memory of A A Markov (1903-1979).
    • In November 1991 the Academy was again given control of its own affairs.

  114. Spanish Statistics and Operations Research Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Spanish Statistics and Operations Research Society was founded on 12 February 1962.
    • The Bulletin appeared for the first time in 1985 as the "Informative Bulletin of the Spanish Society of Statistics and Operations Research" which was basically a newsletter for the Society edited by Bernardo Jose Miguel Herranz.
    • The first scientific article was published in Bulletin of Statistics and Operations Research in 1994, when Francisco Javier Quintana Martin was its editor, and the number of scientific articles published in it increased until, in 2008, the purely newsletter type sections of the Bulletin were dropped as it became a research journal for the publication of Statistics and Operations Research.
    • TEST began as the journal "Trabajos de Estadistica", founded originally by Professor Sixto Rios and known under the names of "Trabajos de Estadistica" (1950-1962), "Trabajos de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa" (1963-1985), and "Trabajos de Estadistica" (1986-1991).
    • TOP, which began publication in 1993 under the editorship of Jaume Barcelo and Laureano Escudero, arose out of the transformation of the journal "Trabajos de Investigacion Operativa", founded originally by Professor Sixto Rios and published between 1950 and 1992.

  115. Kaiser Wilhelm Society (Munich)
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was founded on 11 January 1911 and renamed the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science in 1948.
    • Adolf Harnack (1851-1930), a German Lutheran theologian and historian, was the twin brother of the mathematician Axel Harnack.
    • In 1909 Adolf Harnack made a proposal to Kaiser Wilhelm II to reform German science by setting up independent research institutes to complement the work done in the universities.
    • In 1910 the University of Berlin celebrated its 100th anniversary and, on that day, Kaiser Wilhelm II announced the creation of the new Society.
    • On 11 January 1911, 83 members of the new Society attended the meeting to mark its founding in the Berlin Academy of Arts.
    • The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics in Berlin had been proposed in 1914 but was not officially founded until 1 October 1917 with Albert Einstein becoming its director.
    • Max Planck had become a committee member of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1916 and, as secretary of the Society, succeeded in persuading Einstein to accept the role of director.
    • World War I ended with the Armistice on 11 November 1918.
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated, but the Kaiser Wilhelm Society decided in 1919, however, not to change the Society's name.
    • At this stage even the statute with Kaiser Wilhelm II as patron remained in place but his name as patron was removed from the statutes in 1921.
    • The Society continued to thrive and in 1922 moved into new headquarters, the Berlin Palace, which, with the end of the monarchy, had to find a new role.
    • By 1927, however, the Society was extending its reach outside Berlin with the holding of its annual general meeting in Dresden.
    • In 1930 Max Planck was elected as President of the Society.
    • He had received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918 and, by the time he was elected President, there were seven Nobel Prize winners who were members of the Society.
    • The impact of this Law on the Kaiser Wilhelm Society was clear to the President, Max Planck, so he met with Adolf Hitler in an attempt to have him reverse the policy [',' J C O’Flaherty, Max Planck and Adolf Hitler, American Association of University Professors Bulletin 42 (3) (1956), 437-444.','3]:- .
    • Hitler, as one might expect, totally rejected Planck's plea to allow top Jewish scientists to continue their work [',' J C O’Flaherty, Max Planck and Adolf Hitler, American Association of University Professors Bulletin 42 (3) (1956), 437-444.','3]:- .
    • Planck's unsuccessful meeting with Hitler was followed by dismissals [',' History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Max Planck Society.','1]:- .
    • The Kaiser Wilhelm Society dismissed a total of 126 staff members, 104 of them scientists.
    • Haber resigned before being sacked and died in 1934.
    • The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was one of the organisations behind a commemoration of Haber which was arranged in 1935.
    • By 1941 the President of the Society was appointed by the Nazi government.
    • As Germany faced defeat in 1945 the President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Albert Vogler, a Nazi appointment and sympathiser, committed suicide.

  116. Scientific Research Society of Zurich
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It was founded in 1746 as the Physical Society (Physicalische Societat).
    • Johannes Gessner (1709-1790) showed a particular liking for mathematics and botany from his school days in Zurich.
    • At the age of seventeen he went to the University of Leyden where he studied mathematics under Willem 'sGravesande and other science subjects with the anatomist Bernhard Siegfried Albinus (1697-1770) and the botanist Herman Boerhaave (1668-1738).
    • After visiting Paris in 1727 he went to Basel in the following year where he studied mathematics with Johann Bernoulli and medicine with other scholars.
    • When he founded the Physical Society in Zurich in 1746 he brought together many scholars living in Zurich with wide ranging scientific interests.
    • The Physical Society soon built up a scientific library, a collection of mathematical and physical instruments, natural history collections, a botanical garden, and an astronomical observatory built in 1759.
    • The Society collected weather data from the time of its founding in 1746 and when the Meteorological Central Institute was founded in 1880, all the Society's weather data was given to them [',' Grundung und Zweck, Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Zurich.','1]:- .
    • The Eidgenossische Polytechnikum (opened in 1855) (from 1911 Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule ETH) benefited, among other things, from the observatory, which had already been established in 1759.
    • The scientific lectures were published in three volumes of the "Essays" which appeared between 1761 and 1766.
    • The Society published the journal the Bericht uber die Verhandlungen der Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Zurich (1826-1837) which later was known as the Mitteilungen der Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Zurich (1847-1856).
    • In 1856 it changed its name to the Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich and it published four times a year.
    • Rudolf Wolf had become a member of the Society in 1839 and joined the committee in 1856.
    • By 1859 the Vierteljahrsschrift was still edited by Rudolf Wolf, but with the designation Professor of Astronomy in Zurich.
    • By 1861 Rudolf Wolf has again become Professor of Mathematics in Zurich, while in 1862 he is again Professor of Astronomy in Zurich.
    • He continued as editor until his death in 1893 and he was still the editor of the 1893 volume.
    • The next editor of the Vierteljahrsschrift was the mathematician Ferdinand Rudio and the first volume he edited in 1894 began with a 64-page obituary of Rudolf Wolf.
    • Rudio continued as editor until 1911.
    • The 1875 volume of the Vierteljahrsschrift contains several papers by Wilhelm Fiedler who had become a member of the Society in 1867 and joined the committee in 1871.
    • This volume contains a list of members in 1875 and, in addition to Wilhelm Fiedler, these include the mathematicians: Jacob Amsler, joined 1851; Elwin Christoffel, joined 1862; Theodor Reye, joined 1863; Hermann Schwarz, joined 1869, became a committee member in 1871 and Vice-President in 1874; Heinrich Weber, joined 1870 and became a committee member in 1872; Heinrich Suter, joined 1871; and Rudolf Clausius, joined 1869.
    • The annual publication, the Neujahrsblatt der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich, was established in 1799 with a first volume giving details of the purpose of the Society, described the Society's collections and promoted the benefits of the natural sciences.
    • Switzerland was invaded by the French in 1798 who took over the country and renamed it the Helvetic Republic.
    • The second volume of the Neujahrsblatt der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich, published in 1800, was entitled "The devastation of the country by the warlike events of the year 1799." .
    • The Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Zurich is one of the oldest scientific associations in Switzerland, celebrating its 250th anniversary in 1996.

  117. Georgian Mathematical Union
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It is now known as the Georgian Mathematical Union having changed its name in 1994.
    • Let us go back to 1923 and look briefly at the beginnings of the Society.
    • The founder of the Society was Andrei Mikhailovich Razmadze, one of the founders of Tbilisi University, who taught at that university from the time that it opened in 1918.
    • The Society flourished for six years from 1923 to 1929 during which time Razmadze was its President.
    • However, after Razmadze died in 1929 the Society became inactive and was not revived until the 1960s.
    • His school studies were at the Kutaisi non-classical secondary school and in 1922 he entered the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Tbilisi State University.
    • Awarded his diploma in 1927, he worked for three years as an assistant to the Chair of Mathematical Analysis and Mechanics of Tbilisi State University.
    • He went to Leningrad in 1930 undertaking research at the Steklov Mathematical Institute advised by Aleksei Nikolaevich Krylov and Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov.
    • He was appointed as a senior researcher and scientific secretary of the Steklov Mathematical Institute in 1935 and, two years later, he returned to Georgia when he was appointed Director of the Mathematical Institute of the Georgian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences and Professor of Higher Mathematics at the Georgian Industrial Institute.
    • In 1937 he was appointed to the Chair of Differential and Integral Equations of Tbilisi State University.
    • Kupradze became the second President of the Georgian Mathematical Society, the first after it re-formed in 1962, serving in that role from 1962 to 1966.
    • Boris Vladimirovich Khvedelidze (born 7 November 1915, died 27 March 1993) attended schools in Tbilisi before entering the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Tbilisi State University in 1933.
    • Awarded his diploma in 1938, he undertook research at the Mathematical Institute of the Georgian division of the USSR Academy of Sciences between 1938 and 1941.
    • He also held assistant positions during these years, spending one year (1938) as an assistant to the Chair of Higher Mathematics of the Georgian Agricultural Institute before being appointed as an assistant to the Chair of Mathematical Analysis of Tbilisi State University in 1939.
    • He was awarded his Candidate's Degree (equivalent to a Ph.D.) in 1942 and was then appointed as a researcher at Mathematical Institute of the Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences and a docent at Tbilisi State University.
    • In 1957 he was appointed as Head of the Department of Theory of Functions and Functional Analysis of the Andrei Razmadze Mathematical Institute of the Georgian Academy of Sciences.
    • He was appointed as a Vice-President of the re-formed Georgian Mathematical Society in 1962.
    • Levan Petrovich Gokieli (born 3 December 1901, died 4 January 1975) was born in Kutaisi, Georgia.
    • He studied in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Tbilisi State University, graduating in 1924.
    • He was appointed to Tbilisi State University in the following year and was promoted to professor in 1936.
    • He was also appointed to the Mathematical Institute of the Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences in 1935.
    • He served the re-formed Georgian Mathematical Society as its third President from 1966 to 1970, following the presidency of Viktor Dmitrievich Kupradze.
    • He studied at Moscow State University from 1912 to 1917 when he was awarded his diploma.
    • He returned to Georgia and taught at the Tbilisi Alexandrian Pedagogical Institute in 1917-18 before being appointed as an assistant at Tbilisi State University in 1918.
    • Awarded his Candidate's Degree (equivalent to a Ph.D.) in 1922 he became a docent at Tbilisi State University.
    • In 1930 he became a professor when appointed to the Chair of Mathematical Analysis of Tbilisi State University.
    • In addition to this, in 1935 he became Head of the Department of Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable in the Mathematical Institute of the Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences in Tbilisi.
    • He was influential in the re-founding of the Georgian Mathematical Society in 1962 and served as its President from 1970 to 1974.
    • Following Archil Kharadze, the next President of the Georgian Mathematical Society was Levan Magnaradze who served as President for 20 years from 1974 to 1994.
    • He was a student at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Tbilisi State University during 1930-34, being awarded his diploma in 1934.
    • In the following year he was appointed as an assistant in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Tbilisi State University and, in 1936, as a junior researcher at the Mathematical Institute of the Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences.
    • In 1939 he was awarded a Candidate's Degree (equivalent to a Ph.D.) and he worked both at Tbilisi State University and the Mathematical Institute of the Academy for the rest of his career.
    • The Ilya Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics was created at Tbilisi State University in 1968 based on the computing laboratory already operating there.
    • He played a major role in the Georgian Mathematical Society from its re-founding in 1962.
    • He served as Scientific Secretary and Vice-President of the Georgian Mathematical Society from 1962 to 1974 when he became President.
    • In 1990, during Kharadze's presidency, the Georgian Mathematical Society became one of the founders of the European Mathematical Society and in 1991 it became a member of the International Mathematical Union.
    • In 1994 it was renamed to the 'Georgian Mathematical Union'.
    • This conference was held 12 to 19 September 2010 in Batumi, a Black Sea resort of Georgia, the capital of autonomous republic Adjara.
    • This conference was held 15 to 19 September 2011 in Batumi, a Black Sea resort of Georgia, the capital of autonomous republic Adjara.
    • It then continued from 11 to 15 September at Batumi, a Black Sea resort of Georgia, the capital of autonomous republic Adjara.
    • The conference was "dedicated to Academician Victor Kupradze (1903-1985) on the occasion of 110th anniversary of his birthday as homage to his memory." Topics: Algebra and Number Theory; Logic of natural languages and computational linguistic; Mathematical Education and History; Mathematical Logic, Applied Logic and Programming; Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis; Mathematical Physics; Mechanics of Continua; Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations and Applications; Probability and Statistics, Financial Mathematics; Real and Complex Analysis; Topology and Applications.
    • This conference was held 8 to 12 September 2014 in Batumi, a Black Sea resort of Georgia, the capital of autonomous republic Adjara.
    • This conference was held 12 to 16 July 2015 in Batumi, a Black Sea resort of Georgia, the capital of autonomous republic Adjara.
    • It was dedicated to the 125-th birthday anniversary of academician Nikoloz Muskhelishvili (1891-1976), the first president of the Georgian SSR Academy of Sciences.
    • Andrei Razmadze (1923-1929) .
    • Viktor Kupradze (1962-1966) .
    • Levan Gokieli (1966-1970) .
    • Archil Kharadze (1970-1974) .
    • Levan Magnaradze (1974-1994) .
    • David Natroshvili (1994-1997) .
    • Roland Duduchava (1997-2001) .
    • Temuri Vepkhvadze (2001-2005) .
    • Roland Duduchava (2009-2013) .
    • David Natroshvili (2013-2017) .

  118. Tokyo Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • However, after the Meiji Restoration in 1868 a unified educational system emphasizing Western learning was established throughout Japan.
    • In 1862 Western mathematics, and not Wasan, became an official subject in the new schools.
    • In 1877 the first Japanese learned society, the Tokyo Mathematical Society, was founded.
    • Kanda Takahira wrote the Introduction to the first issue, dated October 1877 (see [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • 15 (Basel, 1994), 165-186.','3]:- .
    • Chikara Sasaki writes [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • 15 (Basel, 1994), 165-186.','3]:- .
    • The Society was reorganized and renamed the Tokyo Mathematico-Physical Society in 1884, and continued as such until 1945.
    • Tomochika Kawakita (1840-1919) wrote in 1887 about the change of emphasis in the Society between the two different styles of mathematics [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • 15 (Basel, 1994), 165-186.','3]:- .
    • The establishment of the Tokyo Mathematical Society in the autumn of 1877 was the beginning of meeting of mathematicians in our country.

  119. New York Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The idea for a mathematical society in the United States came during a six month visit T S Fiske, a graduate student at Columbia College, made to England in 1887 when he visited Cambridge.
    • He arrived with letters of introduction to Cayley, Glaisher, Forsyth and Darwin written by G L Rives, a trustee of Columbia College who had been a wrangler at Cambridge in 1872.
    • Fiske writes [',' R C Archibald, A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (New York, 1980).','2]:- .
    • Fiske, Jacoby and Stabler then distributed a proposal [',' R C Archibald, A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (New York, 1980).','2]:- .
    • It is ernestly desired that you will assist in its organisation by being present at its first meeting hereby called for Thanksgiving Day at 10 a.m.
    • The Bulletin appeared in 1891, with Fiske as editor-in-chief, and he was able to write round a wide range of university and college professors and others with mathematical interests encouraging them not only to join the Society but also to subscribe to the Bulletin.
    • By the end of 1891 his effort had increased the membership to over 200.
    • The New York Mathematical Society expanded to become a national society in 1894 after it was renamed the American Mathematical Society.

  120. Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Slovenia
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Slovenia was founded in 1949.
    • Another aim was to provide a source for publishing scientific articles in Slovenian and this it began in 1951 with the launch of Obzornik za matematiko, fiziko in mehaniko.
    • When the Society was founded in 1949 Slovenia was part of Yugoslavia, as it had been since 1919.
    • Following the German invasion in 1941, Slovenia was partitioned between German, Italy, and Hungary but, following World War II, Slovenia became part of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
    • When Plemelj died in 1967 he left his villa in the lake resort of Bled to the Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and Astronomers of Slovenia.
    • The Society started up a new publication Presek aimed at school pupils in 1976.

  121. Edinburgh Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in 1883.
    • At the first ordinary meeting of the Society in March 1883, 51 members joining the Society.
    • In 1884 the Society began publication of the Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.
    • It continued to meet regularly in Glasgow, adding St Andrews as a meeting venue in 1922, Dundee in 1930, and Aberdeen in 1937.
    • George Chrystal, one of the Society's first honorary members, died in 1911 and in the following year Edmund Whittaker took up Chrystal's chair in Edinburgh.
    • Almost immediately he encouraged the Edinburgh Mathematical Society to hold a mathematical colloquium which it did in Edinburgh in 1913.
    • Turnbull was appointed Regius Professor of Mathematics in the United College of St Salvator and St Leonard at the University of St Andrews in 1921 and he was enthusiastic that the Edinburgh Mathematical Society should resume its Colloquium but that the venue should be St Andrews.
    • This was accepted by the Society and in 1926 the first of the St Andrews Colloquia was held.

  122. Royal Irish Academy
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • In 1787 the Academy began publishing a journal when the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy appeared for the first time.
    • Two years later Timothy Cunningham, who was a barrister of Gray's Inn, left the Academy 63;1000 with which the Cunningham medal was established.
    • Mary Somerville was elected to honorary membership in 1834, and Caroline Herschel in 1837.
    • In 1836 a second publication began when the first volume of the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy appeared.
    • On 16 October 1843 (a Monday) Hamilton was walking along the Royal Canal in Dublin with his wife to preside at a Council meeting of the Royal Irish Academy when the idea for the quaternions suddenly came to him:- .
    • For his outstanding contributions, Hamilton was awarded the Academy's Cunningham medal in 1848.
    • The Academy acquired new premises in 1851 and moved into Academy House at 19 Dawson Street, Dublin in the following year.
    • By 1910 the membership (including honorary members) stood at 302.
    • A few years later, in 1917, the Academy changed its rules to limit the number of new members to seven per year.
    • Let us note a further mathematical connection in that in 1946 the Academy established a professorship of Mathematical logic and appointed Jan Lukasiewicz.

  123. Canadian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The first president of the Society was Samuel Beatty who served in this role from 1945 to 1949.
    • Eventually it was registered under the name Canadian Mathematical Society in 1979.
    • The Canadian Journal of Mathematics began publication in 1949 and publishes six parts per year.
    • The Canadian Mathematical Bulletin began publication in 1958 and publishes four parts per year.
    • The G de B Robinson Award was inaugurated in 1994-95 to recognise excellent papers published in the Canadian Journal of Mathematics and the Canadian Mathematical Bulletin.
    • It was first awarded in 1996 and is often awarded to several people.
    • The Notes began publication in 1969.
    • 1945 - 1949 Samuel Beatty .
    • 1949 - 1953 A Pouliot .
    • 1953 - 1957 G de B Robinson .
    • 1957 - 1961 R L Jeffery .
    • 1961 - 1963 R James .
    • 1963 - 1965 M Wyman .
    • 1965 - 1967 H S M Coxeter .
    • 1967 - 1969 M L'Abbe .
    • 1969 - 1971 N S Mendelsohn .
    • 1971 - 1973 G F D Duff .
    • 1973 - 1975 A J Coleman .
    • 1975 - 1977 W O J Moser .
    • 1977 - 1979 R Vaillancourt .
    • 1979 - 1981 P Lancaster .
    • 1981 - 1983 P G Rooney .
    • 1983 - 1985 R A Piccinini .
    • 1985 - 1987 D Borwein .
    • 1987 - 1989 C Herz .
    • 1989 - 1991 F V Atkinson .
    • 1991 - 1992 S D Riemenschneider .
    • 1992 - 1994 M Delfour .
    • 1994 - 1996 P Fillmore .
    • 1996 - 1998 K Heinrich .
    • 2008 - 2010 A Lau .
    • 2010 - 2012 J Hurtubise .
    • 2012 - 2014 K Taylor .
    • 2014 - 2016 L Bronsard .
    • 2016 - 2018 M Bennett .

  124. Kazan Physico-mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Kazan Physico-mathematical Society can trace its origins back to 1863.
    • The first attempt to create the Scientific Society at Kazan University was made by N I Lobachevsky in 1830 when he was the Rector of Kazan University.
    • Lobachevsky transformed the university journal Kazanskii Vestnik into the journal in which the scientific papers were published (in 1829 he published in this journal his first paper on his discovery of non-Euclidean geometry) and in 1834 he organized the purely scientific journal Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Universiteta (Transactions of the Kazan University), where he also published his papers on non-Euclidean geometry.
    • In the Society of Naturalists in 1884 the physico- mathematical section was organized by the astronomer M A Kowalski and the mathematican A V Vasilev.
    • In 1890 the physico- mathematica section was transformed into the Kazan Physico- mathematical Society.

  125. Swedish Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It was founded in 1950 with the first meeting taking place in June of that year.
    • Discussions about producing a publication were held in a meeting of the new Society which took place in November 1950 when Beurling explained to members that there was a proposal to produce two new international mathematics journals published jointly by the Scandinavian mathematical societies, one a high level research journal, the other an elementary journal concerned with the teaching of mathematics [',' K Markstrom, The Swedish Mathematical Society, London Mathematical Society Newsletter 474 (2018), 41.','2]:- .
    • The second annual meeting of the Society took place in Lund in June 1951.
    • The first meeting of the editorial board was in May and the journal was first published in 1953.
    • Although negotiations for the joint publication of Nordisk Matematisk Tidskrift took a little longer to finalise, it also first appeared in 1953.
    • Ake Pleijel became the second President of the Swedish Mathematical Society, holding this position from 1952 to 1957.
    • Nils Erik Fremberg, the first treasurer of the Swedish Mathematical Society [',' K Markstrom, The Swedish Mathematical Society, London Mathematical Society Newsletter 474 (2018), 41.','2]:- .
    • A recent article by Klas Markstrom, the President of the Swedish Mathematical Society in 2017, [',' K Markstrom, The Swedish Mathematical Society, London Mathematical Society Newsletter 474 (2018), 41.','2] gives an up-to-date account of the Society.
    • For the Swedish upper secondary schools, a mathematical competition was started in 1961.
    • The High School Mathematics Competition started in 1988 as a local mathematics competition for all high schools in the Stockholm area.

  126. János Bolyai Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Janos Bolyai Mathematical Society has its beginnings in the Mathematical Society (Mathematikai Tarsasag), an informal private society for the mathematicians in Budapest in 1885.
    • Although initially only a mathematical society, physicists were encouraged to join and in June 1891 the first issue of their journal Mathematikai es Physikai Lapok was published.
    • On 5 November 1891 the Mathematical and Physical Society was founded.
    • By 1893 over 400 people had joined the Society which today is called the Janos Bolyai Mathematical Society.

  127. Latvian Society of Physicists and Mathematicians
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • During 1917 this domination ended and, after a brief period of German invasion, the country became independent in a proclamation made on 18 November 1918.
    • It was, therefore, in an independent Latvia that the Latvian Society of Physicists and Mathematicians was founded on 10 March 1939.
    • On 17 June 1940 the Red Army invaded Latvia and only three days later a new government of Soviet supporters was announced.
    • The German army invaded the USSR in July 1941.
    • There was a transitional period, marked by violence in Riga in January 1991, but by August 1991 Latvia had gained full independence.

  128. Royal Society of Canada
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Royal Society of Canada (The Canadian Academy of the Sciences and Humanities) was founded in 1882 by The Right Honourable The Marquis of Lorne, who at the time was Governor General of Canada.
    • The Society was incorporated by an act of Parliament and granted its Royal Charter in 1883.
    • The Henry Marshall Tory Medal was first awarded in 1943 and then endowed in 1947 on Henry Marshall Tory's death.
    • He had been President of the Society in 1939-40 and was the founder of the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the National Research Council Laboratories and Carleton University.
    • Among previous winners of the Medal have been Synge (the first recipient of the Medal in 1943), Coxeter (1949), Tutte (1975), and Mendelsohn (1979).
    • The Royal Society of Canada established the John L Synge Award in 1986 to honour John Lighton Synge.

  129. National Academy of Sciences (United States)
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Wilson brought the bill to the Senate on February 20, 1863, where it was passed on March 3.
    • A report on the young Academy, written five years after its founding, states [',' Meeting of the National Academy Of Sciences, The College Courant 3 (9) (1868), 134.','2]:- .
    • The National Academy of Sciences, the representative in this country of the Institute of France, and the Royal Society of Great Britain, was chartered by Congress in 1863.
    • In 1866, it met at Northampton, last year in Hartford, and in 1868, at Northampton again.
    • Not all reports of the early meetings of the Academy were positive, however, and a report of the 1866 meeting at Northampton, mentioned in the above quote, contains some critical comments [',' National Academy of Sciences, Scientific American 15 (9) (1866), 131.','5]:- .
    • It is interesting to see that the Academy's own annual report of 1866 recommended the adoption of the decimal system in the United States:- .
    • The report begins [',' National Academy of Sciences, Science 1 (12) (1883), 323-324.','3]:- .
    • The report of the 1906 meeting begins [',' W H Hale, National Academy of Sciences, Scientific American 95 (23) (1906), 419.','1]:- .
    • In 1916 the Academy established the National Research Council which was designed to coordinate the activities of scientists and engineers in a wide variety of different situations such as universities, industry, and government.
    • Although set up because of the war, after the World War I ended in 1918, it was seen to provide a valuable service in times of peace as well as in times of war and so the National Research Council continued to exist.
    • In 1956 and again in 1993 the remit of the National Research Council was broadened.

  130. Moscow Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The first Moscow Mathematical Society was founded in 1810 on the initiative of the extended family of N N Muraviev but it did not survive for long for it closed in the following year.
    • The present Society, which was founded in 1864, is not considered as a continuation of this first Society.
    • At the first meeting of the Society on 15 September 1864 only one aim was stated for the Society:- .
    • From the start the reports were of high quality and by April of 1865 a decision had been taken to publish them.
    • He died on 13 May 1866 and the first issue of the journal which appeared in October 1866 was dedicated to his memory.
    • The Society grew so that by 1913 there were 112 members of whom 34 lived in Moscow, 51 were Russians living outside Moscow, and 21 were foreign members.
    • Mathematicheskii Sbornik stopped publication in 1919 and was not restarted until 1924.
    • 1891 N V Bugaev .
    • 1921 B K Mlodzeezskii .

  131. Vietnamese Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Vietnamese Mathematical Society was founded on 15 August 1965.
    • Le Văn Thiem (1918-1991) was born in the commune of Trung Lễ in the Duc Tho District, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam.
    • Graduating in 1939 he was given a scholarship to study at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris.
    • The German invasion of France disrupted his studies and only in 1941 was he able to continue.
    • However, he was asked to return to Vietnam in 1949 and was pleased to help his country.
    • He graduated with his Baccalaureate in 1946 he began studying at the University of Hanoi.
    • He took part in resistance against the French, lived for a while in the mountains, then, in 1947, began teaching mathematics at a High School which was completely destroyed in an attack by French planes in 1948.
    • He attended the School of Basic Sciences, led by Le Văn Thiem from 1951 and in 1954, the year the country was partitioned at the 17th parallel, he began his career as a university lecturer teaching mathematics at the University of Science.
    • From 1961 to 1968 he was Head of the Mathematics Department at the University of Hanoi and he was the Director of the Vietnam Mathematics Institute from 1980 to 1989.
    • For his remarkable contributions he was awarded the first Constantin Caratheodory Prize of the International Society of Global Optimization in 2011.
    • Intelligencer 12 (3) (1990), 16-34.','2] is an interview with Hoang Tụy.
    • Intelligencer 12 (3) (1990), 16-34.','2] Hoang Tụy explained the early work of the Vietnamese Mathematical Society:- .
    • The Mathematical Society, which was founded in 1965 by Le Văn Thiem (I was general secretary), organized joint seminars in optimization, probability, functional analysis, algebra, numerical analysis.
    • In 1967 Alexander Grothendieck made a visit to address the Society in the middle of what was then was a war zone [',' N Koblitz, Recollections of mathematics in a country under siege, Math.
    • Intelligencer 12 (3) (1990), 16-34.','2]:- .
    • As a result the higher education minister Tạ Quang Bửu ordered us to be evacuated.
    • 1966-1988 President: Le Văn Thiem; Secretary: Hoang Tụy .
    • 1988-1994 President: Nguyễn Dinh Tri; Secretary: Do Long Van .
    • 1994-1999 President: Đỗ Long Van; Secretary: Phum The Long .
    • 2008-2013 President: Le Tuấn Hoa; Secretary: Nguyễn Hữu Dư .
    • By the time of the second meeting in 1977, the Society was able to hold a Meeting of Mathematicians of Vietnam.
    • 1971 The First Meeting of Mathematicians of North Vietnam held in Ha Nội .
    • 2002 The Sixth Meeting of Mathematicians of Vietnam held in Huế .
    • The Bulletin, which is published quarterly, began publication in 1997 .
    • The award was created in1989 and the first awards were made in 1990.
    • Phạm Xuan Du and Phan Thị Ha Duong were the first Le Văn Thiem winners and the awards were presented at the Polytechnic University.
    • In 1997 the Award was re-organised and a Le Văn Thiem Fund was set up, and formal regulations were created.

  132. Göttingen Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Gottingen Academy of Sciences (Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften) was founded in 1751 by King George II with Albrecht von Haller as the main driving force in the setting it up.
    • Von Haller was Professor of medicine, anatomy, botany and surgery at the University of Gottingen which had been founded in 1734.
    • He had been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1739 and a member of Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1749, and became the first President of the Gottingen Academy of Sciences.
    • 32 (4) (1975), 379-391.','2], writes:- .
    • 32 (4) (1975), 379-391.','2]) says, "For it is readily apparent how far removed a paper read before the Paris Academy is from lectures in a professor's classroom." .
    • 32 (4) (1975), 379-391.','2]) also cites Haller as saying that for the scientist the expectation of furthering the cause of truth was not in itself a strong enough impulse to labour in the academy.
    • From the date of its foundation the Academy published Commentationes Societati Regiae Scientiarum Goettingensi which, after a number of minor changes in name, became Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen in 1838.
    • In 1894 the journal split into two separate journals covering different areas of science.
    • In 1946 this journal changed its name to Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Gottingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse.

  133. Swiss Statistical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .

  134. Statistical Society of Paris
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Societe de Statistique de Paris (Statistical Society of Paris) was founded in 1860.
    • It no longer exists today, since it is one of the societies that merged to form the 'Societe Francaise de Statistique' (French Statistical Society) in 1997.
    • Beginning in 1860, the Society published the Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris (Journal of the Statistical Society of Paris) which has transferred to the French Statistical Society and is the main publication of the present Society.

  135. Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society was founded in 1890 on the initiative of V G Imshenetskii.
    • The history of that Society from the time of its founding until 1921 when the Society began to function again under the name Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society is described in the article: .
    • Note that St Petersburg had been renamed Petrograd by 1921 which partly explains the different names.
    • Vassiliev was President of the Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society from the time of its founding in 1921 until 1923 when N M Gyunter was elected to this role.
    • This phase of the Society's existence lasted from 1921 until 1930.
    • From the time that he was elected to to Academy in 1910, Steklov had pressed for the publication of a mathematical journal.
    • At last, with the Society flourishing, he achieved in aims in 1926 when the Journal of the Leningrad Physical and Mathematical Society was founded (by this time St Petersburg or Petrograd had been renamed Leningrad).
    • One part of the journal appeared in each of the four years from 1926 to 1929, these four parts making up two volumes of two parts each.
    • In the late 1920s Russian intellectuals were finding it increasingly difficult, although for a while the Society continued to flourish with 102 members in 1927.
    • The president of the Society was N M Gyunter [',' A M Vershik, The St Petersburg Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 10 (December, 1993), 21-23.','2]:- .
    • In 1930 Smirnov, who was vice-president, proposed that the Society be closed down.
    • This was almost certainly done to save Gyunter from the fate which befell others, and in this it was successful since Gyunter was able to continue his mathematical work in Leningrad until his death in 1941.
    • In 1953 he organised the Leningrad Mathematical Seminar which, until 1959, operated as the unofficial Leningrad Mathematical Society.
    • In 1959 it became possible to formally reconstitute the Leningrad Mathematical Society and, on 13 April 1959, the Ministry of Higher Education accepted the constitution of the Society.
    • The Society had 49 members when it was officially reconstituted in 1959 and by 1962 this number had risen to 92.
    • Numbers continued to rise with 123 members by 1973, 150 by 1978, 209 by 1984 and 224 by 1985.
    • In 1990 the name of the Society was changed from the Leningrad Mathematical Society back to the St Petersburg Mathematical Society.

  136. Finnish Academy of Science
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Finnish Academy of Science and Letters (Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia - Academia Scientiarum Fennica) was founded in 1908.
    • In 1809 Finland gained independence from Sweden but was under Russian protection and had a government chosen by the Russian emperor.
    • This was the position when the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters was founded in 1838.
    • However, after a bitter struggle of supporters of the Finnish language, both Finnish and Swedish were placed on an equal footing as official languages in 1902.
    • However Russian had been made a third official language in 1900.
    • It is against this background that there was a need for a Finnish speaking academy, and hence the foundation of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters in 1908.

  137. Accademia dei Lincei
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Accademia dei Lincei was founded in 1603 by Federico Cesi, the son of the Duke of Acquasparta, and a member of an important family from Rome.
    • Galileo joined the Academy in 1609.
    • Della Porta joined the Academy on 1610 and Valerio in 1612.
    • Cesi died in 1630 and the Academy closed down.
    • In 1745 a group of scientist in Rimini refounded the Academy, but it only functioned for a very short time.
    • Padre Feliciano Scarpellini founded a private Academy in Rome in 1795 which he named the 'Lincei'.
    • Pope Gregory XVI suggested in 1838 refounding the Academy as 'Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei' (The Pontifical Academy of the New Lynxes), but this did not happen until 1847 when Pope Pius IX revived the Academy.
    • Revolts occurred in the Papal States in 1849 and a short-lived Roman Republic was established.
    • However, the Papal States of Emilia, Umbria, and Marche voted to join the Italian kingdom after Austria's defeat in 1859 then, when French troops withdrew from Rome in 1870, Italian forces took the area around the Vatican.
    • In 1936 it was renamed the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.
    • Bellavitis became a member of the Accademia dei Lincei in 1879, D'Ovidio was elected in 1883, Bianchi in 1893, and Beltrami became a member of the Accademia dei Lincei, serving as president of the Academy in 1898.
    • We mention a few others such as Ricci-Curbastro who was elected in 1899, and Castelnuovo who served as President for many years.

  138. Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • One of the first to make an active move towards bringing mathematicians working in these areas together was James Lighthill when he organised the British Theoretical Mechanics Colloquium at the University of Manchester in 1959.
    • The story of how this and other moves led to the founding of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications in 1964 was told in an article by John Theodore Combridge.
    • In 1990 the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications was awarded a Royal Charter which led to it being able to grant someone the title Chartered Mathematician.

  139. Quaternion Association
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It was founded in 1895 by Pieter Molenbroek and Shunkichi Kimura.
    • However, the quaternions had been discovered by William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and his book Elements of Quaternions, published posthumously in 1866, was at that time the main textbook on the topic.
    • The other input to the vector calculus related to this was from Hermann Grassmann who published Die Lineale Ausdehnungslehre, ein neuer Zweig der Mathematik in 1844.
    • Pieter Molenbroek (born 1861) was professor at The Hague, Holland, and the author of Theorie der Quaternionen and Anwendung der Quaternionen auf der Geometrie (1893).
    • Shunkichi Kimura was Japanese but was in Europe visiting Pieter Molenbroek when he published Note on Quaternions in 1895 giving his address as Japanese Legation, The Hague.
    • However Molenbroek and Kimura published To Friends and Fellow Workers in Quaternions in Nature dated 7 August 1895 where they proposed an Association they suggested be called "The International Association for Promoting the Calculus of Quaternions." They added a P.S., dated 17 September 1895, where they wrote [',' S Kimura and P Molenbroek, Friends and Fellow Workers in Quaternions, Nature 52 (1895), 545-546.','5]:- .
    • For a version of this paper ([',' S Kimura and P Molenbroek, To those Interested in Quaternions and Allied Systems of Mathematics, Science (2) 2 (1895), 524-525.','6] in the references below), see THIS LINK.
    • Charles Jasper Joly, President of the Association in 1901-02, wrote about its founding in his President's Address [',' C J Joly, President’s address, Bulletin of the International Association for Promoting the Study of Quaternions and Allied Systems of Mathematics (March 1900).','2]:- .
    • He suggested that a new committee be elected at the meeting of the British Association held in Toronto, Canada, in 1897.
    • This meeting elected the committee for the two years 1897-1898: President, Robert Stawell Ball, Lowndean Professor of Astronomy in the University of Cambridge; General Secretary, Alexander Macfarlane, Professor of Mathematical Physics at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; and Treasurer, Pieter Molenbroek.
    • Alexander Macfarlane (1851-1913) studied at the University of Edinburgh where he wrote a Ph.D.
    • After teaching at the University of Edinburgh and the University of St Andrews, Macfarlane went to the United States where he was professor of physics at the University of Texas from 1885 to 1894, and then professor of mathematical physics at Lehigh University.
    • With Molenbroek unable to undertake his duties, the committee for 1899-1900 was: President, Robert Stawell Ball; General Secretary and Treasurer, Alexander Macfarlane.
    • However, the problems the Association continued to experience are described by Joly in [',' C J Joly, President’s address, Bulletin of the International Association for Promoting the Study of Quaternions and Allied Systems of Mathematics (March 1900).','2]:- .
    • Hubert Kennedy describes the end of the Quaternion Association in [',' H Kennedy, James Mills Peirce and the cult of Quaternion, Historia Mathematica 6 (1979), 423-429.','3]:- .
    • One of the achievements of the Association was the publishing Bibliography of Quaternions and Allied Systems of Mathematics in 1904.
    • Members of the Association continued to add new books and papers up to 1913, these additional references being published as supplements.

  140. Royal Belgium Academy of Science
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Royal Belgium Academy of Science (Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux Arts) was founded in Brussels in 1769.
    • The original Academy was founded by Philipp, Graf von Cobenzl, an Austrian chancellor, as a purely literary Academy but it was reorganised in 1816 into the Academie Imperiale et Royale des Sciences et des Belles-lettres under the patronage of William I of The Netherlands.
    • A Flemish version of the Academy: The Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en SchoneKunsten van Belgie) was founded in 1938.

  141. Turin Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Turin Mathematical Society was founded in 1757 by a group of young scientists who were living in Turin, including Lagrange, Guiseppe Angelo Saluzzodi Menusiglio (Count Saluzzo) and the medical physician Giovanni Cigna.
    • The first volume appeared at the beginning of the summer of 1759 and contained a paper by Lagrange on maxima and minima.
    • The second volume was published in the summer of 1762 and again included important contributions from Lagrange such as a work on the calculus of variations and another paper on the propagation of sound.
    • The third volume of the Melanges de Turin, containing a paper by Lagrange on the integral calculus, appeared in 1766.
    • By the time the fourth volume was published in the summer of 1773 Lagrange had left Turin but it contained four memoirs which he had sent from Berlin to be published in the Melanges de Turin.
    • In 1783 the Society expanded to become the Academy of Sciences of the Kingdom of Sardinia, and it remains one of the major Academies in Italy.
    • The academy elected foreign members and Babbage, who visited Turin in 1840, was elected in 1841.

  142. Indian Academy of Science
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Indian Academy of Science was founded in Bangalore in 1934.
    • Raman, who had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930, was also a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, the Paris Academy of Sciences and the USSR Academy of Sciences.
    • Raman held the Presidency of the Academy until his death in 1970.
    • In 1973 publications were further split into several journals aimed as specific scientific disciplines.

  143. Austrian Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Academy was formally constituted on 14 May 1847 when the statutes were approved.
    • This was not the first attempt to found an Academy in Austria, for in fact the idea goes back to 1713 when Gottfried Leibniz suggested establishing an Academy of Sciences in Vienna, quoting the Royal Society in London and the Academy of Sciences in Paris as models to use.
    • Nothing came of Leibniz's proposals, nor did later proposals made J C Gottsched in 1750 meet with any greater success.
    • The successful proposal for an Austrian Academy of Sciences came in 1837 in a petition submitted by twelve scholars.
    • It still took many years of negotiation before the Academy formally came into being and, as we notes above, the foundation in 1846 was formalised by an Imperial Patent on 14 May 1847.
    • The first President of the Academy was Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall, an orientalist, and Christian Doppler was an early member of the Academy being elected in 1848.
    • The Academy moved into permanent buildings in 1857.
    • For instance, it was responsible for founding the Central Office for Meteorology and Geomagnetism in 1851, the establishment of the observatories on the peaks of the Sonnblick and the Obir mountains, and in 1909 founded the Institute for Radium Research in Vienna.
    • In the years 1879-1914 the Academy was expanded several times into a "universal research centre".
    • The legal basis of the Austrian Academy of Sciences is now the "Federal Law of 14 October 1921, concerning the Academy of Sciences in Vienna", only slightly modified by an Act of 9 May 1947.
    • The "Anschluss" to the German Reich on 12 March 1938 had inevitable effects on the Academy.
    • The statutes of the Academy were replaced in 1938 by a "provisional statute", which led to some changes in the organization.
    • In 1945, the 1938 statute was replaced by the original statute of 1921.
    • The historian Heinrich von Srbik was elected on 1 April 1938 becoming the new president of the Academy.
    • At the Academy's meetings he identified with Hitler's war policy; in 1940 he spoke of the "struggle of the German people for self-assertion," and in 1943 he repeated his "firm confidence of victory." He tried to preserve as far as possible the independence of the Vienna Academy from Berlin central offices.
    • He had great respect for the academy members, so that in 1941, after the end of his term of office, he was re-elected as president.
    • After the war ended in 1945, the 1921 statutes were put back in place, members who had been excluded had mostly left Austria so were given corresponding membership.
    • In 1947 the Academy celebrated its centenary and at this time changed its name to the 'Austrian Academy of Sciences'.
    • In 1954, the Austrian Academy of Sciences was awarded the Karl Renner Prize of the City of Vienna.
    • In 1973 the Academy established its own publishing house.
    • The Prize was set up in 1991 and is awarded every second year.
    • The first awarded in 1992 was made to Michael Drmota, the second in 1994 to Johannes Schoissengeier, the third in 1996 to Gerhard Larcher, and the fourth in 1998 to Monika Ludwig.

  144. Korean Statistical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Korean Statistical Society was founded in 1971:- .
    • Beginning in 1982 it organised joint conferences with foreign statistics societies, the first being the Korea/Japan Joint Statistical Meeting.
    • Publication of these journals began in 1973, 1987 and 1994 respectively.

  145. African Mathematical Union
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The African Mathematical Union was founded in 1976 at the first Pan-African Conference of Mathematicians was held in Rabat, Morocco.
    • In 1978 the Union began publication of the journal Africa Matematika.
    • Nlend held the presidency until the second Pan-African Congress of Mathematicians held in Jos, Nigeria, in 1986 when the second President Aderemi Kuku was elected.
    • The Union set up four commissions in 1986: the Commission on the History of Mathematics in Africa; the Commission on Women in Mathematics in Africa; the Commission Mathematics Education; and the Commission on Mathematics Olympiad.
    • In 1991 the third Pan-African Congress of Mathematicians was held in Nairobi, Kenya, and at this time Aderemi Kuku was re-elected to serve another term as President.
    • At the fourth Pan-African Congress of Mathematicians held in Ifrane, Morocco, in 1995, Ahmed Kerkour was elected President of the Society.
    • Also in 1995 South Africa joined the African Mathematical Union.

  146. test.html
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .

  147. Polish Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk) was founded in 1952.
    • However Poland had academies at a much earlier date with the Polska Akademia Umiejetnosci being founded in Cracow in 1816.
    • In 1936 a committee was set up by the Polish Academy of Learning to look at the way forward for Polish science.
    • Kuratowski became secretary to the mathematics committee and his report was made in 1937.
    • This new plan was accepted by the government in 1948.
    • Kuratowski was appointed the Director of the Institute of Mathematics in 1949.
    • In 1972 the International Stefan Banach Centre was established as part of the Institute of Mathematics of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  148. Swiss Academy
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Swiss Academy of Natural Science, or Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, was founded in 1815.
    • The first attempt to found a Swiss Academy occurred in 1797 but the turmoil caused by the Napoleonic wars meant that it did not succeed.
    • Another attempt was made in 1802 but again political turmoil caused by the French conquests under Napoleon prevented the formation of an Academy.
    • Geneva is, of course, now in Switzerland but in 1815 it was part of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont.
    • It also did not want to be an academy consisting of only top scientists so it aimed at being a very different organisation to other academies which had been set up [',' P Kupper and B C Schar, ’’Einfache und Anspruchslose Organisation’’.
    • Ein Streifzug durch 200 Jahre SCNAT, Swiss Academy of Sciences.','1]:- .
    • The Konigsberg astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, therefore, proposed a new, cross-border network of triangles, a project that the Prussian general Johann Jacob Baeyer took up in 1861.
    • This commission participated in the process of reaching an agreement between the participating States on the standardization of methods and measures, which was negotiated between 1864 and 1912 at 17 conferences.
    • In 1886, when Mexico, Chile, Argentina, the USA and Japan joined, it became the "International Earth Measurement".
    • In 1869 Schwarz was appointed to a chair at Zurich but in 1875 he left to take up a chair at Gottingen.
    • The Swiss Mathematical Society, however, was founded in 1910 as a section of the Swiss Academy of Natural Science.
    • Remarkably, at a time when academies were for men, the finances of the Swiss Academy was run by a woman, Fanny Custer (1867-1930), for over 40 years [',' P Kupper and B C Schar, ’’Einfache und Anspruchslose Organisation’’.
    • Attempts after 1945 to modernise Switzerland's scientific research structure were led by the Academy, but after the Swiss National Science Foundation was set up in 1952, it had the effect of diminishing the importance of the Academy.
    • In 1988 it adopted the name of 'academy' with the 'Swiss Academy of Natural Science', slightly changing it in 2004.
    • It is named for Alexander Friedrich Schlafli (1832-1863) from Burgdorf who died on 6 October 1863 in Bagdad.
    • In 1998 it was awarded to Viviane Baladi for the work "Periodic orbits and dynamical spectra", in 2007 to Christian Wuthrich for "Self-points on elliptic curves" and, also in 2007, to Tatiana Mantuano for "Laplacians in Riemannian Geometry: a Spectral Comparison through Discretization".

  149. Bulgarian Statistical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Bulgarian Statistical Society was founded in Sofia, Bulgaria, in the spring of 1991.
    • Organising began in 1972 with the first Summer School being held in 1974.
    • A annual seminar series on Statistical Data Analysis began in 1982 before the founding of the Society, but since 1996 the Society has taken over the organisation of this seminar series.

  150. Latvian Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Latvian Academy of Sciences was founded on 14 February 1946.
    • Earlier an academy of sciences had effectively operated as part of the Riga Latvian Society which was established in 1932.
    • Some mathematicians remained in the Institute of Physics until the creation of the Institute of Electronics and Computers in 1961 when they moved to this new Institute.
    • The Mathematical Institute was founded on 16 May 1991 after pressure from Reizins.
    • Latvia declared its independence from the USSR on 21 August 1991 and its sovereignty was recognized by the USSR on 6 September.
    • The Latvian Academy of Sciences (Academia Scientiarum Latviensis) adopted a new charter and statutes on 14 February 1992.
    • The new statutes proposed an Academy of 100 full Latvian members under 70 years of age, 100 foreign members, 60 corresponding members under 65 years of age, and 60 honorary members.

  151. St Petersburg Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society was founded in 1890 on the initiative of V G Imshenetskii who had earlier founded the Kharkov Mathematical Society in 1879.
    • He served as its first President from its creation until his death in 1892.
    • The next President was Yu-K Sokhotsky who had studied at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty at the University of St Petersburg, becoming a professor there in 1883.
    • During the first year of his presidency, in 1893, the constitution of the Society was finalised.
    • Vershik writes in [',' A M Vershik, The St Petersburg Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 10 (December, 1993), 21-23.','4]:- .
    • 2 (1993), 309-322; 336.','2] details of the Society are given covering the time from its foundation until 1900, after which records become poor.
    • It appears that the Society ceased to function around 1905, and certainly by the time of the Russian Revolution in 1917 it had ceased to exit.
    • In March 1918, in the middle of the civil war that followed the Revolution of 1917, St Petersburg stopped being the Russian capital and Moscow took on that role.
    • Steklov had arrived in St Petersburg in 1906 to take up the Chair of Mathematics at the University.
    • In 1910 he was elected to the Academy of Sciences then, in 1919, he became vice-president of the Academy.
    • They succeed in 1921 when the Society began to function again under the name Petrograd Physical and Mathematical Society (St Petersburg had been renamed Petrograd by this time).

  152. Slovak Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • It following in the footsteps of several earlier academies and societies such as the Slovak Learned Fellowship founded in 1792.
    • A proposal made in 1892 to found a Slovak Academy of Sciences led to the founding of the Slovak Association of Museums.
    • Following World War I, a declaration favouring political union of the Czechs and Slovaks was issued in 1918 and a democratic constitution was adopted on 29 February 1920.
    • On 18 July 1953 the Slovak National Council enacted legislation renaming the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts as the Slovak Academy of Sciences and controlling legislation was passed by the National Council.
    • In 1959 the Department of Mathematics was formed on the ground floor of Slovak Academy of Sciences building.
    • In 1966 the Department of Mathematics was renamed the Mathematical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.
    • Most members of the group were arrested but the protest they initiated gathered pace and a popular uprising, the Velvet Revolution, ended communist rule of Czechoslovakia in the autumn of 1989.
    • On 17 November 1989 the Slovak Academy of Sciences was able to begin the process of moving to become an independent scientific research institution.
    • The journal Mathematica Slovaca is a continuation of the journal Matematicko-fyzikalny sborni which began publication in 1951, becoming Matematicko- fyzikalny casopis in 1953, then Matematicko casopis from 1967, until the present name was adopted in 1976.

  153. Swedish Academy of Sciences
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Vetenskapsakademin) was founded in 1739 by five men: Jonas Alstromer, J Cederhielm, Anders Johan von Hopken, Carl Linnaeus (styled Carl von Linne after 1761 when granted this Swedish mark of nobility), and Marten Triewald.
    • The Academy received the Royal Insignia in 1741, two years after its foundation.
    • The city of Stockholm took over the Observatory building in the 1930s but it was acquired again by the Academy in 1999 and it is now a History of Science museum with emphasis on astronomy.
    • However in 1973 the running of the Saltsjobaden Observatory was taken over by Stockholm University.
    • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences moved from to a new site in 1915 which is now within the National City Park in Stockholm.
    • It was awarded an "almanac privilege" in 1747 which gave it sole responsibility for reviewing the content of all almanacs to be printed in Sweden.
    • The Institute for Astrophysics had a group working on Solar Physics in Anacapri in Italy up to 1978 when this group moved to La Palma in the Canary Islands.
    • The Mittag-Leffler Institute for mathematics, originally the home of Mittag-Leffler and his wife, was established in 1916, becoming part of the Academy in 1919.
    • The Centre for the History of Science was established in 1988 and manages the historical archive of the Academy as well as promoting research into the history of science.
    • International awards include the Crafoord Prize established in 1980 and awarded every year (for research in mathematics, astronomy, geology, and biology) and the Rolf Schock Prizes awarded every second year (for logic and philosophy, mathematics, the visual arts, and music).
    • These awards have been made since 1901, the awarding ceremony taking place on 10 December, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.

  154. Romanian Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The date for the founding of the Romanian Mathematical Society (Societatea de Stiinte Matematice din Romania) is usually given as 1910, yet we give here the much earlier date of 15 September 1895.
    • In fact 15 September 1895 is the date when the first issue of the Gazeta Matematica was published although the 'Society Gazeta Matematica' did not become a legal entity until its statutes were approved by the Romanian Parliament in 1910.
    • This union, formed in 1897, was then known as the Romanian Society of Sciences and they began publishing the Bulletin de la Societe Roumaine de Sciences in the same year.
    • In 1922 the Bulletin de la Societe Roumaine split in two with one of the new journals being a specialist mathematical journal - Bulletin Mathematique de la Societe Roumaine de Sciences.
    • In 1949 the Society Gazeta Matematica combined with the Romanian Society of Sciences to make the Romanian Society of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
    • The two Societies remained together for fifteen years, then in 1964 they split again with the mathematical part being named the Societatea de Stiinte Matematice din Romania.
    • To further these aims mathematical contests were organised beginning in 1902 to attract those children with a mathematical talent into the subject.
    • In 1909 the editors of the Gazeta Matematica met and decided to set up the Mathematical Gazette Society.
    • The Society was keen to have premises from which to operate and in 1920 moves were first made to raise the necessary money.
    • In 1923 the Society acquired a plot of land from the Romanian Railways on which to build their headquarters.
    • In 1935, to mark their 40th anniversary, the Society constructed a new library.
    • As we indicated above, the Society merged with the Romanian Society of Sciences in 1949 to create the Society of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
    • The annual mathematical contests organised by the Society became National Olympiad competitions in 1949.
    • The Society organised the International Mathematical Olympiad competition in Romania in 1959, 1960, 1969, 1978 and 1999.
    • M Berinde and V Berinde write in [',' M Berinde and V Berinde, Romanian Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 40 (June, 2001), 20-21.','2]:- .
    • It has become natural in Romania for gifted scholars in mathematics to work with Gazeta Matematica - generations of brilliant mathematicians have been involved with this journal, that has appeared continuously since its foundation, even in time of war, and whose monthly audience increased to 100,000 - 120,000 copies in the period 1970 - 1989.

  155. Finnish Statistical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Finnish Statistical Society was founded in Helsinki in 1920.
    • Leo Harmaja (1880-1949) attended kindergarten in Mikkeli, then attended Mikkeli's Lyceum.
    • He studied at the University of Helsinki graduating with a Bachelor's degree in 1903, followed by a Licentiate of Philosophy and a Ph.D.
    • in 1907.
    • He then worked for the government in the Statutory Chief Office 1903-04, the Government's Agricultural Office 1909, traffic inspector 1909-1912, and inspector 1912-1917.
    • He served as state archivist in 1917, a government actuary 1918-19, head of the National Board of Customs of Finland in 1919, then director of the Statistical Department of the Social Department 1919-35.
    • He was professor of economics, finance and statistics at the University of Helsinki from 1935 to 1945.
    • As well as serving as the first president of the Finnish Statistical Society in 1920, he also served in this role in 1921.
    • He was elected to a third term as president in 1927.
    • The first Vice-President of the Society was Otto Bruun (1886-1969) who was a Finnish statistician, the son of Johan Edmund Bruun.
    • As well as being Vice-President of the Finnish Statistical Society in 1920 and in 1921, he served as president of the Society in 1934.
    • From 1975 to 2011 the Finnish Statistical Society published an annual booklet, containing current statistical articles and reviews.
    • Publication began in 1974.
    • It was founded in 1974 by four Scandinavian statistical societies.
    • Let us give a little information about Leo Waldemar Tornqvist (1911-1983) for who the prize is named.
    • The awards were announced at the National Statistics Days 2017 held in the University of Turku on 18-19 May.
    • The award was announced at the National Statistics Days 2017 held in the University of Turku on 18-19 May.
    • Let us give a little information about Gunnar Maximilian Moden (1895-1988) for who the prize is named.
    • In 1934, Moden introduced a population projection which anticipated that Finland's population would never exceed four million.
    • He was Head of the Social Research Office of the Ministry of Social Affairs from 1936 to 1961.
    • The first presentation was made in 1989.

  156. Max Planck Society for Advancement of Science
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was founded on 11 January 1911 and renamed the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science in 1948.
    • The Max Planck Society quickly gained prestige, particularly when the physicist and Society member Walther Bothe won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1954.
    • The statutes of the Max Planck Society were revised in 1964 and at that time the following sentence was added:- .
    • This came about in 1992, although the administrative headquarters which has been in Munich remained in that city.
    • In 1997, Max Planck Society President Hubert Markl appointed an independent commission of historians to study the history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during the National Socialist era.
    • This Institute was founded in Bonn in 1980 by Friedrich Hirzebruch in 1980.
    • Until he retired in 1995, Hirzebruch was director of the Institute.
    • The Max Planck Institute for Mathematics preprint series was established in 1983 shortly after the institute itself.
    • The Hirzebruch Collection is a media archive that collects documents, images, videos, and other resources related to the work and life of the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics' founding director Professor Dr Friedrich Hirzebruch (1927-2012).
    • The institute was founded in Leipzig on 1 March 1996 and it works closely with the University of Leipzig [',' Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences.','5]:- .

  157. Mathematical Association of Tokyo
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Mathematical Association of Tokyo was founded in 1887.
    • However, after the Meiji Restoration in 1868 a unified educational system emphasizing Western learning was established throughout Japan.
    • In 1862 Western mathematics, and not Wasan, became an official subject in the new schools.
    • It was Tomochika Kawakita (1840-1919), a Wasan mathematician dissatisfied with the direction of the Tokyo Mathematical Society, who led the attempts to found a new Association which would devote itself to Wasan mathematics.
    • In 1887 Kawakita wrote about how the Tokyo Mathematical Society had changed its character in only a few years [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • 15 (Basel, 1994), 165-186.','4]:- .
    • The establishment of the Tokyo Mathematical Society in the autumn of 1877 was the beginning of meeting of mathematicians in our country.
    • This movement to emphasis Western mathematics was not liked by many in Japan interested in mathematics so supporters of Wasan founded their own Society in 1887 which they named 'Sugaku Kyokai', the Mathematical Association of Tokyo.
    • Chikara Sasaki writes that the Mathematical Association of Tokyo [',' C Sasaki, The adoption of Western mathematics in Meiji Japan, 1853-1903, in The intersection of history and mathematics, Sci.
    • 15 (Basel, 1994), 165-186.','4]:- .
    • Endo Toshisada (1843-1915) was one of these scholars.
    • In fact Toshisada published the first critical history of Japanese mathematics which was published in 1896.

  158. German Statistical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The German Statistical Society was founded in 1911.
    • In 1909 the Association for Social Policy split with part of it becoming the German Society for Sociology.
    • In 1911 the German Statistical Society was formed, not as a separate Society, but as a branch of the German Society for Sociology.
    • Von Mayr had earlier founded a statistics journal, Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, in 1890 and publication of this was taken over by the German Statistical Society.
    • They began to publish a second journal Deutsches Statistisches Zentralblatt in 1914.
    • The second chairman of the Society was Friedrich Zahn who took over in 1925 on the death of von Mayr.
    • It was under his chairmanship that the Society became independent of the German Society for Sociology in 1929.
    • However when the Nazis came to power in 1933 the Society was put into an extremely difficult position since it had to work on the issues determined by the National Socialist Government.
    • In 1948 the German Statistical Society was re-founded due to the efforts of Karl Wagner.
    • Gerhard Furst took over the chairmanship of the Society in 1960 and he took the step of introducing advanced training courses in specific areas of statistics.
    • To compensate for the lack of mathematically oriented statistics within the Society, the annual meeting in 1968 was specifically aimed at methods of mathematical-statistics and their applications.
    • In 1972 Wolfgang Wetzel became Chairman and he fostered stronger links with universities.
    • Young Researchers' Workshops have been organised beginning in 1994.

  159. Bourbaki
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Bourbaki is a group of (mainly) French mathematicians founded in 1935 to oversee an authoritative account of all mathematics.

  160. Royal Statistical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Royal Statistical Society was founded as the Statistical Society of London in 1834.
    • At a meeting on 15 March 1834 it was unanimously agreed:- .
    • In 1855 they produced the first catalogue of their library, which still exists as a handwritten volume, and by 1885 they had established a library containing 20000 books.
    • The number of fellows grew quickly, there being 100 by 1835 and 402 by 1838.
    • Of these 402, 14 were honorary foreign members.
    • In 1934, the Society's centenary year, a Supplement to the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society began to be published covering Statistical Methodology.
    • In 1948 the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society was split into two journals when the Supplement became a separate publication Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.

  161. Finnish Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • At the time that the Society was founded in 1868, Finland had only one university city.
    • The University of Helsinki was founded at Turku in 1640 and transferred to Helsinki in 1828 (it was only sixteen years before this in 1812 that Helsinki became the capital).
    • The Helsinki University of Technology, founded in 1849, was also in Helsinki.
    • In 1809 Finland became a nation under Russian protection and was ruled from 1809 to 1863 by a bureaucracy chosen by the Russian emperor.
    • In fact student organisations had been banned in in 1852 by a government who saw them as a source of anarchist ideas.
    • In 1868 student organisations were again allowed and the Finnish Mathematical Society partly filled this role.
    • Lehto writes in [',' O Lehto, The 125th anniversary of the Finnish Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 9 (September, 1993), 9-10.','3]:- .
    • A marked change took place in 1892, with new statutes and a new Chairman, Professor E R Neovius, a cousin of Ernst Lindelof and uncle of Rolf Nevanlinna.
    • Lindelof was appointed secretary of the Society in 1892 and then became its chairman in 1903.
    • That happened in 1926 when Marcel Riesz addressed the Society, having just accepted the chair of mathematics at the University of Lund in Sweden.
    • In 1926 Ernst Lindelof was the professor of mathematics at the University of Helsinki and Rolf Nevanlinna was also teaching there.
    • The war, however, caused a marked downturn in activity [',' O Lehto, The 125th anniversary of the Finnish Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 9 (September, 1993), 9-10.','3]:- .
    • Lindelof.html" onclick="javascript:win1('..
    • In 1957 the Society organised an international conference on analytic function theory in Helsinki, the first international mathematics conference to be held in Finland.
    • The Society undertook the task of organising the International Congress of Mathematicians in Helsinki in 1978, Nevanlinna being one of the main organisers.
    • Together with the Finnish Physical Society it publishes the journal Arkhimedes which began publication in 1948.
    • The President of the Finnish Mathematical Society in 1951 was Pekka Juhana Myrberg and in July of that year he received a letter explaining that plans for a Scandinavian mathematics journal had been under discussion between the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish mathematical societies.
    • The first meeting of the editorial board was in May and the journal was first published in 1953.
    • Although negotiations for the joint publication of Nordisk Matematisk Tidskrift took a little longer to finalise, it first appeared in 1953.
    • English summary), Arkhimedes 37 (4) (1985), 231-236.','4].

  162. Italian Mathematical Union
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Pincherle edited this first issue of the Bollettino as well as the regular issues beginning in 1923 after the Union was officially founded.
    • He continued as editor until his death in 1936.
    • Moreover this Society had decided in 1908 to extend its coverage of mathematics to include not only school mathematics but also university level mathematics and mathematical research.
    • The International Mathematical Union was created in 1920 and, in Italy, the Accademia dei Lincei was the responsible National Academy.
    • In 1924 Pincherle was elected President of the International Mathematical Union and Italian Mathematical Union organised the International Congress of Mathematicians in Bologna in 1928.
    • By 1934 the government had passed a law which meant that the President, Vice-President and council members of the Italian Mathematical Union had to be approved by the Minister of Education.
    • Exactly what happen in elections for these offices in 1935 is unclear.
    • By 1941 the situation was even more extreme with the government passing a decree that the President and Vice-President of the Union were nominated by the Minister of Education and even then had to swear allegiance to the fascist regime before they could serve.
    • In [',' C Pucci, The Italian Mathematical Union from 1922 to 1944 : documents and reflections (Italian), Symposia mathematica, Vol.
    • XXVII (London, 1986), 187-212.','3] Pucci shows how most mathematicians during this period were prepared to support the fascist regime, many with a degree of enthusiasm.
    • A section on the history of mathematics was added in 1939 and at the same time it began publishing articles on mathematical education.

  163. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics was founded in 1951 and incorporated on 30 April 1952.
    • Discussions took place at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in Atlantic City on 30 November 1951 concerning the setting up of a society to represent the interests of industrial applied mathematicians.
    • In December 1951 an organizing committee which included I Edward Block, Donald B Houghton, Samuel S McNeary, Cletus O Oakley, George Patterson III and George Sonneman met at an engineering lab at the Drexel Institute of Technology.
    • The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia provided the new Society with office space, an arrangement which continued from 1952 to 1958.
    • This first meeting at the Drexel Institute of Technology was held on 17 March 1952 with W F G Swan speaking on Mathematics, the backbone of science.
    • The SIAM Review began publication in 1959.
    • After this, journals were founded to cover special areas: Control (1962), Numerical Analysis (1964), Applied Mathematics (1966), Mathematical Analysis (1970), Computing (1972), Scientific and Statistical Computing (1980), Algebraic and Discrete Methods (1980), Matrix Analysis (1988), Discrete Mathematics (1988), Optimization (1991), Applied Dynamical Systems (2002), and Multiscale Modeling and Simulation (2003).
    • In addition a book publishing programme began in 1961 with the Series in Applied Mathematics.
    • Membership of the Society grew rapidly from its small beginnings in 1952.
    • By the end of 1952 there were 130 member, by 1953 there were 350, by 1954 there were 500, by 1955 there were 1000, by 1958 there were 2000, and by 1980 there were 5000.
    • It was in the 1980s that the Society began to consider International Sections with the first set up in 1986.
    • The United Kingdom section was set up in 1996.
    • The first activity group of the Society was founded on 19 July 1982; it was the Linear Algebra group.

  164. References for Hamburg
    • J F Bubendey, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Mathematischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg 1690-1790, Mitteilungen der Mathematischen Gesellschaft in Hamburg 1 (1) (1881), 8-16.
    • Hamburg 14 (1995), 13-20.
    • Surveys 16 (Mannheim, 1983), 191-201.
    • Hamburg 12 (1) (1990), 1-205.
    • Hamburg 12 (1) (1990), 61-205.

  165. References for Canadian
    • P Fillmore (ed.), Canadian Mathematical Society, 1945-1995 1: Mathematics in Canada (Ottawa, ON, 1995).
    • V Dlab, G Duff and J Fournier, Canadian Mathematical Society, 1945-1995 2: Selecta.
    • Canadian Mathematical Society - record of service, in P Fillmore (ed.), Canadian Mathematical Society, 1945-1995 1: Mathematics in Canada (Ottawa, ON, 1995), 372-394.
    • G F D Duff, The second generation : a history of the Canadian Mathematical Society 1966-1995, in P Fillmore (ed.), Canadian Mathematical Society, 1945-1995 1: Mathematics in Canada (Ottawa, ON, 1995), 129-189.
    • Presidents of the Canadian Mathematical Society, in P Fillmore (ed.), Canadian Mathematical Society, 1945-1995 1: Mathematics in Canada (Ottawa, ON, 1995), 328-371.

  166. References for Women in Math
    • Notices 38 (7) (1991), 738-774.
    • M Gray, Association for Women in Mathematics Newsletter 1 (2) (September 1971).
    • M Gray, Association of Women Mathematicians Newsletter 1 (1) (May 1971).
    • Notices 46 (1) (1999), 27-38.

  167. References for Dutch
    • P C Baayen, "Wiskundig Genootschap" 1778-1978 : some facts and figures concerning two centuries of the Dutch Mathematical .
    • (3) 26 (1) (1978), 177-205.
    • (4) 17 (3) (1999), 465-474.
    • 28 (1) (2001), 31-47.
    • P P Bockstaele, Mathematics in the Netherlands from 1750 to 1830, Janus 65 (1-3) (1978), 67-95.
    • Dutch Mathematical Society : Wiskundig Genootschap, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 35 (March, 2000), 12-14.
    • (4) 4 (2) (1986), 119-132.

  168. References for South African
    • P Hilton, Reflections on a visit to South Africa, Focus 1 (4) (1981), 1-2.
    • W J Kotze, A brief history of QM at its 25th anniversary, Quaestiones Mathematicae 25 (1) 2002, iii-iv.

  169. References for Russian
    • 2 (1) (1999), 3-7.
    • 40 (5) (1999), 973-976.
    • M D Gordin, The importation of being earnest : the early St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Isis 91 (1) (2000), 1-31.
    • 11 (1975), 107-114.
    • 25 (1980), 218-224; 379.
    • B Krzemie'nska, The founding of the Academy of Sciences and Arts in St Petersburg in 1724-1725 (some remarks on the 250th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences in the USSR) (Czech), DVT - Dejiny Ved.
    • a Techniky 7 (1974), 131-147.
    • 63 (4) (1999), 531-537.
    • 63 (4) (1999), 511-516.
    • 44 (2) (1999), 241-248.

  170. References for Philippines
    • G Meurant, Developing Mathematics in Third World Countries: Proceedings of the international conference held in Khartoum, March 6-9, 1978, North Holland Mathematics Studies Vol.
    • 1 (1) (1977), 3-8.
    • Lee Peng Yee, Ten years of SEAMS, Southeast Asian Bulletin of Mathematics 7 (1983), 10-15.

  171. References for Iranian
    • A Rejali, Twenty years of the Iranian Mathematical Society (Farsi), Peyke Riazi 4 (1) (1989), 1-17.
    • Report on the state of mathematics in Iran (2007-2013).
    • http://www.mathunion.org/fileadmin/IMU/Publications/CircularLetters/2014/IMU_AO_CL_7_2014_PB06-14_IranReport.pdf .

  172. References for Serbian
    • V Micic, Z Kadelburg and B Popovic, The Mathematical Society of Serbia - 60 years, The Teaching of Mathematics 11 (1) (2008), 1-19.

  173. References for Australian Statistical
    • 26 (1) (1989), 215-218.
    • B) (1988), 99-109.
    • E Seneta, In memoriam Emeritus Professor Henry Oliver Lancaster, AO FAA (1 February 1913-2 December 2001), .

  174. References for AMS
    • R C Archibald, American Mathematical Society semicentennial publications I : A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (Providence, RI, 1988).
    • R C Archibald, A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (New York, 1980).
    • E Pitcher, American Mathematical Society centennial publications I : A history of the second fifty years, American Mathematical Society, 1939-1988 (Providence, RI, 1988).
    • 1 (Providence, RI, 1988), 13-17.
    • 1 (Providence, RI, 1988), 19-20.

  175. References for New York
    • R C Archibald, American Mathematical Society semicentennial publications I : A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (Providence, RI, 1988).
    • R C Archibald, A semicentennial history of the American Mathematical Society, 1888-1938 (New York, 1980).
    • 1 (Providence, RI, 1988), 13-17.
    • 1 (Providence, RI, 1988), 19-20.

  176. References for Irish
    • P J Boland, Report on the Activities of the Irish Mathematical Society, Newsletter of the Irish Mathematical Society 3 (1980), 3-5.
    • T C Hurley, Report of the First Year's Activities, Newsletter of the Irish Mathematical Society 1 (1978), 6-7.
    • T C Hurley, Report on the Activities of the Society, Newsletter of the Irish Mathematical Society 2 (1979), 3-5.
    • News Section, Newsletter of the Irish Mathematical Society 1 (1978), 8-10.
    • News Section, Newsletter of the Irish Mathematical Society 2 (1979), 6-7.

  177. References for JAMS
    • 40 (1) (1994), 1-15.

  178. References for Serbia
    • V Micic, Z Kadelburg and B Popovic, The Mathematical Society of Serbia - 60 years, The Teaching of Mathematics 11 (1) (2008), 1-19.

  179. References for LMS
    • 41 (1966), 577-594.
    • 41 (1966), 1-10.
    • B Garling, London Mathematical Society : De Morgan House, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 31 (March, 1999), 21.
    • 1 (1926), 51-64.
    • A Rice, R J Wilson and J H Gardner, From student club to national society : the founding of the London Mathematical Society in 1865, Historia Mathematica 22 (1995), 402-421.
    • A Rice and R J Wilson, From national to international society : the London Mathematical Society, 1867-1900, Historia Mathematica 25 (1998), 376-417.

  180. References for Royal Statistical
    • J Haigh and AWatkins, Editorial : Restructuring the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, The Statistician 52 (1) (2003), 1-2.
    • I D Hill, Statistical Society of London - Royal Statistical Society : The first 100 years : 1834-1934, J.
    • A 147 (2) (1984), 130-139.
    • A 14 (2) (1984), 140-150.
    • S Rosenbaum, Precursors of the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, The Statistician 50 (4) (2001), 457-466.

  181. References for Georgian
    • R Duduchava, Academician Boris Khvedelidze (November 7, 1915 - March 27, 1993), Memoirs on Differential Equations and Mathematical Physics 66 (2015), 1-6.

  182. References for Spanish Statistics
    • R E Machol, Operations Research in Spain, Interfaces 12 (1) (1982), 34-37.

  183. References for Spitalfields
    • 11 (1979), 241-258.
    • 12 (5) (1980), 343.
    • R A Sampson, The decade 1840-1850, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 83-109.
    • 28 (1)(96) (1995), 37-62.

  184. References for Italy
    • (5) 6 (1-2) (1982), 67-90.

  185. References for Malaysian
    • A N Zainab, Internationalization of Malaysian Mathematical and Computer Science Journals, Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science 13 (1) (2008), 17-33.

  186. References for Berlin
    • W Knobloch, Leonhard Eulers Wirken an der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1741-1766, Studien zur Geschichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR 11 (Berlin, 1984).
    • W Eccarius, August Leopold Crelle und die Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, in Mathematical perspectives (New York-London, 1981), 37-46.
    • (Berlin, 1985),139-149.
    • E Knobloch, Knapp 300 Jahre Mathematik in Berlin : 1700-1993, Jahrbuch uberblicke Mathematik (Braunschweig, 1994), 245-256.
    • E Knobloch, Mathematics at the Prussian Academy of Sciences 1700-1810, in Mathematics in Berlin (Berlin, 1998), 1-8.

  187. References for Canadian Statistical
    • 14 (1) (1999), 80-125.

  188. References for Argentina
    • Alphabetical index of authors (1936-1996), Rev.
    • Argentina 43 (2002), 113-181.
    • Index of Volumes (1936-1996), Rev.
    • Argentina 43 (2002), 49-112.
    • L A Santalo, History of the Union Matematica Argentina, 1936-1996 (Spanish), Rev.
    • Argentina 43 (2002), 1-38.

  189. References for European Women
    • S Munday and E Resmerita (eds.), European Women in Mathematics Newsletter 18 (1) (2011).

  190. References for Polish
    • (2) 12 (1969), 1-2.
    • K Kuratowski, Address presented on September 3, 1969 at the inauguration of the Jubilee of the Polish Mathematical Society (Polish), Ninth Congress of Polish Mathematicians, Krakow, 1969, Wiadom.
    • (2) 12 (2) (1971), 208-214.
    • 25 (4) (1980), 687-706.
    • (2) 12 (1969), 3-8.
    • J Piorek, Polish Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 32 (June, 1999), 17-18.
    • G Majcherowa, Jubilee Congress of the Polish Mathematical Society in Krakow, September 3-9, 1969 (Polish), Ninth Congress of Polish Mathematicians, Krakow, 1969, Wiadom.
    • (2) 12 (2) (1971), 204-208.
    • 32 (1996), 137-152.
    • R Sikorski, Address presented September 3, 1969 at the inaguration of the Jubilee of the Polish Mathematical Society (Polish), Ninth Congress of Polish Mathematicians, Krakow, 1969, Wiadom.
    • (2) 12 (2) (1971), 214-225.
    • 30 (1997), 169-180.

  191. References for Paris Statistical
    • Sa creation en 1860, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 128 (1987), 239-242.
    • De 1860 a 1885, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 129 (1988), 193-201.
    • De 1886 a 1910, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 129 (1988), 277-285.
    • De 1911 a 1935, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 130 (1989), 103-111.
    • P Depoid, Contribution a l'histoire de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris 102 (1961), 81-191.
    • La societe de Statistique de Paris au XIXe siecle (1860-1910), These de doctorat, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (1989).

  192. References for Korean
    • 24 (1) (1987), 3-11.

  193. EMS 1964
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1964 .

  194. EMS 1992
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1992 .
    • THIRD ROW, J E Goodman, V 1 Paulsen, J Kaminker, N Ray, A C Kim, P G Hjorth, R J Archbold, R J Steiner, J Hubbuck, D J McLaughlin, P B Guest, N Ruckuc, J C Amson, M-G Leu, B Borwein, 0 Marrero, A J Lazar, T S Blyth, .

  195. EMS 1926
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1926 .

  196. References for Kazan

  197. References for Astronomical
    • J L E Dreyer, The decade 1830-1840, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 50-81.
    • H H Turner, The decade 1820-1830, in J L E Dreyer and H H Turner (eds.), History of the Royal Astronomical Society (London, 1923), 1-49.

  198. References for Austrian
    • C Binder, 100 Jahren: Mathematik in Wien, Internationale Mathematische Nachrichten 193 (2003), 1-20.
    • Mathematische Gesellschaft in Wien, Jahresberichte der Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung 13 (1904), 135.

  199. References for Estonian Statistical
    • E-M Tiit, Experiences in Publishing a Statistics Journal in Estonia, Proceedings International Conference on Teaching Statistics 5 (1998), 502-504.

  200. References for Moscow
    • Nauk 35 (5)(215) (1980), 249-250.
    • Nauk 20 (3)(123) (1965), 4-9.
    • Nauk (N.S.) 12 (6)(78) (1957), 9-46.
    • P Buckingham, Mathematics as a tool for economic and cultural developments : the philosophical views of the leaders of the Moscow Mathematical Society, 1867-1905, Mich.
    • 31 (1) (1999), 33-44.
    • S S Demidov, V M Tikhomirov and T A Tokareva, The Moscow Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 50 (December, 2003), 17-19.
    • D Joravsky, Soviet scientists and the great break, Daedalus 89 (1960), 562-580.
    • A G Kuros, The Moscow Mathematical Society in the past third of this century (Lecture to the centennial session of the Society, October 20, 1964) (Russian), Uspehi Mat.
    • Nauk 20 (3)(123) (1965), 10-18.
    • Nauk 20 (3)(123) (1965), 21-30.
    • D E Men'sov, The Moscow Mathematical Society in the period 1910-1920 (Russian), Uspehi Mat.
    • Nauk 20 (3)(123) (1965), 19-20.
    • (6) (1963), 71-78.

  201. References for RSE
    • N Campbell, R Martin and S Smellie, The Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783-1983 (Edinburgh, 1983).
    • S A Shapin, The Royal Society of Edinburgh : A study of the social context of Hanoverian science (Doctoral Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1971).
    • 7 (1974), 1-.

  202. References for Cyprus
    • J Novotna and D Pitta-Pantazi (eds.), Introduction, Mediterranean Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 8 (1) (2009), i-ii.

  203. References for TCD
    • 20 (1) (1945), 57-58.

  204. References for St Petersburg
    • 2 193 (Providence, RI, 1999), 261-271.
    • 2 (1993), 309-322; 336.
    • 1 (1990), 4-8; 245.
    • A M Vershik, The St Petersburg Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 10 (December, 1993), 21-23.

  205. References for EUMS
    • M Atiyah, The European Mathematical Society, Miscellanea mathematica (Berlin, 1991), 1-5.
    • English summary), Arkhimedes 44 (3) (1992), 190-196.
    • A Lahtinen, The Pre-history of the EMS, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 38 (December, 2000), 14-15.

  206. EMS 1926
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1926 .


Honours

  1. AMS Fulkerson Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Up to three awards of US$1500 each are presented at each (triennial) International Symposium of the MPS.
    • for 'On the computational complexity of combinatorial problems', Networks 5 (1975), 45-68.
    • for 'Every planar map is four colorable, Part I: Discharging', Illinois Journal of Mathematics 21 (1977), 429-490.
    • for 'The matroids with the max-flow min-cut property', Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series B 23 (1977), 189-222.
    • for 'Informational complexity and effective methods of solution for convex extremal problems', Ekonomika i Matematicheskie Metody 12 (1976), 357-369.
    • Doklady 244 (1979), 1093-1096.
    • Doklady 258 (1981), 1041-1044.
    • for 'A proof of the van der Waerden conjecture on the permanent of a doubly stochastic matrix', Matematicheskie Zametki 29 (1981), 931-938.
    • for 'The ellipsoid method and its consequences in combinatorial optimization', Combinatorica 1 (1981), 169-197.
    • for 'Roth's estimate of the discrepancy of integer sequences is nearly sharp', Combinatorica 1 (4),319-325, (1981).
    • for 'Integer programming with a fixed number of variables', Mathematics of Operations Research 8 (4), 538-548, (1983).
    • for 'Isomorphism of graphs of bounded valence can be tested in polynomial time', Journal of Computer and System Sciences 25 (1), 42-65, (1982).
    • for 'A strongly polynomial minimum cost circulation algorithm', Combinatorica 5 (1985), pp.
    • for 'A new polynomial-time algorithm for linear programming', Combinatorica 4 (1984), pp.
    • 1991 Martin Dyer, Alan Frieze, and Ravi Kannan .
    • for 'A random polynomial time algorithm for approximating the volume of convex bodies', Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 38/1 (1991) 1-17.
    • for 'The width-length inequality and degenerate projective planes', W Cook and P D Seymour (eds.), Polyhedral Combinatorics, DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science, volume 1, (American Mathematical Society, 1990) 101-105.
    • for 'Homology of smooth splines: Generic triangulations and a conjecture of Strang', Transactions of the AMS 310 (1988) 325-340.
    • for 'Upper bounds for the diameter and height of graphs of the convex polyhedra', Discrete and Computational Geometry 8 (1992) 363-372.
    • for 'Hadwiger's conjecture for K6; free graphs', Combinatorica 13 (1993) 279-361.
    • for 'The Ramsey Number R(3, t) Has Order of Magnitude t2/log t', Random Structures and Algorithms 7, (3) 1995, 173-207.
    • for 'Improved approximation algorithms for the maximum cut and satisfiability probelsm using semi-definite programming', Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 42 (1995), no.
    • 6, 1115-1145.
    • for 'Decomposition of balanced matrices', Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B, 77 (1999), no.
    • for 'A characterization of weakly bipartite graphs', Journal of Combinatorial Theory Series B, 83 (2001), no.
    • 1, 112-168.
    • for 'A combinatorial strongly polynomial algorithm for minimizing submodular functions', Journal of the ACM 48, July 2001, no.
    • 4, 761-777.
    • for 'PRIMES is in P', Annals of Mathematics 160, issue 2, 2004, 781-793 .
    • ACM 51, Issue 4, 2004, 671-697.
    • for 'A proof of the Kepler conjecture', Annals of Mathematics, volume 162,issue 3, 2005, pages 1063-1183 .
    • Pentahedral Prisms', Discrete and Computational Geometry, volume 36, issue 1, 2006, 167- 204.
    • for 'A Counterexample to the Hirsch Conjecture', Annals of Mathematics, 2012.

  2. MAA Chauvenet Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Julian Coolidge, then president of the Mathematical Association of America, presented funds to establish the Chauvenet Prize in 1925.
    • Algebraic Functions and Their Divisors, Annals of Mathematics 26 (1924), 95-124.
    • 32 (1926), 423-474.
    • 35 (1929), 778-818.
    • Monthly 41 (1934), 67-84; .
    • Series of Orthogonal Polynomials, Annals of Mathematics 34 (1933), 527-545; .
    • Orthogonal Trigonometric Sums, Annals of Mathematics 34 (1933), 799-814.
    • 42 (1936), 49-73.
    • 1941 Saunders MacLane for the papers: .
    • Monthly 47 (1940), 67-84; .
    • Monthly 46 (1939), 3-19.
    • 15 (1941), 331-356.
    • Monthly 51 (1944), 493-510.
    • Monthly 54 (1947), 369-391.
    • Monthly 59 (1952), 1-11.
    • Monthly 62 (1955), 2-17.
    • Monthly 65 (1958), 665-679.
    • Monthly 66 (1959), 849-869.
    • Are Logic and Mathematics Identical?, Science 138 (1962), 788-794.
    • Nonlinearity, SIAM Review 5 (1963), 249-272.
    • America, Washington, DC, 1965), 124-178.
    • Monthly 73 (1966), 1-23.
    • America, Washington, DC, 1967), 16-56.
    • 1971 Norman Levinson for the paper: .
    • Monthly 76 (1969), 225-245.
    • 76 (1970), 552-571.
    • Monthly 77 (1970), 968-974.
    • Monthly 79 (1972), 227-241.
    • 1975 M D Davis and Reuben Hersh, Hilbert's 10th Problem, Scientific American 229 (5) (1973), 84-91.
    • Monthly 81 (1974), 115-137.
    • 79 (1973), 1128-1137.
    • Monthly 83 (1976), 409-448.
    • Monthly 84 (1977), 82-107.
    • Monthly 85 (1978), 632-647.
    • 1981 Kenneth I Gross for the paper: .
    • Monthly 85 (1978), 525-548.
    • Monthly 88 (1981), 235-252.
    • Intelligencer 3 (1981), 97-105.
    • Monthly 90 (1983), 17-35.
    • America, Washington, DC, 1984), 1-28.
    • (N.S.) 13 (1985), 87-121.
    • Monthly 93 (1986), 505-514.
    • Intelligencer 9 (1987), 8-21.
    • 1991 W B Raymond Lickorish and Kenneth C Millett for the paper: .
    • 61 (1988), 2-23.
    • Monthly 94 (1987), 236-256.
    • Monthly 96 (1989), 201-219.
    • Monthly 98 (1991), 593-610.
    • Monthly 97 (1990), 105-119.
    • (N.S.) 28 (1993), 253-287.
    • Intelligencer 16 (1994), 6-17.
    • (N.S.) 32 (1995), 1-37.
    • Monthly 102 (1995), 495-505.
    • Monthly 104 (1997), 705-708.
    • 2001 Carolyn S Gordon and David L Webb for the paper: .
    • You can't hear the shape of a drum, American Scientist 84 (1996), 46-55.
    • A Stroll through the Gaussian Primes, American Mathematical Monthly 105 (1998), 327-337.
    • (January 2001), 17-24.
    • 2, 10Ð21 .
    • 2011 Bjorn Poonen for the paper: .
    • 2, 192Ð207.
    • The Mathematics of Doodling, American Mathematical Monthly, 118 (2011), no.
    • 2, 116-129.
    • 1, 10-14.

  3. Times Obituaries
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • {if (windowstatus == 1){if (aWindow.location) {aWindow.close();windowstatus = 0;}}} .
    • For technical reasons we are only able to reference the obituaries from 1900 to 1985 and from 1996 to 2003.
    • Vilhelm Bjerknes's biographyThe obituary (1951) .
    • Harald Bohr's biographyThe obituary (1951) .
    • Chrystal's biographyThe obituary (1911) .
    • Darwin's biographyThe obituary (1912) .
    • FitzGerald's biographyThe obituary (1901) .
    • Galton's biographyThe obituary (1911) .
    • Hoyle's biographyThe obituary (2001) .
    • Lasker's biographyThe obituary (1941) .
    • Loyd's biographyThe obituary (1911) .
    • Neyman's biographyThe obituary (1981) .
    • Nightingale's biographyThe obituary (1910) .
    • Poincare's biographyThe obituary (1912) .
    • Rayleigh's biographyThe obituary (1919) .
    • Reynolds's biographyThe obituary (1912) .
    • Schrodinger's biographyThe obituary (1961) .
    • Scott's biographyThe obituary (1931) .
    • Shannon's biographyThe obituary (2001) .
    • Sommerfeld's biographyThe obituary (1951) .
    • Tait's biographyThe obituary (1901) .
    • Turnbull's biographyThe obituary (1961) .
    • Arthur Walker's biographyThe obituary (2001) .
    • Wittgenstein's biographyThe obituary (1951) .
    • Yule's biographyThe obituary (1951) .

  4. SeMA Award
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2011: Jose M.
    • SeMA 52 (2010), 11-39.
    • Asymptotic mean value properties for the P-Laplacian, SeMA Journal 57 (2011), 35-62.
    • An elementary introduction to the construction and the analysis of perfectly matched layers for time domain wave propagation, SeMA Journal 57 (1) (2012), 5-48.
    • Polynomial decay rate for a wave equation with general acoustic boundary feedback laws, SeMA Journal 61 (1) (2013), 19-47.
    • A priori error estimate of a multiscale finite element method for transport modeling, SeMA Journal 67 (1) (2015), 1-37.
    • Regularity of solutions of elliptic or parabolic problems with Dirac measures as data, SeMA Journal 73 (4) (2016), 379-426.

  5. Groups St Andrews.html
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Groups St Andrews Conferences have been held every four years beginning in 1981.
    • 19811985198919931997 .
    • 20012005200920132017 .
    • Groups St Andrews 1981 .
    • Held in St Andrews, Scotland, 25 July - 8 August 1981 .
    • Groups St Andrews 2001 in Oxford .
    • Held in Oxford, England, 5 August - 18 August 2001 .
    • Held in St Andrews, Scotland, 3 August - 11 August 2013 .

  6. Wolf Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Wolf Foundation began its activities in 1976.
    • Siegel was born in 1896 and Gel'fand in 1913.
    • 1981 - Lars V Ahlfors .
    • 1981 - Oscar Zariski .
    • 2001 - Vladimir I Arnold .
    • 2001 - Saharon Shelah .
    • 2 (River Edge, NJ, 2001).

  7. AMS Satter Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Joan S Birman established this prize in 1990 in honour of her sister Ruth Lyttle Satter.
    • 1991 Dusa McDuff .
    • 2001 Karen E Smith .
    • 2001 Sijue Wu .

  8. AMS Steele Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • A bequest from Leroy P Steele endowed this prize which was first awarded in 1970.
    • From 1970 to 1976 the prize was given for outstanding published mathematical research, preference given to work which was broad and particularly well written.
    • In 1976 the Council of the American Mathematical Society decided to award three categories of Leroy P Steele Prizes.
    • In 1994 the last of these three categories was put onto a five year cycle of topics: analysis, algebra, applied mathematics, geometry and topology, and discrete mathematics/logic.
    • 1971 James B Carrell .
    • 1971 Jean A Dieudonne .
    • 1971 Phillip A Griffiths .
    • 1981 Oscar Zariski .
    • 1981 Eberhard Hopf .
    • 1981 Nelson Dunford and Jacob T Schwartz .
    • 1991 Jean-Francois Treves .
    • 1991 Eugenio Calabi .
    • 1991 Armand Borel .
    • Singer's series of five papers with Michael F Atiyah on the Index Theorem for elliptic operators (which appeared in 1968-71) and his three papers with Atiyah and V K Patodi on the Index Theorem for manifolds with boundary (which appeared in 1975-76) are among the great classics of global analysis.
    • 2001 (For Lifetime Achievement) Harry Kesten .
    • 2001 (For Seminal Contribution to Research) Leslie F Greengard and Vladimir Rokhlin .
    • 2001 (For Mathematical Exposition) Richard P Stanley .
    • 2011 (Lifetime Achievement: To John W.
    • 2011 (Mathematical Exposition: To Henryk Iwaniec .
    • 2011 (Seminal Contribution to Research: To Ingrid Daubechies .

  9. Bakerian Lecturer
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Bakerian Lectures originated in 1775 through a bequest by Henry Baker, himself a Fellow of the Royal Society from 1740 and a Copley Medalist in 1744, of 63;100 for an oration or discourse which was to be spoken or read yearly by one of the Fellows of the Royal Society:- .
    • A gift of 63;10 was associated with the lecture in the 1930s which had risen to a gift of 63;1000 by the 1980s.
    • 1891 George Darwin .
    • A 182).
    • A 190).
    • A 198).
    • A 102).
    • A 111).
    • 1931 Sydney Chapman .
    • A 132).
    • 1941 P A M Dirac .
    • A 180, 1).
    • A 214, 281).
    • 1961 M J Lighthill .
    • A 267, 147).
    • A 308, 1).
    • A 347, 291).
    • A 413, 183) .

  10. Royal Society of Edinburgh
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Royal Society of Edinburgh was founded in 1783.
    • The Society for the Improvement of Medical Knowledge was founded in Edinburgh in 1731 and Maclaurin became one of its members.
    • In 1737 the broader Society was formed with the full title "Edinburgh Society for Improving Arts and Sciences and particularly Natural Knowledge".
    • This Club was founded in 1716 nearly ten years before Maclaurin was appointed to the University of Edinburgh, and it was a Club which suited Maclaurin with its mixture of congenial fellowship and the aim of its members in pursuing knowledge.
    • The beginning of the Royal Society of Edinburgh was described in the first volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh published in 1788.
    • In 1810 the Society purchased 42 George Street, and it occupied this building until 1826 when the Royal Institution Building on Princes Street was completed.
    • William Thomson , later Baron Kelvin of Largs, was President from 1873 to 1878 and again from 1886 to 1890.
    • From 1890 to 1895 Thomson was President of the Royal Society of London, then, this time as Lord Kelvin, he was President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for a third time from 1895 until his death in 1907.
    • Two others from our archive held the office of President: D'Arcy Thompson from 1934 to 1939, followed by Edmund Whittaker from 1939 to 1945.
    • Three mathematicians from our archive served the Royal Society of Edinburgh as General Secretaries: Playfair from 1798 to 1819, Tait from 1879 to 1901, and Chrystal from 1901 to 1912.
    • Other points worth noting which relate to mathematicians in this archive are that Tait was twice a winner of the Keith Prize (a feat few have equalled) and Joseph Wedderburn was elected a Fellow in 1903 when he was 21 years of age making him one of the youngest Fellows ever elected.
    • N Campbell, R Martin and S Smellie, The Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783-1983 (Edinburgh, 1983).
    • S A Shapin, The Royal Society of Edinburgh : A study of the social context of Hanoverian science (Doctoral Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1971).
    • 7 (1974), 1-.

  11. Lectures to the Mathematical Society of Vienna
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Below we list the lectures given to the Mathematical Society of Vienna (now the Austrian Mathematical Society) from its founding in 1903 up to the end of the 1908 session.
    • The data is taken from 'Mathematische Gesellschaft in Wien', Jahresberichte der Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, and 1908.

  12. European Mathematical Society Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The first was awarded at the first congress in Paris in 1992.
    • The problem was raised in 1967 by Vitushkin in his famous paper on rational approximation in the plane.

  13. International Congress Speaker
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The series of International Congresses of Mathematicians began in Zurich in 1897 but no congress was held during World War I (1914-18) or World War II (1939-45).
    • 1897nnn1900nnn1904nnn1908nnn1912nnn1920nnn1924nnn1928nnn1932nnn1936nnn1950nnn1954nnn1958 .
    • 1962nnn1966nnn1970nnn1974nnn1978nnn1983nnn1986nnn1990nnn1994nnn1998nnn2002nnn2006nnn2010nnn2014nnn2018 .
    • The Congress was held from 9 August to 11 August 1897.
    • The Congress was held from 6 August to 12 August 1900.
    • The Congress was held from 8 August to 13 August 1904.
    • The Congress was held from 6 April to 11 April 1908.
    • CAMBRIDGE, UK 1912 .
    • The Congress was held from 11 August to 16 August 1924.
    • The Congress was held from 3 September to 10 September 1928.
    • The Congress was held from 5 September to 12 September 1932.
    • The Congress was held from 13 July to 18 July 1936.
    • The Congress was held from 1 September to 10 September 1970.
    • The Congress was held from 3 August to 11 August 1986.
    • The Congress was held from 3 August to 11 August 1994.

  14. Eiffel scientists
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  15. AMS Bôcher Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • This provision, introduced in 1971 and modified in 1993, is a liberalization of the original terms of the award.

  16. Joan and Joseph Birman Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  17. LMS Frölich Prize

  18. Shaw Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2011 Demetrios Christodoulou and Richard S Hamilton .

  19. Galway Group Theory.html
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1981 .
    • S Tobin (Galway) Groups with (n ↦ t) .
    • 1991 .
    • 2001 .
    • S Paoli (Warwick) Cohomology of crossed modules with coefficients in a π1-module .
    • 2011 .

  20. Gibbs Lectures.html
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The American Mathematical Society established the Josiah Willard Gibbs Lectureship in 1923.
    • December 1931; New Orleans, Louisiana; Percy W Bridgman; Statistical mechanics and the second law of thermodynamics.
    • September 1941; Chicago, Illinois; Sewall Wright; Statistical genetics and evolution.
    • December 1951; Providence, Rhode Island; Kurt Godel; Some basic theorems on the foundations of mathematics and their philosophical implications.
    • January 1961; Washington, D.C.; James Johnston Stoker; Some nonlinear problems in elasticity.
    • January 1971; Atlantic City, New Jersey; Eberhard F F Hopf; Ergodic theory and the geodesic flow on surfaces of constant negative curvature.
    • January 1981; San Francisco, California; Cathleen S Morawetz; The mathematical approach to the sound barrier.
    • January 1991; San Francisco, California; Michael Atiyah; Physics and the mysteries of space.
    • January 2001; New Orleans, Louisiana; Ronald L Graham; The Steiner problem.
    • January 2011; New Orleans, LA; George Papanicolaou; Mathematical Problems in Systematic Risk.

  21. Copley Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Sir Geoffrey Copley gave 63;100 to the Society in 1709 to be used for carrying out experiments and the interest on the money was used for this purpose for a number of years.
    • In 1736 it was proposed that:- .
    • In 1736 to was agreed to award a medal to the value of £5 either for the most important scientific discovery or for the greatest contribution made by experiment.
    • In 1831 the conditions were changed again so that it was awarded to the author of the research that the Council of the Society decided was the most deserving the honour.
    • In 1881 Sir Joseph Copley donated 63;1666 13s.
    • 1781 William Herschel .
    • 1821 John Herschel .
    • 1831 George Airy .
    • 1841 George Ohm .
    • for his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825.
    • 1901 Joseph Willard Gibbs .
    • 1911 George Howard Darwin .
    • 1921 Joseph Larmor .

  22. CMS Jeffery-Williams Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The first award was made in 1968.
    • 1971 W T Tutte .
    • 1981 J E Marsden .
    • 1991 P Lancaster .
    • 2001 David Boyd .
    • 2011 Kai Behrend .

  23. RSS Guy Medal in Bronze
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1971 D J Bartholomew .
    • 1991 M G Kenward .
    • 2001 G P Nason .
    • 2011 N Meinshausen .

  24. Lunar features
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  25. Australian Mathematical Society Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Since 1981 the Australian Mathematical Society has awarded the Australian Mathematical Society Medal which recognises distinguished mathematical sciences research by members of the Australian Mathematical Society.
    • 1981 Neil Trudinger .
    • 1991 Gerhard Huisken .
    • 2001 Pier Bouwknegt, Alexander Molev, and Hugh Possingham .
    • 2011 Todd Oliynyk .

  26. Fermat Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 J-L Colliot-Thelene .
    • 2001 R L Taylor .
    • 2001 W Werner .

  27. DVR Cantor Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The first award was made in 1990.

  28. SIAM John von Neumann Lecture
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1961 Mark Kac .
    • 1971 Paul A Samuelson .
    • 1981 Garrett Birkhoff .
    • 2001 David L Donoho .

  29. Chern Visiting Professor
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Shiing-Shen Chern Chair in Mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, was established by a donation by Dr Robert G Uomini, a 1976 graduate from UC Berkeley, and his wife Louise B Bidwell in honour of Shiing-Shen Chern.
    • in 1969.
    • 2001 Joseph Bernstein, Peter Lax, Bertram Kostant .
    • 2011 Andrei Okounkov .

  30. Pioneer Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2011 James Albert Sethian .

  31. J H Michell Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The John Henry Michell Medal was instituted by ANZIAM (Australia and New Zealand Industrial and Applied Mathematics), a division of the Australian Mathematical Society, in 1999 for outstanding new researchers.
    • 2001 Nigel Bean .
    • 2011 Frances Y Kuo .

  32. History of the AMS
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Only these two were Presidents of the New York Mathematical Society for, in 1894, the Society decided to become a national organisation and change its name accordingly to the American Mathematical Society.

  33. RSS Guy Medal in Silver
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1901 T A Welton .
    • 1921 A W Flux .
    • 1951 F A A Menzler .
    • 1961 D R Cox .
    • 1981 J F C Kingman .
    • 1991 R L Smith .
    • 2001 A P Dawid .
    • 2011 P Hall .

  34. Paris street names
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Rue Pascal (Blaise) (5/13 Arrondissement) WnMn .

  35. Copson lectures.html
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edward Copson, the Regius Professor of Mathematics at the University of St Andrews from 1950 to 1969, died in February 1980.
    • He died in 1980.
    • Marcus du Sautoy delivered the first Copson lecture entitled 'Music of the primes' on 11 October 2005.

  36. Planetary features
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  37. Nemmers Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  38. Maxwell Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2011 Vladimir Rokhlin .

  39. Levitzki Prize.html
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Charlotte Levitzki (nee Ascher) was born in Berlin in 1910.
    • She became a librarian and worked in a large bookstore until the Nazis led by Hitler came to power in 1933.
    • In 1939 she married Jacob Levitzki and the family settled in Jerusalem.
    • She rose quickly through the ranks of the Hebrew University National Library and became head of the acquisition department, a role she held until she retired in 1972.
    • From that time, almost until her death in 1997, she volunteered in various institutions, including Hadassah hospital.
    • 2011 Michael Temkin, The Hebrew University .

  40. IMA President
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Sir James Lighthill FRS 1964 - 1966 .
    • Professor Sir Bryan Thwaites 1966 - 1967 .
    • Dr Peter Wakely FRS 1968 - 1969 .
    • Professor George Barnard 1970 - 1971 .
    • Professor Charles Coulson FRS 1972 - 1973 .
    • Sir Hermann Bondi FRS 1974 - 1975 .
    • HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 1976 - 1977 .
    • Dame Kathleen Ollerenshaw 1978 - 1979 .
    • Sir Samuel Edwards FRS 1980 - 1981 .
    • Dr Peter Trier 1982 - 1983 .
    • Sir Harry Pitt FRS 1984 - 1985 .
    • Professor Bob Churchhouse FRS 1986 - 1987 .
    • Professor Douglas Jones FRS 1988 - 1989 .
    • Sir Roy Harding 1990 - 1991 .
    • Mr John H McDonnell 1992 .
    • Professor Lord Julian Hunt FRS 1993 - 1995 .
    • Professor David Crighton FRS 1996 - 1997 .
    • Professor Henry Beker 1998 - 1999 .
    • Professor Stephen Reid 2000 - 2001 .
    • Professor Michael Walker OBE, FRS 2010 - 2011 .
    • Professor Robert MacKay FRS 2012 - 2013 .
    • Professor Dame Celia Hoyles 2014 - 2015 .
    • Professor Chris Linton 2016 - .

  41. Collatz Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2011 Emmanuel J.

  42. Young Mathematician prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1971 S A Vinogradov .
    • 1981 A R Its .
    • 1981 E D Gluskin .
    • 1991 G Ya Perel'man .
    • 1996-1997 O L Vinogradov .
    • 1996-1997 S K Smirnov .
    • 1996-1997 T N Shilkin .
    • 2001 A V Malyutin .
    • 2001 S G Kryzhevich .

  43. MSJ Iyanaga, Spring and Autumn Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Iyanaga Prize was established in 1973 and was awarded to eminent young researchers of the Mathematical Society of Japan.
    • In 1987 the Prize was awarded twice a year and renamed the Spring Prize and Autumn Prize.
    • 1981 Masaki Kashiwara .
    • 1991 (Spring Prize) Morihiko Saito .
    • 1991 (Autumn Prize) Akihiro Tsuchiya .
    • 2001 (Spring Prize) Takeshi Saito .
    • 2001 (Autumn Prize) Gen Nakamura .

  44. Swedish Mathematical Society Wallenberg Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 Per Salberger .
    • 2001 Warwick Tucker .
    • 2011 Johan Wastlund .

  45. AMS Cole Prize in Number Theory
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1931 H S Vandiver .
    • 1941 Claude Chevalley .
    • 1951 Paul Erdos .

  46. NAS Award in Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  47. Australian Mathematical Society Szekeres Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • In 2001 the Australian Mathematical Society established the George Szekeres Medal for outstanding research contributions over a fifteen-year period.
    • This medal commemorates the achievements of the Hungarian born George Szekeres (1911-2005) in number theory, combinatorics, analysis, and relativity.

  48. Times Obituaries
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  49. SIAM George Pólya Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1971 R L Graham, K Leeb, B L Rothschild, A W Hales, and R I Jewett .

  50. History of the LMS
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The London Mathematical Society dates back to 1864.

  51. Rolf Schock Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Rolf Schock Prizes were established and endowed by bequest of philosopher and artist Rolf Schock (1933 1986).
    • 2001 Elliott H Lieb .
    • 2011 .

  52. SIAM Prize for Distinguished Service
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2011 David E.

  53. Autumn Prize of the Mathematical Society of Japan
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Prize was established in 1987 funded from donations by the family of Yasuo Akizuki and others.
    • 1991 Akihiro Tsuchiya .
    • 2001 Atsushi Moriwaki .
    • 2011 Akito Futaki .

  54. Abel Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • However he had not set up any machinery to carry the idea forward and when he died soon after this, in 1899, nothing further happened.
    • They put their proposals before the Norwegian government in May 2001 and in a speech on the campus of the University of Oslo in August 2001, the Norwegian Prime Minister announced that the Government would establish an Abel Fund.
    • 2011 John Milnor .

  55. DMV/IMU Gauss Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  56. MAA Hedrick Lecturer
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Earle Raymond Hedrick Lectures were established in 1952 to procure for the Mathematical Association of America a lecturer of excellent quality: .
    • 1961 R H Bing, University of Wisconsin-Madison .
    • 1971 Abraham Robinson, Yale University .
    • 1981 Daniel Gorenstein, Rutgers University-New Brunswick .
    • 1991 John Horton Conway, Princeton University .
    • 2001 Ingrid Daubechies, Princeton University .
    • 2011 Manjul Bhargava, Princeton University .

  57. Gavin Brown Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Gavin Brown Prize was established by the Australian Mathematical Society in 2011 for an outstanding single article, monograph or book consisting of original research in pure mathematics.
    • 2011 Neil Trudinger .

  58. AMS/SIAM Birkhoff Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  59. LMS Presidential Addresses
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • From 1876 to 1882 the president gave a "valedictory address" at the end of his term of office.
    • Not every President has given a presidential address, for example J E Littlewood did not give an address in 1943.
    • C W Merrifield - 11 November 1880 .
    • J W L Glaisher - 11 November 1886 .
    • J E Campbell - 11 November 1920 .
    • A L Dixon - 11 November 1926 .
    • S Chapman - 12 November 1931 .
    • M H A Newman - 15 November 1951 .
    • P Hall - 21 November 1957 .
    • H A Heilbronn - 16 November 1961 .
    • M L Cartwright - 21 November 1963 .
    • D G Kendall - 21 November 1974 .
    • C T C Wall - 21 November 1980 .
    • I M James - 21 November 1986 .

  60. Savilian Chairs
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Savilian Chair of Geometry was founded in 1619 at the University of Oxford by Henry Savile.
    • 1631 Peter Turner .
    • 1861 Henry John Stephen Smith .
    • The Savilian Chair of Astronomy was also founded in 1619.
    • 1661 Christopher Wren .
    • 1691 David Gregory .
    • 1721 James Bradley .

  61. LMS Naylor Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1981 H C Longuet-Higgins .
    • 1991 R Penrose .

  62. Chern Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The reverse of the Medal displays the generalized Gauss-Bonnet theorem, elegantly and intrinsically proved by Chern in 1944, now frequently termed the Chern-Gauss-Bonnet theorem: .
    • The Award is established in memory of the outstanding mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern (1911, Jiaxing, China - 2004, Tianjin, China).

  63. Sylvester Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Soon after the death of Professor J J Sylvester, F.R.S., in 1897, a number of his friends considered the advisability of funding some suitable honour of his name and life-work.
    • 1901 Henri Poincare .
    • 1931 Edmund T Whittaker .
    • 1961 Philip Hall .
    • 1991 Klaus Roth .

  64. Henry George Forder Lectures
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 Peter Whittle .
    • 2001 Tom Korner .

  65. St Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Members
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  66. RSS Guy Medal in Gold
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1911 G Udny Yule .
    • 1981 D G Kendall .
    • 2011 C R Rao .

  67. LMS Whitehead Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1981 N J Hitchin .
    • 1981 D F Holt .
    • 1991 N S Manton .
    • 1991 A J Scholl .
    • 2001 M McQuillan .
    • 2001 A N Skorobogatov .
    • 2001 V Smyshlyaev .
    • 2001 J R King .
    • 2011 J Bennett .
    • 2011 A Gorodnik .
    • 2011 B Niethammer .
    • 2011 A Pushnitki .

  68. IMU Nevanlinna Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  69. Balaguer Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The prize, amounting to 12,000 euros, is provided by the Ferran Sunyer i Balaguer Foundation.
    • It is named after the disabled Catalan mathematician Ferran Sunyer i Balaguer (1912-1967).
    • 2001 Martin Golubitsky and Ian Stewart for the monograph: .
    • 2011 Jayce Getz for the monograph: .

  70. Jose Celestino Mutis Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • It has been awarded every second year since 2011 and the presentation is made at the Colombian Mathematics Congress.
    • Jose Celestino Mutis (1732-1808) was a Spanish scientist who organised and directed the Royal Botanical Expedition of the New Kingdom of Granada, one of the most important scientific expeditions of the eighteenth century.
    • He was born on 6 April 1732 in Cadiz, Spain and studied at the College of the Jesuits of Cadiz in 1749.
    • In 1760 he moved to the New Kingdom of Granada as doctor of the viceroy and in 1762 was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Senora del Rosario and in 1763 he presented his plan for a Natural History of America.
    • Between 1766 and 1770 he studied mineralogy and in 1773 he wrote in support of Copernican and Newtonian theories.
    • In 1783 he began the Royal Botanical Expedition of the New Kingdom of Granada.
    • He died on 11 September 1808 in Bogota.
    • 2011 Jesus Hernando Perez .

  71. SIAM W T and Idalia Reid Prize in Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2001 Eduardo D Sontag .

  72. MSJ Analysis Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  73. LMS Pólya Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 I G Macdonald .
    • 2011 E B Davies .

  74. Clay Award
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2001 Edward Witten .
    • These are equally spaced sequences of primes such as 31, 37, 43 or 13, 43, 73, 103.
    • for his complete resolution of a conjecture made by F Treves and L Nirenberg in 1970.
    • 2011 Yves Benoist and Jean-Francois Quint .

  75. Royal Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • When Victoria came to the throne in 1837 the conditions for the Royal Medals changed to operate on a three year cycle with Mathematics being one of the subjects for which a Medal could be awarded every third year.
    • In 1850, however, the conditions were changed again as follows:- .
    • 1841 George Ohm .
    • for his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825.
    • 1861 James J Sylvester .
    • 1911 George Chrystal .
    • 1941 Edward A Milne .

  76. LMS Senior Whitehead Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 W B R Lickorish .
    • 2001 D W Moore .
    • 2011 J Pila .

  77. Australian Mathematical Society Mahler Lecturership
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 John Coates .
    • 2001 Robin Thomas .

  78. DVR Honorary Members
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  79. Karp Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Karp Prize was established in 1973 in memory of Carol Karp.

  80. AMS Conant Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2001 Carl Pomerance .

  81. Sverdrup Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • It is named for Erling Sverdrup who was the professor of mathematical statistics and insurance mathematics in the Department of Mathematics at Oslo University from 1953 to 1984.
    • Erling Sverdrup (1917-1994) was an actuarial student in Oslo when German forces attacked Norway in April 1940.
    • before moving to London, England, in 1942.
    • He completed his studies at the University of Oslo and qualified as an actuary in 1945.
    • He continued his cipher work until, in 1948, he was appointed as an assistant to the Mathematical Insurance Seminar at the University of Oslo, the department of the university that trained actuaries.
    • in the United States at Berkeley, Chicago and Columbia, receiving the degree from the University of Oslo in 1952.
    • In 1954 he was elected to the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and he was elected an honorary member of the Norwegian Statistical Association.
    • In 1969 he was elected a fellow of the American Statistical Association.
    • 2011 Tore Schweder .
    • 2011 Ida Scheel .

  82. Herbrand Award
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Conference on Automated Deduction set up the Herbrand Award for Distinguished Contributions to Automated Reasoning in 1992.
    • 2001 Donald W Loveland .
    • 2011 Nachum Dershowitz .

  83. New Zealand Mathematics Society Research Award
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 John Butcher.
    • 1991 Rob Goldblatt.
    • 2001 Warren Moors.
    • 2011 Shaun Cooper.

  84. Lowndean chair
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • It was founded in 1749 by the astronomer Thomas Lowndes.
    • 1750 - 1771 Roger Long .
    • 1771 - 1795 John Smith .
    • 1795 - 1837 William Lax .
    • 1837 - 1859 George Peacock .
    • 1859 - 1892 John Couch Adams .
    • 1892 - 1913 Robert Stawell Ball .
    • 1914 - 1936 Henry Baker .
    • 1936 - 1970 William Hodge .
    • 1970 - 1989 Frank Adams .
    • 1990 - 1999 Graeme Segal .
    • 2000 - 2104 Burt Totaro .

  85. Lagrange Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2011 Alexandre J.

  86. RSS Honorary Fellowships
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1971 B Barberi .
    • 1991 W Seltzer .
    • 1991 O B Sheynin .
    • 1991 G Theodore .
    • 2001 C Short .

  87. Schafer Mathematics Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 Jeanne Nielsen Clelland .
    • 2001 Jaclyn (Kohles) Anderson .

  88. Brouwer Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Beginning in 1970, the Dutch Mathematical Society, the Wiskundig Genootschap, began awarding its Brouwer Medal.
    • 1981 H Kesten .
    • 2011 K.

  89. Anna and Lajos Erdos Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • This prize was first awarded in 1977 and was, at that time, known as the Erdős Prize.
    • The name was changed in 1996 to the Anna and Lajos Erdős Prize reflecting the original wish of Paul Erdős.
    • 1981 Ofer Gabber, Tel Aviv University .
    • 2001 Zeev Rudnick, Tel Aviv University .
    • 2011 Tamar Ziegler, The Technion .

  90. AMS Wiener Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • was established in 1967 to honour Norbert Wiener.

  91. AMS Colloquium Lecturer
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The New York Mathematical Society changed its name to the American Mathematical Society and held its first meeting in Brooklyn in 1894 under its new name.
    • The first was held in Springfield, Massachusetts in the summer of 1895, the second at Buffalo, New York in the summer of 1896 .
    • The summer meeting at Buffalo in 1896 is memorable for the first colloquium of the Society.
    • 1901 Oskar Bolza .
    • 1901 E W Brown .
    • 1931 Marston Morse .
    • 1941 Oystein Ore .
    • 1951 Deane Montgomery .
    • 1961 G W Mackey .
    • 1971 Lipman Bers .
    • 1971 Armand Borel .
    • 1981 Mark Kac .
    • 1981 Serge Lang .
    • 1991 Robert D MacPherson .
    • 2001 Janos Kollar .
    • 2011 Alexander Lubotzky .

  92. AMS Cole Prize in Algebra
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • for four papers on algebraic varieties published in the American Journal of Mathematics and in the Annals of Mathematics in 1939 and 1940.

  93. Microsoft Research Prize in Algebra and Number Theory
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  94. Haim Nessyahu Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • His formal education began in 1970 in the "Gavrieli" school, in Tel Aviv.
    • Then, in 1973, Haim joined a newly formed class of gifted children, the first of its kind in Israel.
    • In 1982, Haim joined the military academic reserve, in the framework of which he studied towards a B.Sc.
    • He graduated in 1984, Summa Cum Laude.
    • After resigning from the army, in 1989, he joined Professor Tadmor at NASA Langley Research Center, in Hampton Virginia, as a graduate fellow, where he continued his mathematical research.
    • He completed his doctoral dissertation in 1994 and was accepted for a post-doctoral position as Assistant Professor of Computational and Applied Mathematics at the University of Los Angeles.
    • 2001 Elon Lindenstrauss, Entropy Properties of Dynamical Systems, Benjamin Weiss, The Hebrew University .
    • 2011 Lev Buhovsky, Topological and Functional Rigidity in Symplectic Topology, Paul Biran, Tel Aviv University .

  95. SIAM Ralph E Kleinman Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2001 William W Symes .

  96. Ostrowski Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 Jean Bourgain .
    • 2001 Henryk Iwaniec .
    • 2001 Peter Sarnak .
    • 2001 Richard L Taylor .
    • 2011 .
    • 2011 .
    • 2011 .

  97. St Petersburg Abramov Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  98. ANZIAM medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Medal was first awarded at the 1995 ANZIAM Conference and has been awarded biennially since 1995 (with the exception of three years between the 2001 and the 2004 awards).
    • 2001 Charles E M Pearce .

  99. AWM-SIAM Kovalevsky Lecture
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  100. Alice T Schafer Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Schafer Prize was established in 1990 by the Executive Committee of the Association for Women in Mathematics and is named for the Association for Women in Mathematics former president and one of its founding members, Alice Turner Schafer, who contributed a great deal to women in mathematics throughout her career.
    • 1991 Winner: Jeanne Nielsen Clelland.
    • 2001 Winner: Jaclyn (Kohles) Anderson.
    • 2011 Winner: Sherry Gong.

  101. Ribenboim Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  102. Bowen Lecturer
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Bowen Lectures were set up at the University of California at Berkeley in 1981 in honour of Rufus Bowen.
    • 1981-82 n Dennis Sullivan .
    • 1990-91 n John Milnor .
    • 1991-92 n Philip Holmes .
    • 2000-01 n Don Zagier .
    • 2001-02 n Yakov G Sinai .
    • 2009-10 n Christophe Soule .
    • 2010-11 n Michael Hopkins .
    • 2011-12 n Cedric Villani .
    • 2012-13 n Benedict Gross .
    • 2013-14 n Jeff Cheeger .
    • 2014-15 n Dusa McDuff .

  103. Austrian Mathematical Society Forderungspreis
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The decision to award this prize was made at the board meeting on 18 November 1955 at the request of Hans Hornich.
    • 1971 Peter Gerl .
    • 1981 Johann Linhart, Viktor Losert .
    • 1991 Christian Buchta .
    • 2001 Andreas Cap .
    • 2011 Christof Sparber .

  104. Pythagoras Award
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  105. MSJ Geometry Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 Masaru Takeuchi .
    • 2001 Reiko Miyaoka .

  106. Dahlquist Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The prize, established in 1995, is awarded to a young scientist (normally under 45) for original contributions to fields associated with Germund Dahlquist, especially the numerical solution of differential equations and numerical methods for scientific computing.
    • 2001 Christian Lubich .
    • 2011 Steven J.

  107. Gödel Lecturer
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 Dana Scott, Will Logicians be Replaced by Machines? .
    • 2001 Theodore A Slaman, Recursion Theory.
    • 2011 Anand Pillay, First order theories .

  108. Wilks Award of the ASS
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • It was established in 1964 to honour Samuel S Wilks:- .
    • 1971 Harold F Dodge .
    • 1981 Holbrook Working .
    • 1991 Ingram Olkin .
    • 2001 George C Tiao .

  109. Fellow of the Royal Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1663 - 1749 .
    • John Craig 1711 .
    • William Jones 1711 .
    • Roger Cotes 1711 .
    • 1750 - 1849 .
    • Roger J Boscovich 1761 .
    • Francis Maseres 1771 .
    • Joseph L M Lagrange 1791 .
    • Jean B J Delambre 1791 .
    • Simon Lhuilier 1791 .
    • William H F Talbot 1831 .
    • 1850 - 1899 .
    • George G Stokes 1851 .
    • William Thomson 1851 .
    • Thomas A Hirst 1861 .
    • James C Maxwell 1861 .
    • Henry J S Smith 1861 .
    • Carl W von Weierstrass 1881 .
    • Alfred B Kempe 1881 .
    • Henry Watson 1881 .
    • Oliver Heaviside 1891 .
    • 1900 - 1939 .
    • Hector M Macdonald 1901 .
    • John C Fields 1913 .
    • Albert Einstein 1921 .
    • George U Yule 1921 .
    • Edward C Titchmarsh 1931 .
    • 1940 - 1965 .
    • Hans A Heilbronn 1951 .
    • Alan M Turing 1951 .
    • Douglas G Northcott 1961 .
    • Solomon Lefschetz 1961 .
    • 1966 - 1989 .
    • John F C Kingman 1971 .
    • Henri Cartan 1971 .
    • John H Conway 1981 .
    • 1990 - 2016 .
    • N J Hitchin 1991 .
    • K Walters 1991 .
    • A M Soward 1991 .
    • I Stewart 2001 .

  110. AMS Gibbs Lecturer
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1931 P W Bridgman .
    • 1941 Sewall Wright .
    • 1951 Kurt Godel .
    • 1961 J J Stoker .
    • 1971 Eberhard Hopf .
    • 1981 Cathleen Synge Morawetz .
    • 1991 Michael F Atiyah .
    • 2001 Ronald L Graham .
    • 2011 George Papanicolaou .

  111. Waynflete Chair
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1892 - 1921 Edwin Elliott .
    • 1922 - 1945 Arthur L Dixon .
    • 1947 - 1960 J H C Whitehead .
    • 1960 - 1984 Graham Higman .

  112. Presidents of the Royal Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1662-1677 William, Viscount Brouncker .
    • 1680-1682 Sir Christopher Wren .
    • 1703-1727 Sir Isaac Newton .
    • 1871-1873 Sir George Biddell Airy .
    • 1878-1883 William Spottiswoode .
    • 1885-1890 Sir George Gabriel Stokes .
    • 1890-1895 Lord Kelvin (Sir William Thomson) .
    • 1905-1908 John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh .
    • 1990-1995 Sir Michael Atiyah .

  113. Fields Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The International Congress of Mathematicians at Zurich in 1932 adopted his proposal, and the Fields Medal was first awarded at the next congress, held at Oslo in 1936.

  114. Plumian chair
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • It was founded in 1704 by Thomas Plume.
    • 1707 - 1716 Roger Cotes .
    • 1716 - 1760 Robert Smith .
    • 1760 - 1796 Anthony Shepherd .
    • 1796 - 1821 Samuel Vince .
    • 1822 - 1827 Robert Woodhouse .
    • 1828 - 1836 George Airy .
    • 1836 - 1883 James Challis .
    • 1883 - 1912 George Darwin .
    • 1913 - 1944 Arthur Eddington .
    • 1946 - 1958 Harold Jeffreys .
    • 1958 - 1972 Fred Hoyle .
    • 1973 - 1991 Martin Rees .
    • 2001 - 2003 Jeremiah Ostriker .

  115. CMS Krieger-Nelson Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The first prize was awarded in 1995.
    • 2001 Lisa Jeffrey .
    • 2011 Rachel Kuske .

  116. Lunar features
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  117. Nobel Prizes
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1911 Wien .
    • 1921 Einstein .

  118. De Morgan Medal Winners
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1911 H Lamb .
    • 1941 L J Mordell .
    • 1971 K Mahler .
    • 2001 J A Green .

  119. Ruth I Michler Memorial Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1993 for her thesis Hodge components of cyclic homology of affine hypersurfaces.
    • 2009-2010 Maria Gordina, University of Connecticut.
    • Maria spent the spring semester of the 2009-2010 academic year at Cornell.
    • 2010-2011 Patricia Hersh, North Carolina State University.
    • Patricia spent the fall semester of the 2010-2011 academic year at Cornell.
    • 2011-2012 Anna Mazzucato, Pennsylvania State University.
    • Anna spent the spring semester of the 2011-2012 academic year at Cornell.
    • 2012-2013 Ling Long, Iowa State University.
    • Ling spent the full 2012-2013 academic year at Cornell.
    • 2013-2014 Megumi Harada, MacMaster University.
    • Megumi spent the spring semester of the 2014-2015 academic year at Cornell.
    • 2014-2015 Sema Salur, University of Rochester.
    • Sema spent the spring semester of the 2014-2015 academic year at Cornell.
    • 2015-2016 Malabika Pramanik, University of British Columbia.
    • Malabika spent the spring semester of the 2015-2016 academic year at Cornell.
    • 2016-2017 Pallavi Dani, Louisiana State University.
    • Pallavi spent the spring semester of the 2016-2017 academic year at Cornell.
    • 2017-2018 Julia Gordon, University of British Columbia.
    • Julia will spend the spring semester of the 2017-2018 academic year at Cornell.

  120. Spring Prize of the Mathematical Society of Japan
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1981 Masaki Kashiwara .
    • 1991 Morihiko Saito .
    • 2001 Takeshi Saito .
    • 2011 Atsushi Shiho .

  121. Eiffel Tower
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  122. SIAM von Kármán Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  123. British Mathematical Colloquium
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  124. CMS Coxeter-James Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The first award was made in 1978.
    • 1981 J Millson .
    • 1991 K Murty .
    • 2001 Kai Behrend .
    • 2011 Iosif Polterovich .

  125. AMS President
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1889 - 1890 J H Van Amringe .
    • 1891 - 1894 J E McClintock .
    • 1895 - 1896 G W Hill .
    • 1897 - 1898 Simon Newcomb .
    • 1899 - 1900 R S Woodward .
    • 1901 - 1902 Eliakim Moore .
    • 1903 - 1904 T S Fiske .
    • 1905 - 1906 W F Osgood .
    • 1907 - 1908 H S White .
    • 1909 - 1910 Maxime Bocher .
    • 1911 - 1912 H B Fine .
    • 1913 - 1914 E B Van Vleck .
    • 1915 - 1916 E W Brown .
    • 1917 - 1918 L E Dickson .
    • 1919 - 1920 Frank Morley .
    • 1921 - 1922 G A Bliss .
    • 1923 - 1924 Oswald Veblen .
    • 1925 - 1926 G D Birkhoff .
    • 1927 - 1928 Virgil Snyder .
    • 1929 - 1930 E R Hedrick .
    • 1931 - 1932 L P Eisenhart .
    • 1933 - 1934 A B Coble .
    • 1935 - 1936 Solomon Lefschetz .
    • 1937 - 1938 Robert Moore .
    • 1939 - 1940 G C Evans .
    • 1941 - 1942 Marston Morse .
    • 1943 - 1944 M H Stone .
    • 1945 - 1946 T H Hildebrandt .
    • 1947 - 1948 Einar Hille .
    • 1949 - 1950 J L Walsh .
    • 1951 - 1952 John von Neumann .
    • 1953 - 1954 G T Whyburn .
    • 1955 - 1956 R L Wilder .
    • 1957 - 1958 Richard Brauer .
    • 1959 - 1960 E J McShane .
    • 1961 - 1962 Deane Montgomery .
    • 1963 - 1964 J L Doob .
    • 1965 - 1966 Abraham Albert .
    • 1967 - 1968 C B Morrey, Jr .
    • 1969 - 1970 Oscar Zariski .
    • 1971 - 1972 Nathan Jacobson .
    • 1973 - 1974 Saunders Mac Lane .
    • 1975 - 1976 Lipman Bers .
    • 1977 - 1978 R H Bing .
    • 1979 - 1980 Peter D Lax .
    • 1981 - 1982 Andrew M Gleason .
    • 1983 - 1984 Julia Robinson .
    • 1985 - 1986 Irving Kaplansky .
    • 1987 - 1988 George Daniel Mostow .
    • 1989 - 1990 William Browder .
    • 1991 - 1992 Michael Artin .
    • 1993 - 1994 Ronald L Graham .
    • 1995 - 1996 Cathleen Synge Morawetz .
    • 1997 - 1998 Arthur M Jaffe .
    • 2001 - 2002 Hyman Bass .
    • 2009 - 2010 George E Andrews .
    • 2011 - 2012 Eric M.
    • 2013 - 2014 David A.
    • 2015 - 2016 Robert L.

  126. LMS President
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1865 - 1866 A De Morgan .
    • 1866 - 1868 J J Sylvester .
    • 1868 - 1870 A Cayley .
    • 1870 - 1872 W Spottiswoode .
    • 1872 - 1874 T A Hirst .
    • 1874 - 1876 H J S Smith .
    • 1876 - 1878 Lord Rayleigh .
    • 1878 - 1880 C W Merrifield .
    • 1880 - 1882 S Roberts .
    • 1882 - 1884 O Henrici .
    • 1884 - 1886 J W L Glaisher .
    • 1886 - 1888 J Cockle .
    • 1888 - 1890 J J Walker .
    • 1890 - 1892 G Greenhill .
    • 1892 - 1894 A B Kempe .
    • 1894 - 1896 P A MacMahon .
    • 1896 - 1898 E B Elliott .
    • 1898 - 1900 W Thomson .
    • 1900 - 1902 E W Hobson .
    • 1902 - 1904 H Lamb .
    • 1904 - 1906 A R Forsyth .
    • 1906 - 1908 W Burnside .
    • 1908 - 1910 W Niven .
    • 1910 - 1912 H F Baker .
    • 1912 - 1914 A E H Love .
    • 1914 - 1916 J Larmor .
    • 1916 - 1918 H M Macdonald .
    • 1918 - 1920 J E Campbell .
    • 1920 - 1922 H W Richmond .
    • 1922 - 1924 W H Young .
    • 1924 - 1926 A L Dixon .
    • 1926 - 1928 G H Hardy .
    • 1928 - 1929 E T Whittaker .
    • 1929 - 1931 S Chapman .
    • 1931 - 1933 A C Dixon .
    • 1933 - 1935 G N Watson .
    • 1935 - 1937 G B Jeffery .
    • 1937 - 1939 E A Milne .
    • 1939 - 1941 G H Hardy .
    • 1941 - 1943 J E Littlewood .
    • 1943 - 1945 L J Mordelll .
    • 1945 - 1947 E C Titchmarsh .
    • 1947 - 1949 W V D Hodge .
    • 1949 - 1951 M H A Newman .
    • 1951 - 1953 G Temple .
    • 1953 - 1955 Henry Whitehead .
    • 1955 - 1957 P Hall .
    • 1957 - 1959 H Davenport .
    • 1959 - 1961 H A Heilbronn .
    • 1961 - 1963 M L Cartwright .
    • 1963 - 1965 A G Walker .
    • 1965 - 1967 G Higman .
    • 1967 - 1969 J A Todd .
    • 1969 - 1970 E F Collingwood .
    • 1970 - 1972 C A Rogers .
    • 1972 - 1974 D G Kendall .
    • 1974 - 1976 M F Atiyah .
    • 1976 - 1978 J W S Cassels .
    • 1978 - 1980 C T C Wall .
    • 1980 - 1982 B E Johnson .
    • 1982 - 1984 P M Cohn .
    • 1984 - 1986 I M James .
    • 1986 - 1988 E C Zeeman .
    • 1988 - 1990 J H Coates .
    • 1990 - 1992 J Kingman .
    • 1992 - 1994 J R Ringrose .
    • 1994 - 1996 N J Hitchin .
    • 1996 - 1998 J M Ball .
    • 2009 - 2010 John M Ball .
    • 2010 - 2011 A J Macintyre .
    • 2112 - 2113 Graeme Segal .
    • 2114 - 2115 Terry Lyons .

  127. MSJ Seki-Takakazu Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • It was first awarded in 1995.
    • was founded in 1988 by the Johns Hopkins Mathematics Department, with the cooperation of the Office of the President of Johns Hopkins University and members of the mathematical community of Japan.

  128. Antonio Valle Award
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The award was established in 1998, but only named for Antonio Valle from 2013 onwards.
    • 2001: Javier Sayas, Universidad de Zaragoza.
    • 2011: David Pardo Zubiaur, Universidad del Pais Vasco.

  129. IMA prizewinner
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • This prize, created to preserve the memory of Catherine Richards who served as the Executive Secretart of the Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications from 1987 to 1993, is awarded for the best article in the preceeding years Mathematics Today, a general interest publication of the Institute.
    • 2011 n nJohn Barrow .
    • It is awarded every two years, the first award being in 1982.
    • This Prize, established in 1985, is to preserve the memory of Leslie Fox, a world-leading researcher in numerical analysis and a founder member of the Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications.
    • 2011 n nRaphael Assier: for the paper On the diffraction of acoustic waves by a quarter-plane.

  130. Premio Nacional de Matematicas
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1991 Alonso Takahashi .
    • 2011 Jose Raul Quintero .

  131. Sadosky Prize in Analysis
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Before listing winners of the Sadosky Research Prize in Analysis we should say a little more about Cora Susana Sadosky de Goldstein (1940-2010).
    • Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Manuel Sadosky and Cora Batto de Sadosky, both of whom were mathematicians, she obtaind the equivalent of a Master's Degree from the University of Buenos Aires in 1960, and a Ph.D.
    • from the University of Chicago in 1965 for her thesis On Class Preservation And Pointwise Convergence For Parabolic Singular Integral Operators.

  132. George Szekeres Medal.html
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • In 2001 the Australian Mathematical Society established the George Szekeres Medal for outstanding research contributions over a fifteen-year period.
    • This medal commemorates the achievements of the Hungarian born George Szekeres (1911-2005) in number theory, combinatorics, analysis, and relativity.

  133. Hirst Prize winner
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  134. AMS Veblen Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1971 Robion C Kirby .
    • 1971 Dennis P Sullivan .
    • 1981 Mikhael Gromov .
    • 1981 Shing-Tung Yau .
    • 1991 Andrew J Casson .
    • 2001 Jeff Cheeger .

  135. NAS Award in Applied Mathematics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The award was first made in 1972 and last made in 2002.

  136. Bruce Medallists
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1911 Poincare .
    • 1931 Sitter .

  137. LMS Honorary Member
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1871 O Hesse .
    • 1871 C Hermite .
    • 1871 E Betti .
    • 1871 L Cremona .
    • 1871 R F A Clebsch .
    • 1901 D Hilbert .
    • 1901 G Cantor .
    • 1901 U Dini .
    • 1981 L Carleson .
    • 1991 S Karlin .
    • 2001 A J Wiles .
    • 2001 C Synge Morawetz .

  138. Aubrey's Brief Lives
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • John Aubrey (1626 - 1695) made a collection of notes, anecdotes and gossip about his contemporaries which are gathered together under the title Brief Lives.

  139. Levitzky Prize in Algebra
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Charlotte Levitzky (nee Ascher) was born in Berlin in 1910.
    • She became a librarian and worked in a large bookstore until the Nazis led by Hitler came to power in 1933.
    • In 1939 she married Jacob Levitzky and the family settled in Jerusalem.
    • She rose quickly through the ranks of the Hebrew University National Library and became head of the acquisition department, a role she held until she retired in 1972.
    • From that time, almost until her death in 1997, she volunteered in various institutions, including Hadassah hospital.
    • 2011 Michael Temkin, The Hebrew University .

  140. MSJ Algebra Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2001 Tamotsu Ikeda, Toshiaki Shoji .

  141. Su Buchin Prize
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 2011 Edward Lungu .

  142. Berwick Prizewinner
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1951 D B Scott .
    • 1961 M F Atiyah .
    • 1971 J H Conway .
    • 1981 D R Heath-Brown .
    • 1991 W W Crawley-Boevey .
    • 2001 M Du Sautoy .

  143. Lucasian Chairs
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics was founded in 1663 at Cambridge University as a result of a gift from .
    • 1711 Nicolas Saunderson .

  144. Presidents of the Swiss Mathematical Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1910-12 Rudolf Fueter, Basel .
    • 1913-15 Henri G Fehr, Geneve .
    • 1916-17 Marcel Grossmann, Zurich .
    • 1918-19 Michel Plancherel, Fribourg .
    • 1920-21 Louis Crelier, Bern .
    • 1930-31 S Dumas, Bern .
    • 1940-41 Louis Kollros, Zurich .
    • 1950-51 Albert Pfluger, Zurich .
    • 1960-61 Heinrich Jecklin, Zurich .
    • 1970-71 Roger Bader, Neuchatel .
    • 1980-81 Peter Gabriel, Zurich .
    • 1990-91 Urs Stammbach, Zurich .
    • 2000-01 Urs Wurgler, Uni Bern .

  145. Australian Mathematical Society Medal
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Since 1981 the Australian Mathematical Society has awarded the Australian Mathematical Society Medal which recognises distinguished mathematical sciences research by members of the Australian Mathematical Society.
    • 1981 Neil Trudinger .
    • 1991 Gerhard Huisken .
    • 2001 Pier Bouwknegt, Alexander Molev, and Hugh Possingham .
    • 2011 Todd Oliynyk .

  146. History of the Royal Society
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Boyle, in his letters written in 1646 and 1647, refers to our invisible college or the philosophical college.
    • By the summer of 1661 the members were discussing the name of the Society and how they might obtain a Royal Charter of incorporation.
    • After petitions to King Charles II, the Charter of Incorporation passed the Great Seal on 15 July 1662 and the Royal Society of London officially existed from that date.
    • At the meeting of the Society on 20 May 1663, 150 Fellows were elected.
    • The number rose from the original 150 to over 200 by 1675 but then dropped to around 100 by 1690.
    • The numbers then fell rapidly to around 450 by 1880.

  147. Wedderburn 1
    • Birth/death dates: 03/02/1884 - 03/06/1958 .
    • Elected: 21/01/1907 .

  148. Hyslop 1
    • Elected: 14/03/1927 .

  149. Smart 1
    • Birth/death dates: ? - 05/12/1939 .
    • Elected: 03/06/1901 .

  150. Williamson 1
    • Birth/death dates: c1725 - 03/06/1795 .
    • Elected: 17/11/1783 .

  151. Burgess 1
    • Birth/death dates: 1873 - 29/03/1932 .
    • Elected: 03/03/1902 .

  152. Lamb 1
    • Birth/death dates: 04/03/1869 - 07/02/1930 .
    • Elected: 07/03/1921 .

  153. Gray 1
    • Birth/death dates: 02/07/1847 - 10/10/1925 .
    • Elected: 05/03/1883 .

  154. Fellows of the RSE
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  155. Ross 1
    • Birth/death dates: 07/09/1883 - 14/12/1966 .
    • Elected: 18/01/1909 .

  156. Brown 1
    • Birth/death dates: 1878 - 27/01/1947 .
    • Elected: 20/05/1907 .

  157. Thomson 1
    • Birth/death dates: 1850 - 14/02/1930 .
    • Elected: 07/02/1887 .

  158. Fellows of the RSE
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  159. Macintyre 1
    • Birth/death dates: 03/07/1908 - 04/08/1967 .
    • Elected: 03/03/1947 .

  160. Hunter 1
    • Birth/death dates: 23/03/1843 - 13/09/1872 .
    • Elected: 02/05/1870 .

  161. Marshall 1
    • Birth/death dates: 09/04/1848 - 13/03/1932 .
    • Elected: 03/04/1882 .

  162. Hamilton 1
    • Birth/death dates: 03/04/1794 - 07/02/1880 .
    • Elected: 07/01/1822 .

  163. Milne 1
    • Birth/death dates: c1870 - 19/09/1958 .
    • Elected: 23/01/1905 .

  164. Smith 1
    • Birth/death dates: 14/05/1909 - 16/05/1980 .
    • Elected: 03/03/1969 .

  165. Macdonald 1
    • Elected: 05/03/1984 .

  166. Mackay 1
    • Birth/death dates: 1760 - 03/08/1809 .
    • Elected: 27/01/1793 .

  167. Walker 1
    • Birth/death dates: 18/02/1842 - 26/10/1920 .
    • Elected: 03/03/1873 .

  168. Mackie 1
    • Elected: 05/03/1962 .

  169. Jack 1
    • Birth/death dates: 06/07/1917 - 05/01/1978 .
    • Elected: 02/03/1970 .

  170. Leslie 1
    • Birth/death dates: 08/03/1935 - 15/06/2000 .
    • Elected: 03/03/1980 .

  171. Miller 1
    • Birth/death dates: 19/10/1871 - 14/07/1956 .
    • Elected: 21/02/1910 .

  172. Robertson 1
    • Elected: 07/03/1966 .

  173. Gibson 1
    • Birth/death dates: 19/04/1858 - 01/04/1930 .
    • Elected: 02/12/1889 .

  174. Stewart 1
    • Birth/death dates: 16/09/1888 - ? .
    • Elected: 06/03/1950 .

  175. Wilson 1
    • Birth/death dates: 14/11/1896 - 18/03/1935 .
    • Elected: 05/03/1934 .


References

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Famous Curves

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Chronology

  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Hippasus writes of a "sphere of 12 pentagons", which must refer to a dodecahedron.
    • By using a regular polygon with 192 sides Liu Hui calculates the value of π as 3.14159 which is correct to five decimal places.
    • Zu Chongzhi gives the approximation 355/113 to π which is correct to 6 decimal places.
    • Aryabhata I calculates π to be 3.1416.
    • He knows the pair of amicable numbers 17296, 18416.
    • He measures the length of the year to be 365.24219858156 days, a remarkably accurate result.
    • 1321 .
    • He uses these to find an approximation for π correct to 11 decimal places.
    • 1411 .
    • It contains trigonometric tables correct to eight decimal places based on Ulugh Beg's calculation of the sine of one degree which he calculated correctly to 16 decimal places.
    • Regiomontanus publishes his Ephemerides, astronomical tables for the years 1475 to 1506 AD, and proposes a method for calculating longitude by using the moon.
    • He understands that x0 = 1.
    • The number 212(213 - 1) = 33550336 is the first perfect number to be discovered since ancient times.
    • 1541 .
    • 1551 .
    • J Scheybl gives the sixth perfect number 216(217 - 1) = 8589869056 but his work remains unknown until 1977.
    • 1571 .
    • 1591 .
    • Van Roomen calculates π to 16 decimal places.
    • Cataldi finds the sixth and seventh perfect numbers, 216(217 - 1) =8589869056 and 218(219 - 1) = 137438691328.
    • He first had the idea at his marriage celebrations in 1613.
    • Briggs publishes Logarithmorum chilias prima (Logarithms of Numbers from 1 to 1,000) which introduces logarithms to the base 10.
    • 1621 .
    • It gives the logarithms of the natural numbers from 1 to 20,000 and 90,000 to 100,000 computed to 14 decimal places as well as tables of the sine function to 15 decimal places, and the tangent and secant functions to 10 decimal places.
    • 1631 .
    • 1631 .
    • Fermat discovers the pair of amicable numbers 17296, 18416 which were known to Thabit ibn Qurra 800 years earlier.
    • 1641 .
    • This theorem is finally proved to be true by Wiles in 1994.
    • It is not published, however, until 1661 when it appears as an appendix to van Schooten's major work.
    • 1651 .
    • 1661 .
    • Pell gives a table of factors of all integers up to 100000.
    • 1671 .
    • 1671 .
    • It was not published until 1701.
    • 1691 .
    • 1691 .
    • 1711 .
    • 1731 .
    • Gauss, in 1820, also investigated the normal distribution.
    • The famous formula eπi = -1 appears for the first time in this text.
    • 1751 .
    • 1761 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • He publishes a more general result in 1768.
    • 1771 .
    • Lagrange proves Wilson's theorem (first stated without proof by Waring) that n is prime if and only if (n - 1)! + 1 is divisible by n.
    • 1781 .
    • 1781 .
    • Wessel presents a paper on the vector representation of complex numbers which is published in Danish in 1799.
    • The idea first appears in a report he wrote in 1787.
    • Gauss proves the fundamental theorem of algebra and notes that earlier proofs, such as by d'Alembert in 1746, could easily be corrected.
    • It was largely ignored as were the further proofs he would publish in 1803, 1808 and 1813.
    • 1801 .
    • 1801 .
    • 1801 .
    • 1811 .
    • Barlow produces Barlow's Tables which give factors, squares, cubes, square roots, reciprocals and hyperbolic logs of all numbers from 1 to 10000.
    • 1821 .
    • 1821 .
    • Fourier's prize winning essay of 1811 is published as Theorie analytique de la chaleur (Analytical Theory of Heat).
    • He publishes his theories on the topic in 1832.
    • 1831 .
    • 1831 .
    • Legendre points out the flaws in 12 "proofs" of the parallel postulate.
    • 1841 .
    • 1841 .
    • 1841 .
    • Maxwell writes his first paper at the age of 14: On the description of oval curves, and those having a plurality of foci.
    • 1851 .
    • 1851 .
    • In particular he gave the example 0.1100010000000000000000010000..
    • 1851 .
    • Shanks gives π to 707 places (in 1944 it was discovered that Shanks was wrong from the 528th place).
    • In his lecture Uber die Hypothesen welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen (On the hypotheses that lie at the foundations of geometry), delivered on 10 June 1854 he defines an n-dimensional space and gives a definition of what today is called a "Riemannian space".
    • Cayley gives an abstract definition of a matrix, a term introduced by Sylvester in 1850, and in A Memoir on the Theory of Matrices he studies its properties.
    • 1861 .
    • 1871 .
    • Cantor is surprised at his own discovery that there is a one-one correspondence between points on the interval [0, 1] and points in a square.
    • 1881 .
    • 1881 .
    • 1891 .
    • Pearson publishes the first in a series of 18 papers, written over the next 18 years, which introduce a number of fundamental concepts to the study of statistics.
    • 1901 .
    • 1901 .
    • 1901 .
    • 1901 .
    • 1901 .
    • 1911 .
    • Sergi Bernstein introduces the "Bernstein polynomials" in giving a constructive proof of Weierstrass's theorem of 1885.
    • 1921 .
    • 1921 .
    • 1921 .
    • 1921 .
    • 1931 .
    • 1931 .
    • 1931 .
    • 1931 .
    • They proved that aq is transcendental when a is algebraic ( noteq 0 or 1) and q is an irrational algebraic number.
    • 1941 .
    • 1941 .
    • 1951 .
    • 1961 .
    • 1961 .
    • It will lead to the award of a Nobel Prize in 1994.
    • They find 275 + 845 + 1105 + 1335 = 1445.
    • Atiyah publishes K-theory which details his work on K-theory and the index theorem which led to the award of a Fields Medal in 1966.
    • 1971 .
    • Feigenbaum discovers a new constant, approximately 4.669201660910..
    • First published in four parts in 1963-64 the work gives Lakatos's account of how mathematics develops.
    • Mandelbrot publishes The fractal geometry of nature which develops his theory of fractal geometry more fully than his work of 1975.
    • This proves a further case of the higher dimensional Poincare conjecture following Smale's work in 1961.
    • Elkies finds a counterexample to Euler's Conjecture with n = 4, namely 958004 + 2175194 + 4145604 = 4224814.
    • 1991 .
    • 1991 .
    • The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search project finds the 38th Mersenne prime: 26972593 -1.
    • Wiles proved a special case in 1993 on his way to giving a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.
    • JOC/EFR August 2001 .

  2. Chronology for 1600 to 1625
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1600 to 1625 .
    • Cataldi finds the sixth and seventh perfect numbers, 216(217 - 1) =8589869056 and 218(219 - 1) = 137438691328.
    • He first had the idea at his marriage celebrations in 1613.
    • Briggs publishes Logarithmorum chilias prima (Logarithms of Numbers from 1 to 1,000) which introduces logarithms to the base 10.
    • 1621 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • It gives the logarithms of the natural numbers from 1 to 20,000 and 90,000 to 100,000 computed to 14 decimal places as well as tables of the sine function to 15 decimal places, and the tangent and secant functions to 10 decimal places.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1600.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1625.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1600_1625.html .

  3. Chronology for 1760 to 1780
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1760 to 1780 .
    • 1761 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • He publishes a more general result in 1768.
    • 1771 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Lagrange proves Wilson's theorem (first stated without proof by Waring) that n is prime if and only if (n - 1)! + 1 is divisible by n.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1760.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1780.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1760_1780.html .

  4. Chronology for 1500 to 1600
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1500 to 1600 .
    • He understands that x0 = 1.
    • The number 212(213 - 1) = 33550336 is the first perfect number to be discovered since ancient times.
    • 1541 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1551 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • J Scheybl gives the sixth perfect number 216(217 - 1) = 8589869056 but his work remains unknown until 1977.
    • 1571 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1591 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Van Roomen calculates π to 16 decimal places.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1500.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1600.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1500_1600.html .

  5. Chronology for 1850 to 1860
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1850 to 1860 .
    • 1851 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1851 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • In particular he gave the example 0.1100010000000000000000010000..
    • 1851 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Shanks gives π to 707 places (in 1944 it was discovered that Shanks was wrong from the 528th place).
    • In his lecture Uber die Hypothesen welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen (On the hypotheses that lie at the foundations of geometry), delivered on 10 June 1854 he defines an n-dimensional space and gives a definition of what today is called a "Riemannian space".
    • Cayley gives an abstract definition of a matrix, a term introduced by Sylvester in 1850, and in A Memoir on the Theory of Matrices he studies its properties.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1850.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1860.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1850_1860.html .

  6. Chronology for 1930 to 1940

  7. Chronology for 1740 to 1760
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1740 to 1760 .
    • The famous formula eπi = -1 appears for the first time in this text.
    • 1751 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1740.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1760.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1740_1760.html .

  8. Chronology for 1840 to 1850
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1840 to 1850 .
    • 1841 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1841 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1841 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Maxwell writes his first paper at the age of 14: On the description of oval curves, and those having a plurality of foci.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1840.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1850.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1840_1850.html .

  9. Chronology for 1650 to 1675

  10. Chronology for 1810 to 1820
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1810 to 1820 .
    • 1811 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Barlow produces Barlow's Tables which give factors, squares, cubes, square roots, reciprocals and hyperbolic logs of all numbers from 1 to 10000.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1810.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1820.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1810_1820.html .

  11. Chronology for 1870 to 1880
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1870 to 1880 .
    • 1871 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Cantor is surprised at his own discovery that there is a one-one correspondence between points on the interval [0, 1] and points in a square.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1870.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1880.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1870_1880.html .

  12. Chronology for 1960 to 1970
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1960 to 1970 .
    • 1961 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1961 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • It will lead to the award of a Nobel Prize in 1994.
    • They find 275 + 845 + 1105 + 1335 = 1445.
    • Atiyah publishes K-theory which details his work on K-theory and the index theorem which led to the award of a Fields Medal in 1966.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1960.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1970.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1960_1970.html .

  13. Chronology for 1675 to 1700
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1675 to 1700 .
    • It was not published until 1701.
    • 1691 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1691 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1675.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1700.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1675_1700.html .

  14. Chronology for 1720 to 1740
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1720 to 1740 .
    • 1731 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Gauss, in 1820, also investigated the normal distribution.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1720.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1740.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1720_1740.html .

  15. Chronology for 1860 to 1870
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1860 to 1870 .
    • 1861 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1860.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1870.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1860_1870.html .

  16. Chronology for 1880 to 1890
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1880 to 1890 .
    • 1881 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1881 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1880.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1890.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1880_1890.html .

  17. Chronology for 1830 to 1840
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1830 to 1840 .
    • 1831 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1831 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Legendre points out the flaws in 12 "proofs" of the parallel postulate.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1830.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1840.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1830_1840.html .

  18. Chronology for 900 to 1100
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 900 to 1100 .
    • He measures the length of the year to be 365.24219858156 days, a remarkably accurate result.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1100.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/900_1100.html .

  19. Chronology for 1100 to 1300
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1100 to 1300 .
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1100.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1300.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1100_1300.html .

  20. Chronology for 1700 to 1720
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1700 to 1720 .
    • 1711 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1700.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1720.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1700_1720.html .

  21. Chronology for 500BC to 1AD
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Hippasus writes of a "sphere of 12 pentagons", which must refer to a dodecahedron.

  22. Chronology for 1920 to 1930

  23. Chronology for 1980 to 1990
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1980 to 1990 .
    • Mandelbrot publishes The fractal geometry of nature which develops his theory of fractal geometry more fully than his work of 1975.
    • This proves a further case of the higher dimensional Poincare conjecture following Smale's work in 1961.
    • Elkies finds a counterexample to Euler's Conjecture with n = 4, namely 26824404 + 153656394 + 187967604 = 206156734.
    • Later in the year Frye finds the smallest counter-example: 958004 + 2175194 + 4145604 = 4224814.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1980.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1990.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1980_1990.html .

  24. Chronology for 1625 to 1650
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1625 to 1650 .
    • 1631 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1631 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Fermat discovers the pair of amicable numbers 17296, 18416 which were known to Thabit ibn Qurra 800 years earlier.
    • 1641 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • This theorem is finally proved to be true by Wiles in 1994.
    • It is not published, however, until 1661 when it appears as an appendix to van Schooten's major work.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1625.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1650.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1625_1650.html .

  25. Chronology for 1AD to 500
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • By using a regular polygon with 192 sides Liu Hui calculates the value of π as 3.14159 which is correct to five decimal places.
    • Zu Chongzhi gives the approximation 355/113 to π which is correct to 6 decimal places.
    • Aryabhata I calculates π to be 3.1416.

  26. Chronology for 30000BC to 500BC
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .

  27. Chronology for 1900 to 1910

  28. Chronology for 1940 to 1950
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1940 to 1950 .
    • 1941 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1941 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1940.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1950.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1940_1950.html .

  29. Chronology for 1300 to 1500
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1300 to 1500 .
    • 1321 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • He uses these to find an approximation for π correct to 11 decimal places.
    • 1411 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • It contains trigonometric tables correct to eight decimal places based on Ulugh Beg's calculation of the sine of one degree which he calculated correctly to 16 decimal places.
    • Regiomontanus publishes his Ephemerides, astronomical tables for the years 1475 to 1506 AD, and proposes a method for calculating longitude by using the moon.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1300.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1500.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1300_1500.html .

  30. Chronology for 1970 to 1980
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1970 to 1980 .
    • 1971 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Feigenbaum discovers a new constant, approximately 4.669201609102..
    • First published in four parts in 1963-64 the work gives Lakatos's account of how mathematics develops.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1970.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1980.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1970_1980.html .

  31. Chronology for 1780 to 1800
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1780 to 1800 .
    • 1781 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1781 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Wessel presents a paper on the vector representation of complex numbers which is published in Danish in 1799.
    • The idea first appears in a report he wrote in 1787.
    • Gauss proves the fundamental theorem of algebra and notes that earlier proofs, such as by d'Alembert in 1746, could easily be corrected.
    • It was largely ignored as were the further proofs he would publish in 1803, 1808 and 1813.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1780.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1800.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1780_1800.html .

  32. Chronology for 1890 to 1900
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1890 to 1900 .
    • 1891 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Pearson publishes the first in a series of 18 papers, written over the next 18 years, which introduce a number of fundamental concepts to the study of statistics.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1890.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1900.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1890_1900.html .

  33. Chronology for 1820 to 1830
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1820 to 1830 .
    • 1821 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1821 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Fourier's prize winning essay of 1811 is published as Theorie analytique de la chaleur (Analytical Theory of Heat).
    • He publishes his theories on the topic in 1832.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1820.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1830.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1820_1830.html .

  34. Chronology for 1800 to 1810

  35. Chronology for 1910 to 1920
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1910 to 1920 .
    • 1911 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Sergi Bernstein introduces the "Bernstein polynomials" in giving a constructive proof of Weierstrass's theorem of 1885.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1910.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1920.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1910_1920.html .

  36. WhoWasThere.html
    • For example, there are more than 1300 mathematicians in our archive who were alive in 1930.
    • 600 - 1500 AD n .
    • 1450 - 1700 n .
    • 1650 - 1800 n .
    • 1750 - 1850 n .
    • 1825 - 1900 n .
    • 1875 - 1960 .

  37. Chronology for 1950 to 1960
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Chronology for 1950 to 1960 .
    • 1951 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1950.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1960.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Chronology/1950_1960.html .

  38. Chronology for 500 to 900
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • He knows the pair of amicable numbers 17296, 18416.

  39. Chronology for 1990 to 2000
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • 1991 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • 1991 .
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search project finds the 38th Mersenne prime: 26972593 -1.
    • Wiles proved a special case in 1993 on his way to giving a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.
    • List of mathematicians alive in 1990.
    • JOC/EFR August 2001 .

  40. Chronology for 30000BC to 500BC
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .


EMS Archive

  1. Zagier Problems
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Somebody incorrectly remembered Fermat's little theorem as saying that the congruence an+1 = a (mod n) holds for all a if n is prime.
    • Show that if (a2 + b2)/(ab + 1) (for a, b ∈ N) is integral, then it is a perfect square.
    • Suppose that bn xn + bn-1 xn-1 + ..
    • Show that the polynomial bn/n! xn + bn-1/(n-1)! xn-1 + ..
    • + b1/1! x + b0, has the same property.
    • tn+5 = (tn+4 tn+1 + tn+3 tn+2 )/tn .
    • with initial values (1, 1, 1, 1, 1).
    • Show that the statement "none of the un are integral" is false, but that the first counterexample is approximately 102019025.
    • vn = (2 + v12 + ..
    • + vn-12) / n .
    • Show that the statement "all of the vn are integral" is false, but that the first counterexample is approximately 10178485291567.
    • During the conference, a further problem was posed by one of the participants, namely, to prove that in any covering of a square checkerboard (of necessarily even edge length) by 2 5; 1 dominos, there would always be a horizontal or vertical line through the checkerboard not passing through any domino.
    • Since I know that I was not the only person who tried to prove these assertions, it may be worth communicating that both are in fact wrong, counterexamples of smallest size for the generalisation and for the original assertion being the 5 5; 6 and 8 5; 8 checkerboards: .
    • 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 .
    • 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 1 3 .
    • 3 3 1 3 1 3 and 2 3 1 1 2 4 1 2 , respectively.
    • 4 2 2 3 1 2 1 4 4 3 2 3 3 2 .
    • 4 1 1 4 4 2 1 3 1 3 1 1 4 1 .
    • 2 3 1 2 4 3 2 2 .
    • 2 4 4 2 4 3 4 1 .
    • 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 1 .

  2. Edinburgh Mathematical Society Lecturers 1883-2016
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 9, 10 .
    • (Glasgow High School) A preliminary account of an overlooked treatise on determinants, published in 1825 .
    • (The Academy, Edinburgh) Mnemonics for π;, 1/π, e .
    • (politician, Edinburgh South MP) Note on Euclid II 11, To divide a straight line in medial section .
    • (College Stanislas, Paris) Composition de Mathematiques elementaires proposee au concours d'Agregation de 1886 .
    • (Edinburgh) On the inequality mxm-1(x-1) < xm-1 < m(x-1) and its consequences .
    • (University College, Dundee) The value of cos 2`0;/17 expressed in quadratic radicals .
    • (Glasgow) A short notice of the additions to the mathematical theory of heat since the transmission of Fourier's memoir of 1811 to the French Academy .
    • 1891-92Back to the top .
    • (Wilson College, Bombay) The factorisation of 1 - 2 xn cos α + x2n .
    • 1901-02Back to the top .
    • (Bhaonagar, Bombay) On factors of numbers of the form {x2n+1k 77; 1} /{xk 7; 1} .
    • 1909-10Back to the top .
    • 1910-11Back to the top .
    • 1911-12Back to the top .
    • 1912-13Back to the top .
    • 1913-14Back to the top .
    • 1914-15Back to the top .
    • 1915-16Back to the top .
    • 1916-17Back to the top .
    • 1917-18Back to the top .
    • 1918-19Back to the top .
    • 1921-22Back to the top .
    • (StnAndrews) The geometrical interpretation of the complete system of two double binary (2, 1) forms .
    • (University College, Dundee) On the factorization of 232 + 1 .
    • 1931-32Back to the top .
    • (St Andrews) The original proof that log 2 = 1 - 1/2 + 1/3 - 1/4 + ..
    • (St Andrews) On the latent roots of a matrix [ (i + j - 1)-1]; .
    • 1941-42Back to the top .
    • 1951-52Back to the top .
    • 1961-62Back to the top .
    • (Toronto) The abstract group G{3,9,10} .
    • 1971-72Back to the top .
    • 1981-82Back to the top .
    • (Leeds) Residual properties of 1-relator groups and 1-relator products .
    • 1991-92Back to the top .
    • 2001-02Back to the top .
    • Steggall: teaching mathematics 1880-1933 .
    • (The Queen's College, Oxford) A discourse concerning algebra: John Wallis (1616-1703) and seventeenth century algebra .
    • 2009-10Back to the top .
    • 2010-11Back to the top .
    • 2011-12Back to the top .
    • 2012-13Back to the top .
    • 2013-14Back to the top .
    • 2014-15Back to the top .
    • 2015-16Back to the top .
    • 2016-17Back to the top .
    • (EPFL Lausanne) (Popular Lecture) 1+1=1, or the Banach-Tarski paradox .
    • 2017-18Back to the top .
    • 2018-19Back to the top .

  3. Solution1.1.html
    • Call the numbers in question "good." Clearly every good number is square-free, since if p2 | n for some prime p then the congruence an+1 = a (mod n) fails for a = p.
    • n = p1 ..
    • pi-1 for each integer i = 1, ..
    • Taking i = 1 forces (p1 - 1) | 1, so if r Ͱ5; 1 then p1 = 2 (this is obvious anyway by taking a = -1 in the defining property of "good").
    • Similarly, taking i = 2 then gives (p2 - 1) | 2, so if r ≥ 2 then p2 = 3.
    • Continuing, we find: if r ≥ 3, then (p3 - 1) | p1 p2 = 6, so p3 = 7; if r ≥ 4 then (p4 - 1) | p1 p2 p3 = 42, so p4 = 43 (the numbers d + 1 are not prime for the other divisors of 42 larger than 6): and if r ≥ 5 then p5 - 1 must divide p1 p2 p3 p4 = 1806.
    • But 1, 2, 6 and 42 are the only divisors of 1806 with d + 1 prime, so p5 cannot exist.

  4. Solution5.1.html
    • The sequence ( tn ) starts 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 11, 37, 83, ..
    • Dividing the recursion tntn+5 = tn+1tn+4 + tn+2tn+3 by tn+1tn+4 gives the simpler recursion wnwn+2 = 1 + 1/wn+1 for the numbers wn = tn+3tn/tn+1tn+2.
    • This says that the seqence of pairs (X, Y) = (wn,wn+1) is generated from the initial value (X, Y) = (1, 1) by (X, Y) &#8614; (Y, (1 + Y-1)/X).
    • A picture shows that these points (wn, wn+1) all lie on a curve, which is then easily found to be given by the equation (XY - 1)(5 - X - Y) = 6.
    • This suggests trying the Ansatz tn = C77; BnAn2, where (- 1)n = 77; 1.
    • This is easily seen to give a solution to our recursion if A is the root of A12 = A4 + 1, and the numerical value A = 1.07283 (approx) does indeed give a reasonably good fit to the data, but eventually fails more and more thoroughly.
    • Looking more carefully, we try the same Ansatz but with C77; replaced by a function C77;(n) which lies between fixed limits but is almost periodic in n, and this works, but with a new value A = 1.07425 (approx).
    • (The coefficient C77;(n) in fact depends on the position of the point (wn, wn+1) on the above-mentioned curve (XY - 1)(5 - X - Y) = 6.) Expanding the function C77;(n) numerically into a Fourier series, we discover that it is a Jacobi theta function, and since theta functions (or quotients of them) are elliptic functions, this leads quickly to elliptic curves and to the above curve E.

  5. Solution1.2.html
    • The value of 2nk + 1 modulo F0 = 3 depends on n modulo 2, so by choosing k congruent to 1 (respectively to 2) modulo 3 we can arrange that all of the values of 2nk + 1 with k odd (respectively even) are divisible by F0 and hence composite.
    • The value of 2nk + 1 modulo F1 = 5 depends on n modulo 4, so by choosing k congruent to 1, 2, 3 or 4 modulo 5 we can ensure that all of the values of 2nk + 1 with n in any fixed residue class mod 4 are divisible by F1 and hence composite.
    • At this point we have fixed k mod F0 F1 = 15 = 24 - 1 (more specifically, we have 4 ways of choosing the residue class of k mod 15) and have eliminated 3/4 of the values of n.
    • Continuing, we find that, since the order of 2 mod Fr is exactly 2r+1,we can choose k modulo F2 in two ways (given the previous choices modulo F0 and F1 ) in such a way as to eliminate one of the remaining two residue classes of n mod 8, then choose k modulo F3 in two ways to eliminate half of the remaining values of n, and then again modulo F4.
    • At this stage we have chosen k modulo F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 = 232 - 1 (more precisely, we have found 32 possible choices, one for each residue class n0 mod 32) in such a way that the numbers 2nk + 1 with n ≠ n0 (modulo 32) are always divisible by one of the primes F0, F1, F2, F3 or F4 and hence are composite.
    • But Euler's discovery that F5 factorizes as 641 5; 6700417 means that at the next stage we can choose k modulo 641 to eliminate one of the two surviving residue classes of n modulo 64 and independently choose k modulo 6700417 to eliminate the other one, thus giving finally 64 choices of k modulo F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 = 264 - 1 such that all members of the sequence 2nk + 1 have a factor in common with 264 - 1 and hence are composite.
    • The smallest k which works is k0 = 201446503145165177, which is congruent to 217 modulo (264 - 1)/641 and to -217 modulo 641.
    • Using covering congruences to composite moduli different from 264 - 1 we can get somewhat smaller values of k which also work, but this requires some numerical computations, while the argument using Fermat primes needs only "pure thought" plus the fact that there is at least one composite Fermat number.

  6. Solution3.3.html
    • Let h(x) = [ 1 + xm + (1 - x)m]/2 be a polynomial in Fp[x].
    • (Counting them is easily seen to be equivalent tocounting elements a in Fp - {0, 1} for which both a and a - 1 are quadratic residues, and such a are parametrized by a = (t + t-1)2/4 for t in Fp with t2 ≠; -1 mod p.) But hp has degree 2N and constant term 1, so we must have that hp(x) is the product over a of (1 - x/a)2.
    • Another proof is to note that h(x) = F(x)2 + O(xm) in Fp[[x]], where F(x) = ͩ0;(1/2 + ͩ0;(1 - x)/2) = 1 - 1/8x - 5/128x2 - ..
    • From the differential equation x(1 - x)F'' + (1/2 - x)F' + 1/16 F = 0 we find that the coefficient of xn in F equals -21-4n binom(4n - 3, 2n - 1)/n, which is 0 modulo p for N < n < m.
    • A third proof, provided during the Colloquium, is even simpler: the product of h(x) and g(x) = [ 1 + xm - (1 - x)m]/2 in Fp[x] is x(1 - xm)2/4, which is x times a square.
    • Since the polynomials f(x) and g(x)/x are coprime, they must both be squares (up to a common scalar multiple, but in fact without it since f(0) = 1).

  7. Solution2.2.html
    • tir (1 ≤; i1, ..
    • tjr of the same length with 1 ≤; j1 ≤ ..
    • Let x = ti1 ..
    • Since there are only finitely many representations of x as tj1 ..
    • jr-1.
    • But the maximality of jr and the representation x = tj1 ..
    • tjr-2 s tjr-1, where s = tjr-1 tjr t-1jr-1 is an element of finite order and hence equal to tj for some j, together imply that jr-1 ≤ jr , so we are done.

  8. Solution3.1.html
    • The primality of f(10) implies that one of g(10) and h(10), say the former, equals 1 (or - 1, but then replace .
    • Write g(x) = c (x - b1)(x - b2) ..
    • (x - bd), where d = deg(g) ≥; 1 and c is an integer.
    • - anb-n) ≤ 9|b|-2/(1 - b-1) ≤ 3/4.
    • It follows that | 10 - b | ≥ 6, so 1 = | g(10) | = | c (10 - b1) ..

  9. Solution2.3.html
    • f: P → Z the sequence ( 55;1, λ2, ..
    • ,0,1,0, ..
    • ) (1 in the nth place).
    • Let x = (x1, x2, ..
    • Clearly S ⊆ Im(φ), since a sequence ( 55;1, λ2, ..
    • ) with almost all λn equal to 0 is the image under φ of the homomorphism (a1, a2, ..
    • ) &#8614; &#8721; λnan from P to Z.
    • ,0,1,0, ..
    • ) (n Ͱ5; 1).
    • Assume not, and define a = (a1,a2, ..
    • ) where each an is of the form ± 2sn with the sign chosen so that λnan ≥ 0 and the exponent so that 2sn > 21+sn-1 |λn|.
    • Then f(a) &#8712; Z is congruent modulo 2sn+1 to 2s1| 55;1| + ..
    • + 2sn |rn|, and the binary expansion (in standard form, with all coefficients 0 or 1) of this is the concatenation of the binary expansions of 55;1, ..

  10. Solution3.2.html
    • To see this, suppose that a is non-zero (the case a = 0 can be done by a similar argument, or by continuity), and consider the polynomial h1(x) = h(x) - a-1 h'(x).
    • Indeed, g(x) can be written as c (x - a1) ..
    • Now assume that bnxn + bn-1xn-1 + ..

  11. Solution2.1.html
    • The units form a cyclic group a | a5 = 1 > .
    • A computation then shows that the element x = 1 + a2 + a3 has cube equal to 1.

  12. EMS Minutes: 1883: First session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 1 to 14 .

  13. Solution4.3.html
    • Given two numbers a, b strictly between 0 and 1, show that the piecewise linear map f: T to T defined by x &#8614; a - x + b if x &#8712; I = Z + [ 0,a ] and x &#8614; x + b if x &#8713; I, has finite order.
    • Then x belongs to an orbit of f of length 2(n1 + n2), consisting of the points x + nb (n = -n1 + 1, -n1 + 2, ..
    • ,n2) followed by the points a - x + nb (n = -n2 + 1, -n2 + 2, ..
    • , n1).
    • It remains only to show that the integer N = n1 + n2 is bounded.
    • most [(1 - a)/d] steps, giving for N an upper bound M[(1 - a)/d] which is independent of x.

  14. Solution4.1.html
    • By marking off unit distances on all sides, starting at the vertices, we can think of it as an equilateral dodecagon with ten rational angles (nine equal to 180° and one equal to 9076; ) and two non-adjacent irrational ones (arctan(3/4) is irrational because 3/4 is not an algebraic integer and hence not a root of unity).

  15. EMS Members
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Members of the EMS in 1929 .
    • Below is a list of the 275 Members of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in 1929 with their addresses at that time.
    • ALBERT ANDERSON, M.A., B.Sc., 41 Annette Street, Crosshill, Glasgow, S.
    • BUTTERS, M.A., B.Sc., F.R.S.E., 116 Comiston Drive, Edinburgh .
    • INVERARITY, M.A., B.Sc., 11 Ravenshall Road, Glasgow, S.
    • GEORGE ROBINSON, M.A., B.Sc., 1011 Fourteenth Avenue W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada .
    • STEELE, M.A., Ph.D., The University of Illinois Women's Club, 1201 West Oregon Street, Urbana, Ill., U.S.A.

  16. Solution5.3.html
    • The sequence ( vn ) starts 2, 3, 5, 10, 28, 154, 3520, 1551880, 267593772160, 7160642690122633501504, ..
    • It is required to show that the first non - integral vn is v43 = 5.4093 x 10178485291567 approximately.
    • Again, the only problem is to show that the first index n0 with vn0 not in Z is n0 = 43, since the size of vn0 then follows from the easily proved formula vn ~ (n2 + 2n - 1 + 4n-1 - 21n-2 + 137n-3 - ..
    • .) 5; C2n with C = 1.04783144757641122955990946274313755459..
    • We first replace vn by sn = 2 + v12 + ..
    • + vn-12 = n vn.
    • Then the recursion becomes sn+1 = sn = sn2/n2 with initial condition s1 = 2.
    • The first sn which could fail to be p-integral is sp+1, which will happen if and only if sp is not divisible by p, so we can test this by looking at the sequence (s1, s2, ..

  17. Colloquium photo 1926
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1926 .

  18. Colloquium photo 1992
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1992 .
    • THIRD ROW, J E Goodman, V 1 Paulsen, J Kaminker, N Ray, A C Kim, P G Hjorth, R J Archbold, R J Steiner, J Hubbuck, D J McLaughlin, P B Guest, N Ruskuc, J C Amson, M-G Leu, B Borwein, O Marrero, A J Lazar, T S Blyth, .

  19. EMS Minutes: 1890-91: Ninth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1890-91: Ninth session .

  20. EMS Minutes: 1917-18: Thirty sixth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1917-18: Thirty sixth session .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1916-17 nnn .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1917-18 nnn .

  21. Solution1.3.html

  22. Solution5.2.html
    • The sequence ( un ) starts 5/4 , 51/14 , 277/20 , 1497/26 , 4045/16 , ..
    • It is required to show that the first integral un is u2755452 = 102019025 (approx).
    • The first step is to note that the numbers Un = (6n + 2)un satisfy the recursion relation Un+3 = Un + 2Un+1 + 5Un+2 (the proof is elementary and I omit it) and hence are all integral.
    • , B = 5.40431358073618481197 ..
    • Again the detailed proof is complicated and I skip it, mentioning only that this is in the same category as the problem of finding pseudoprimes (for instance, a 2-pseudoprime is a composite integer n for which the number 2n-1 = 1 mod n, and this is a similar condition to the integrality of un since the numbers 2n-1 - 1 satisfy a linear recursion Tn+2 = 3Tn+1 - 2Tn similar to that of the Un) and can be analyzed by studying the splitting behavior of the cubic polynomial X3 - 5X2 - 2X - 1 modulo varying primes.

  23. Colloquium photo 1955
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1955 .

  24. Colloquium photo 1959
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1959 .

  25. Colloquium photo 1938
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1938 .
    • *Klaus Fuchs was an atomic scientist who was arrested in 1950 for spying for the Soviet Union .

  26. Colloquium photo 1930
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1930 .

  27. EMS Minutes: 1922-23: Forty first session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1921-22 nnn .

  28. EMS Minutes: 1883-84: Second session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  29. EMS Minutes: 1902-03: Twenty first session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 185 to 194 .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1901-02 nnn .

  30. EMS Minutes: 1897-98: Sixteenth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 144 to 151 .

  31. EMS Minutes: 1927-28: Forty sixth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  32. EMS Minutes: 1899-00: Eighteenth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 158 to 164 .

  33. EMS Minutes: 1921-22: Fortieth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1921-22: Fortieth session .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1921-22 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1920-21 nnn .

  34. EMS Minutes: 1898-99: Seventeenth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 151 to 157 .

  35. EMS Minutes: 1900-01: Nineteenth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 165 to 173 .
    • 1900-01: Nineteenth session .

  36. EMS Minutes: 1918-19: Thirty seventh session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1918-19: Thirty seventh session .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1917-18 nnn .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1918-19 nnn .

  37. EMS Minutes: 1916-17: Thirty fifth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1916-17: Thirty fifth session .
    • nnnMeetings: 8th December 1916nnn12th January 1917nnn .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1916-17 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1915-16 nnn .

  38. EMS Minutes: 1892-93: Eleventh session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 102 to 108 .

  39. EMS Minutes: 1919-20: Thirty eighth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1918-19 nnn .

  40. EMS Minutes: 1913-14: Thirty second session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1913-14: Thirty second session .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1913-14 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1912-13 nnn .

  41. EMS Minutes: 1914-15: Thirty third session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1914-15: Thirty third session .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1914-15 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1913-14 nnn .

  42. EMS Minutes: 1901-02: Twentieth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 174 to 184 .
    • 1901-02: Twentieth session .
    • nnnMeeting: 14th March (!) 1902nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1900-01 nnn .

  43. EMS Minutes: 1886-87: Fifth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  44. EMS Minutes: 1885-86: Fourth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  45. EMS Minutes: 1891-92: Tenth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 96 to 101 .
    • 1891-92: Tenth session .

  46. EMS Minutes: 1888-89: Seventh session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  47. EMS Minutes: 1909-10: Twenty eighth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1909-10: Twenty eighth session .

  48. EMS Minutes: 1889-90: Eighth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  49. EMS Minutes: 1920-21: Thirty ninth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1920-21: Thirty ninth session .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1919-20 nnn .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1920-21 nnn .

  50. EMS Minutes: 1915-16: Thirty fourth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1915-16: Thirty fourth session .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1915-16 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1914-15 nnn .

  51. EMS Minutes: 1896-97: Fifteenth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 135 to 143 .

  52. EMS Minutes: 1884-85: Third session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  53. EMS Minutes: 1925-26: Forty fifth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  54. EMS Minutes: 1925-26: Forty fourth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  55. EMS Minutes: 1923-24: Forty second session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  56. EMS Minutes: 1887-88: Sixth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  57. EMS Minutes: 1907-08: Twenty sixth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  58. EMS Minutes: 1912-13: Thirty first session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1912-13: Thirty first session .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1912-13 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1911-12 nnn .

  59. EMS Minutes: 1903-04: Twenty second session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  60. EMS Minutes: 1910-11: Twenty ninth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1910-11: Twenty ninth session .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1910-11 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1909-10 nnn .

  61. EMS Minutes: 1911-12: Thirtieth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1911-12: Thirtieth session .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1911-12 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1910-11 nnn .

  62. EMS Minutes: 1924-25: Forty third session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  63. EMS Minutes: 1906-07: Twenty fifth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  64. EMS Minutes: 1905-06: Twenty fourth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • nnnMeetings: 8th December 1905nnn12th January 1906nnn .

  65. EMS Minutes: 1904-05: Twenty third session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  66. EMS Minutes: 1895-96: Fourteenth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 127 to 134 .

  67. EMS Minutes: 1908-09: Twenty seventh session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  68. EMS Minutes: 1893-94: Twelfth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 109 to 117 .

  69. EMS Minutes: 1894-95: Thirteenth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • EMS Minutes: Volume 1: pages 118 to 126 .

  70. Colloquium photo 1968
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1968 .

  71. Colloquium photo 1980
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1980 .

  72. Colloquium photo 1913
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in Edinburgh in 1913 .

  73. Colloquium photo 1988
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1988 .

  74. Colloquium photo 1964
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1964 .

  75. Colloquium photo 1984
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1984 .

  76. Colloquium photo 1951
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1951 .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/photo_1951.html .

  77. Colloquium photo 1972
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1972 .

  78. Colloquium photo 1976
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1976 .

  79. Colloquium photo 1996
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1996 .

  80. Colloquium photo 1934
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1934 .

  81. Edinburgh Mathematical Notes
    • The journal began with No 1 in April 1909.
    • No 1 April 1909 .
    • No 7 April 1911 .
    • No 8 October 1911 .
    • No 10 May 1912 .
    • No 11 October 1912 .
    • No 12 January 1913 .
    • No 13 May 1913 .
    • No 14 October 1913 .
    • No 15 January 1914 .
    • One further part was edited by Pinkerton, namely No 16 May 1914, then the editor became G D C Stokes, M.A., D.Sc., High School, Glasgow for No 17 January 1915.
    • After editing No 18 May 1915, the next part, No 19 December 1915, appears without the name of any editor.
    • D.Sc., F.R.S.E., Mathematical Department, Edinburgh University, and the annual subscription to the Society was increased from 7s 6d to 10s.
    • We should remark that The Second Series of the Proceedings started in 1927 with a larger page size.
    • No 31 1939; L M Brown, M.Sc.
    • No 32 February 1941; L M Brown, M.Sc., Ph.D.
    • No 37 1949; I M H Etherington.
    • No 38 1952; D Martin, M.A., B.Sc., Ph.D.
    • No 39 1954; D Martin, M.A., B.Sc., Ph.D.
    • No 40 1956; D Martin, M.A., B.Sc., Ph.D.
    • No 41 1957; D Martin, M.A., B.Sc., Ph.D.
    • No 42 (misprinted No 41) appeared in Volume 11 (1958-59) of the Proceedings.
    • No 43 and No 44 appear in Volume 12 (1960-61) of the Proceedings.
    • THE WORKS OF SIR JOHN LESLIE (1766-1832) .
    • No 33, 19-24 .
    • No 37, 1-6 .
    • No 38, 17-18 .
    • No 38, 19-22 .
    • No 39, 17 .
    • No 39, 18 .
    • No 40, 31-32 .
    • No 41, 10-28 .

  82. Colloquium photo 2003

  83. EMS
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in 1883.
    • At the first ordinary meeting of the Society in March 1883, 51 members joining the Society.
    • In 1884 the Society began publication of the Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.
    • It continued to meet regularly in Glasgow, adding St Andrews as a meeting venue in 1922, Dundee in 1930, and Aberdeen in 1937.
    • George Chrystal, one of the Society's first honorary members, died in 1911 and in the following year Edmund Whittaker took up Chrystal's chair in Edinburgh.
    • Almost immediately he encouraged the Edinburgh Mathematical Society to hold a mathematical colloquium which it did in Edinburgh in 1913.
    • Turnbull was appointed Regius Professor of Mathematics in the United College of St Salvator and St Leonard at the University of St Andrews in 1921 and he was enthusiastic that the Edinburgh Mathematical Society should resume its Colloquium but that the venue should be St Andrews.
    • This was accepted by the Society and in 1926 the first of the St Andrews Colloquia was held.

  84. The EMS: the first hundred years
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society: the first hundred years (1883-1983) .
    • This account of our Society is based to some extent on my Presidential address, which was given on 19 October 1977 and was devoted to the first fifty years.
    • In conjunction with Dr Cargill Gilston Knott (1856-1922), who was then Assistant to the Professor of Natural Philosophy in Edinburgh University, they issued the following circular 'to gentlemen in Edinburgh, in Cambridge and throughout Scotland generally whom they deemed likely to take an interest in such a Society'.
    • JANUARY 23, 1883.
    • It is suggested that the Society be formed, in the first instance, of all those who shall give in their names on or before February 2, 1883, and who are (1) present or former students in either of the Advanced Mathematical Classes of Edinburgh University, (2) Honours Graduates in any of the British Universities, or (3) recognised Teachers of Mathematics; and that, after the above mentioned date, members be nominated and elected by ballot in the usual manner.
    • To quote from the minutes: 'The Chairman, in his introductory remarks, mentioned that Professor P G Tait (Professor of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh University) had suggested that the Society regard itself as the resuscitation of the Physico-Mathematical Society, which had led a vigorous existence during the years 1836-39, had revived at subsequent intervals, but finally collapsed in 1850, leaving behind it, however, a library, some fragmentary apparatus, and a ballot-box'.
    • The first officers of the Society were elected, Mr (later Dr) John Sturgeon Mackay (1843-1914) being the first President.
    • As Honorary Members, Professors Tait and Chrystal were not, of course, eligible as officers and the first professor to become President was James Edward Aloysius Steggall (1855-1935), who was Professor at University College, Dundee.
    • Over the years the percentage of university members has, of course, increased; however, as late as 1926, just before the second series of the Proceedings was instituted, their percentage had only risen from 26% to 36%.
    • The state of mathematics in Scotland at the time of the Society's foundation can be judged from the admirable and hard-hitting address given on 8 February 1884 by our second president Thomas Muir (1844-1934), who was at that time mathematical master at Glasgow High School.
    • In 1892 he went out to Cape Town as Superintendent-General of Education, and spent the rest of his life there.
    • He was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1900 and knighted in 1915.
    • Great changes have taken place in universities and schools during the last hundred years, but even up till the Second World War much of what he wrote in 1884 was still to some extent relevant.
    • Muir was, of course, well aware of the deficiencies of the Cambridge coaching and examination system; after all these had been referred to by Augustus De Morgan in his presidential address in 1865 to the London Mathematical Society, of which Muir was a member.
    • In 1884 University Lecturers scarcely existed.
    • During its first two sessions the Society met in Edinburgh University, but moved in the autumn of 1884 to the Edinburgh Institution in Queen Street.
    • Annual meetings in May or March of each year were held thereafter from 1901 to 1905 in the United Free Church College in Glasgow, later known as Trinity College.
    • Thereafter from 1913 until 1931, once and latterly twice a year, meetings were held in the Mathematics Class Room of the University of Glasgow.
    • Gibson's connection with the Society goes back to its very early years (he was admitted in February 1884), but his predecessor in Glasgow, William Jack, although elected an Honorary Member in 1902, seems to have taken little interest in the Society.
    • The billets advertising the Glasgow meetings are of interest, since from 1912 at the last meeting in the Royal Technical College until the last meeting in the University of Glasgow in 1931 they bear the invitation: Professor and Mrs Gibson (later Professor and Mrs MacRobert) "At Home", 10 The University.
    • I shall explain later why these Glasgow meetings ended abruptly in 1931 and did not resume until 1957.
    • The Society first began to meet annually in St Andrews in 1922.
    • Its first meeting in Dundee took place in 1930 during Professor Steggall's last year of office as President.
    • The first meeting in Aberdeen was in 1937.
    • During the 1939-1945 war, meetings were usually held on Saturday mornings in Edinburgh.
    • In both world wars there was, naturally, some curtailment of the Society's activities and for this reason, during the sessions beginning in 1917, 1939 and 1943, no changes were made in the offices of President and Vice-President.
    • During the second session the Society resolved to print its proceedings in whole or in abstract, so that Volume 2 of the Proceedings was the first to be published and appeared in 1884.
    • By 1909 it was felt that the more elementary and pedagogic articles should not appear in the Proceedings and, at Professor G A Gibson's suggestion, it was agreed "to issue at stated intervals a supplement to the Proceedings dealing with the teaching of Mathematics and Science, the supplement to be called 'Mathematical Notes, a review of Elementary Mathematics and Science, published by the Edinburgh Mathematical Society' ".
    • 44) appeared in 1961.
    • In this connection it is, I think, of interest to mention a controversy that took place between 1927 and 1931 concerning the Society's publications.
    • The older of the two was, of course, the late Sir Edmund Whittaker (1873-1956), who was Professor of Mathematics at Edinburgh from 1912 to 1946.
    • The younger of the two was the late Professor Thomas M MacRobert (1884-1962), who was Professor of Mathematics at Glasgow University from 1927 to 1954.
    • It may be of interest to observe that five years later in 1936 the Glasgow Mathematical Association did commence publication of a periodical devoted to historical and pedagogical matters, called the Journal of the Glasgow Mathematical Association.
    • It may be of interest to mention that the possibility of an amalgamation of the Edinburgh Proceedings with the Proceedings of the Glasgow Mathematical Association (now the Glasgow Mathematical Journal to form a new Scottish Mathematical Journal was discussed in 1965, the view being that such a journal would carry greater prestige than either of its constituents since it would be of greater size and might appear more frequently.

  85. EMS 1988 Colloquium
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • This international event attracted 65 participants and St Andrews will again be host in 1992.

  86. EMS 1992 Colloquium
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society held the St Andrews Colloquium in St Andrews from 11 to 18 July 1992.

  87. EMSWhittakerPrize.html
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • After the death of Sir Edmund Whittaker in 1956 his son John Whittaker most generously gave on behalf of the Whittaker Family the sum of £500 to the Edinburgh Mathematical Society to establish a prize for mathematical work in memory of his father.
    • 1961 A G Mackie and A H Wallace .
    • 1981 J M Ball .
    • 2001 M L McQuillan and J A Sherratt .

  88. EMS Treasurers
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in 1883.
    • 1883-1885 nnA Y Fraser .
    • 1885-1888 J Alison .
    • 1888-1895 J Wilson .
    • 1895-1898 D Tweedie .
    • 1898-1899 F Spence .
    • 1899-1905 J Archibald .
    • 1905-1909 J Turner .
    • 1909-1915 A D Russell .
    • 1915-1927 E M Horsburgh .
    • 1927-1950 J B Lockhart .
    • 1950-1953 nL M Brown .
    • 1953-1955 J B Marshall Jr .
    • 1955-1963 W M Morrison .
    • 1963-1972 G MacKenzie .
    • 1972-1976 G F Roach .
    • 1976-1988 A C McBride .
    • 1988-1997 A D Sands .

  89. Scotland in 1883 and the EMS
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Scotland in 1883 and the Edinburgh Mathematical Society .
    • In 1883 there were four universities in Scotland: the Universities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow and St Andrews.
    • You can read here extracts from the respective Calendars of 1883 about the founding of these universities at THIS LINK.
    • At Aberdeen the Professor of Mathematics in 1883 is George Pirie who had been appointed in 1878, replacing Frederick Fuller who retired in that year.
    • The Professor of Natural Philosophy is Charles Niven who was appointed in 1880 to replace David Thomson who died in 1880.
    • In 1881, seven students had graduated with an M.A.
    • with Honours in Mathematics, while in 1882 there were also seven.
    • One of the students graduating in 1881 was Alexander Yule Fraser, who was a Boxill Mathematical Prizeman, and went on to become a mathematics master at George Watson's College, Edinburgh, and was one of the three signatories of the letter proposing to set up the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.
    • W Cooper Dickson, one of the First Class students of 1882 was a founder member of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, joining in February 1883 while training for ministry in the Church.
    • At Edinburgh George Chrystal is the professor of mathematics in 1883.
    • He was appointed in 1879 replacing Philip Kelland who had been the professor for over forty years from 1838 to 1879.
    • The Professor of Natural Philosophy is Peter Guthrie Tait who was appointed in 1860 to replace James David Forbes who had moved to St Andrews University to become Principal of the University.
    • In 1882 one student graduated from Edinburgh with an M.A.
    • with Honours in Mathematics, namely R Edgar Allardice who graduated First Class in 1882, joined Edinburgh Mathematical Society as a founder member in February 1883, and became Assistant to the Professor of Mathematics in the University of Edinburgh.
    • In the following year of 1883 three students graduated from Edinburgh with an M.A.
    • At Glasgow the Professor of Mathematics in 1883 is William Jack, who had been appointed in 1879, replacing Hugh Blackburn who had been the professor of mathematics for thirty years 1849-1879.
    • The Professor of Natural Philosophy is Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) appointed 1846 to replace W Meikleham who had held the position from 1803 to 1846.
    • with Honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 1881, two with a First Class and three with a Second Class degree.
    • In 1882 only one student graduated with an M.A.
    • At St Andrews the Regius Professor of Mathematics in 1883 is R P Scott Lang who was appointed in 1879 to replace George Chrystal who, after two years as Regius Professor had moved to Edinburgh.
    • Before George Chrystal the Reius Professor had been William L F Fischer who held the position from 1859 to 1877.
    • The Professor of Natural Philosophy is Arthur S Butler, who was appointed in 1880 to replace William Swan who was Professor from 1859 to 1880.
    • with Honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 1881, both with a First Class degree.
    • with Honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in 1882, both with a First Class degree.
    • To see the structure of the courses these students were taking we quote from the respective university Calendars of 1883.
    • Mathematics in Aberdeen University in 1883 .
    • Mathematics in Edinburgh University in 1883 .
    • Mathematics in Glasgow University in 1883 .
    • Mathematics in St Andrews University in 1883 .
    • Women and the Scottish universities in 1883 .
    • Finally we look at the position of women with regard to university level mathematics in Scotland in 1883.
    • In 1883 the University of Aberdeen had a "Higher Certificate for Women".
    • course in the University of Aberdeen in 1896.
    • with Honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy was Emily C Riddoch (Third Class) in 1899.
    • In 1883 the University of Edinburgh had an "Ordinary Certificate in Arts for Women" and an "Honour Certificate in Arts for Women".
    • classes of the University of Edinburgh in 1896.
    • with Honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy was Jessie Chrystal Macmillan (First Class) in 1900.
    • In 1883 the University of Glasgow held local examinations for Certificates: .
    • classes of the University of Glasgow in 1896.
    • with Honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy was Elizabeth Pettigrew Taylor (First Class) in 1898.
    • The centres for Examination in 1882 were St Andrews, London, Halifax, Bristol, and Belfast.
    • was popular since by 1885 the centres were Aberdeen, Barbados, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cheltenham, Edinburgh, Eisenach, Halifax, Hildesheim, Leicester, Lerwick, Liverpool, London, Paris, Pietermaritzburg, and St Andrews.
    • By 1885 some other changes had been introduced: .
    • The following (which appeared in the University of St Andrews Calendar for 1881-82 and for several years after that) is interesting in regards to the university education of women.
    • degree course in the University of St Andrews in 1896.
    • with Honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy was Margaret Murray (First Class) in 1898.

  90. EMS school mathematics

  91. EMS Presidents
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in 1883.
    • This is why there were two presidents elected in 1883.
    • 1891 John Edward Aloysius Steggall .
    • 1901 George Duthie .
    • 1911 Duncan McLaren Young Sommerville .
    • 1921 Thomas Murray MacRobert .
    • 1931 Alexander Craig Aitken .
    • 1941 Geoffrey Timms .
    • 1951 Alexander Craig Aitken .
    • 1961 Selwyn Read .
    • 1971 Arthur Erdelyi .
    • 1981 Gary Francis Roach .
    • 1991 Adam Clark McBride .
    • 2001 Thomas Alastair Gillespie .
    • 2011 Mark Andrew Joseph Chaplain .

  92. EMS Honorary Members
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  93. 1911-12 May (1) meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1911-12 .

  94. EMS Founder Members
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  95. 1912-13 May (1) meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1912-13 .

  96. EMS Secretaries
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in 1883.
    • The Society had one secretary from its foundation in 1883 until 1971 when J D P Meldrum became a second secretary and J L Mott, who had been appointed in 1960, continued as secretary.
    • 1883 - 1888 A Y Fraser .
    • 1888 - 1891 J Alison .
    • 1891 - 1896 J B Clark .
    • 1896 - 1899 J W Butters .
    • 1899 - 1904 D C McIntosh .
    • 1904 - 1908 P Pinkerton .
    • 1908 - 1911 A G Burgess .
    • 1911 - 1916 P Comrie .
    • 1916 - 1921 P Ramsay .
    • 1921 - 1924 B B Baker .
    • 1924 - 1930 E T Copson .
    • 1930 - 1933 H S Ruse .
    • 1933 - 1938 I M H Etherington .
    • 1938 - 1939 J B Marshall .
    • 1939 - 1944 I M H Etherington .
    • 1944 - 1947 nnnJ B Marshall .
    • 1947 - 1953 R Smart .
    • 1953 - 1960 J Fulton .
    • 1960 - 1974 J L Mott .
    • 1971 - 1980 J D P Meldrum .
    • 1974 - 1983 T A Gillespie .
    • 1980 - 1993 J Martin .
    • 1983 - 1992 C J Shaddock .
    • 2003 - 2014 T H Lenagan .
    • 2009 - 2011 A M Davie .
    • 2011 - 3013 A Smoktunowicz .

  97. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol XIX (1900) 71-77 .
    • Vol XX (1901) 23-28 .
    • Note on the Inequality Theorem that mxm-1( x - 1) > xm - 1 > m( x - 1) unless when 0m mxm-1( x - 1) < xm - 1 < m( x - 1), where x is any positive quantity other than unity .
    • Vol XX (1901) 29-30 .
    • Vol 21 (1902) 40-64 .
    • Vol 28 (1909) 121-128 .
    • Vol 28 (1909) 95-120 .
    • Vol 30 (1911) 97-106 .
    • Vol 31 (1912) 71-89 .

  98. EMS 1914 Colloquium
    • The Forthcoming Edinburgh Mathematical Colloquium, The Mathematical Gazette 7 (111) (May 1914), 346-347.
    • The fee for the whole Colloquium is 15s., and should be sent to the Honorary Secretary of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society (P Comrie, M.A., B.Sc., 19 Craighouse Terrace, Edinburgh).
    • Those who wish also to become ordinary members of the Napier Tercentenary Celebrations may send the fee for this (5s.) at the same time, making a total of 63;1.
    • On July 28 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.

  99. 1923-24 Feb meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1923-24 .

  100. EMS Erdelyi
    • The following is an extract from the minutes of the fourth ordinary meeting of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society held on Friday 20 January 1978 and from minutes of the third ordinary meeting held on 1 December 1978 which was held in memory of the late Professor Arthur A Erdelyi, F.R.S.
    • The President, Dr A D Sands, referred to the sudden death on 12th December, 1977 of Professor A Erdelyi.
    • He spoke of Arthur Erdelyi's long association with the Society, dating back to his arrival in Scotland in 1939, and of his service to the Society, both as an enthusiastic and regular supporter of its activities and as its President during the session 1971-72.
    • Before introducing the speaker Professor I N Sneddon at the December meeting the President (Professor R A Rankin) spoke of the service which Professor Erdelyi had given to the Society over a period of almost forty years, from his arrival in Edinburgh from Europe in 1939 till his sudden death almost exactly a year ago.

  101. EMS Minutes: 1929-30: Forty eighth session
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  102. EMS 1913 Colloquium
    • The second lecture was given at 11.30 by Professor E T Whittaker in the new Mathematical Laboratory, which is the first of its kind in the United Kingdom.

  103. 1930-31 May meeting
    • Meeting of Friday 1 May 1931 .
    • The remaining rules, with the exception of rules 10-14, were agreed to.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1930-31 .

  104. EMS 1938 Colloquium
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society held its fourth St Andrews Colloquium in St Andrews from 4 to 15 July 1938.
    • Under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, a Mathematical Colloquium is being held in the University Hall, St Andrews, Scotland, from July 4th to 15th, 1938.
    • The fee for the Colloquium is 63;1 5s.
    • (or 12s.
    • The cost of board and lodging for the period of the Colloquium (dinner on July 4th to breakfast on 15th) will be £;5 15s.
    • per head (63;3 15s.
    • The following press release announced the coming event on 1 April 1938: .
    • The 300th anniversary of the birth of James Gregory, who held in succession the Chairs of Mathematics in St Andrews and Edinburgh Universities, will be celebrated at a Mathematical Colloquium to be held in St Andrews from July 4 to 15, 1938, under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.
    • secretary of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society is at 16 Chambers Street.
    • That same development was indicated also in 1935 by the Mathematical Association's special pamphlet on the teaching of algebra in schools.
    • A report on the Colloquium, written by I M H Etherington, appeared in The Mathematical Gazette later in 1938.
    • This Colloquium, held at St Andrews from July 4 to 15, was in every way as successful as its quadrennial predecessors.

  105. EMS 2003 Colloquium

  106. 1928-29 Mar meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1928-29 .

  107. EMS Minutes: 1931-32: Fiftieth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1931-32: Fiftieth session .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1930-31 nnn .
    • nnnFinancial statement: 1931-32 nnn .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1931-32 nnn .

  108. Solution4.2.html
    • Associate to each corner of one of any rectangle in the given decomposition an invariant 77;1 or 0 as follows: .

  109. 1928-29 Feb meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1928-29 .

  110. EMS Minutes: 1930-31: Forty ninth session
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 1930-31: Forty ninth session .
    • nnnOffice bearers 1930-31 nnn .

  111. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol XIII (1894) 153-155 .
    • Vol XIX (1900) 57-61 .
    • A proof of Rodrigues' theorem sin nx = [n/1.3.5.
    • .(2n-1)] [(1/sinx d/dx]n-1sin2n-1x and some expansions derived from it .
    • Vol XX (1901) 11-15 .
    • Vol XX (1901) 31-32 .
    • Notes: 3 (1909) .
    • Notes: 21 (1916) .

  112. 1929-30 Nov meeting
    • Capital account: £49/10/5 .
    • Cash account: £75/11/6 .
    • There had been a record income from sale of publications of £126/10/10.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1929-30 .

  113. EMS Minutes: 1928-29: Forty seventh session
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    • EMS Minutes: Volume 2: pages 9 to 16 .

  114. EMS 1980 Colloquium
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society held the St Andrews Colloquium in St Andrews from 9 to 19 July 1980.
    • He made a report to the First Ordinary meeting of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in session 1980-81.
    • Dr C M Campbell (CMC) reported on the 1980 St Andrews Colloquium, held from 9 to 19 July.
    • This survey (to be published in two parts in successive issues of the Bulletin) is based on lectures given at the St Andrews Mathematical Colloquium in 1980.

  115. The EMS: the first 100 years (1883-1983) Part 2
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society: the first hundred years (1883-1983) Part 2 .
    • By the middle 1920s it was felt that the size of page used was too small and a second series of the Proceedings was begun in 1927.
    • The wrappers of the parts were originally brown, but were changed to green in 1958; in that year also short book reviews were published for the first time.
    • The number of parts appearing annually was increased from two to three in 1979 and from that date volumes have appeared annually.
    • In this connection it may be noted that the new Constitution of the Society adopted on 15 January 1932 contains for the first time the provision that every paper published must first have been submitted by the Editors to at least one referee of recognised authority, and reported upon favourably by him.
    • The original annual subscription, which included the cost of the publications, was five shillings (63;0.25).
    • This rose to seven shillings and sixpence in 1885 and remained at that rate until 1919 when it became ten shillings.
    • In 1954 it was raised to fifteen shillings and since 1958 there have been further more frequent increases as a result of inflation.
    • The current annual subscription is 63;11.
    • When Whittaker came to the Edinburgh chair in 1912 after Chrystal's death he soon began to inject fresh vitality into his department.
    • After the war, largely through the enthusiasm and drive of Herbert Westren Turnbull (1885-1961), who had been appointed to the Regius Chair of Mathematics in St Andrews in 1921, the Society's colloquia were resumed.
    • The first meeting in St Andrews in 1926 set the pattern for future colloquia, which have been held there at regular intervals since then.
    • Since 1926 colloquia have been held in 1930, 1934, 1938, 1951, 1955, 1959, 1964 and at four year intervals thereafter.
    • The fifteenth colloquium will doubtless be held in 1984.
    • Before the 1914-19 war in May of three successive years 1911, 1912 and 1913 one-day Secondary Education Congresses were held in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee, respectively, for those interested in the teaching of mathematics.
    • They became Presidents in 1889 and 1884, respectively.
    • Other Watsonians prominent in the Society's affairs were Jock Alison (1861-1952), a distinguished headmaster, who was President in 1892, and Donald Cameron McIntosh, who was Secretary for many years and President in 1905.
    • Peter Guthrie Tait (1831-1901), who was a school-fellow of James Clerk Maxwell at Edinburgh Academy, was a distinguished Professor of Natural Philosophy with very wide interests.
    • Until I read his obituary I had always imagined that Tait's colleague George Chrystal (1851-1911) was a pure mathematician with a main interest in algebra.
    • His experience in teaching mathematics in the University convinced him that 'algebra, as we teach it, is neither an art nor a science, but an ill-digested farrago of rules whose object is the solution of examination problems.' This led him to write his monumental treatise of nearly 1200 pages on Algebra, which appeared in two parts in 1886 and 1889, and had a powerful effect on the teaching of algebra in Great Britain and abroad.
    • A shorter version, entitled Introduction to Algebra for the use of Secondary Schools and Technical Colleges, appeared in 1902.
    • Of the original members of the Society few can have given it greater service than its first Secretary, Cargill Gilston Knott (1856-1922), who served twice as President.
    • On his return in 1891 he was appointed to one of the first Lectureships in Edinburgh University and later become a Reader.
    • One of the most faithful early members of the Society was George Alexander Gibson (1853-1931).
    • He was elected a member in 1884, while he was Assistant to the Professor of Mathematics in Glasgow University, and became in 1895 Professor of Mathematics at the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College.
    • He returned to Glasgow University as Professor in 1909, retiring in 1927.
    • After ten years as a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, he moved to Dublin in 1906 to take up the post of Royal Astronomer of Ireland.
    • In 1912 he came to Edinburgh to succeed George Chrystal as Professor of Mathematics.
    • His main interest as a young man was the theory of invariants, on which he gave a course of lectures to the 1926 meeting held there; this formed the basis of his well-known book The Theory of Determinants, Matrices, and Invariants, which appeared in 1928.
    • It was under Turnbull's editorship that the second series of the Proceedings was begun in 1927 and it was largely due to his efforts that the second series became a mathematical journal of repute.
    • In later life he became an authority on the history of mathematics and, after his retirement in 1950, he edited the correspondence of Isaac Newton on behalf of the Royal Society.
    • Robert Franklin Muirhead (1861-1941) was a graduate of Glasgow and Cambridge Universities and spent some time at the University of Gottingen.
    • He took a great interest in the Society and was twice President, in 1899 and again in 1909.
    • He was elected an Honorary Member in 1912.
    • Men like Muirhead, or his younger colleague John Dougall (1867-1960), who was President in 1925, would easily have obtained university posts in the golden 25 years following the last war, but they lived in times, rather like those we have moved into recently, when appropriate positions were not available to everyone of ability.

  116. Napier Tercentenary
    • On July 24th to 27th, 1914, there will be held a celebration, under the auspices of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, of the tercentenary of the publication of Napier's Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio, the work which embodies the discovery of logarithms.
    • In a book on arithmetic published in Venice in 1434, the author, Fra Luca Paciolo, propounds the problem to find in how many years a sum would double itself at a given rate of compound interest.
    • to 1 p.m., with a break of half an hour at eleven o'clock, and was fully attended by the members.
    • of Scotland raised a loan of money from Alexander Napier, who was the Provost of Edinburgh in 1437, and had pledged the lands of Merchiston, originally part of the Crown demesne, in mortgage for the repayment of the loan.
    • The Castle about 1750 passed out of the hands of the Lewis family, who succeeded the Napiers in possession in 1665, and somewhere about the beginning of last century the addition on the south side of the tower, which now forms the front of it, was built.
    • Dr Fisher, preaching from the 90th Psalm, 12th verse, "So teach us to number our days that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom," recalled a speech in 1825 by Thomas Chalmers, when he reproached himself for having during a period of his life occupied himself merely with mathematical interests, and had neglected the realities of time and eternity.
    • Professor Andoyer, of Paris, gave the history and method of construction of his recently published trigonometrical and logarithmic tables (1911.) These tables contain the logarithms of the trigonometrical functions to 17 significant figures for every hundredth of the quadrant, and to 14 figures for every 10 seconds.
    • M Andoyer also inferred to his present calculations of natural sines to 15 significant figures, a task which he hopes to complete in about two years.
    • Professor d'Ocagne communicated two short historic notes, the first being to the effect that the principle of the millionaire calculating machine was invented in 1893 by a young French mechanician, Leon Bollee by name, who constructed a machine to help his father, a bell founder, in the necessary calculations.
    • The earliest systematic application of nomograms he had lately traced to Margett's Longitude Tables of 1791.
    • Till then he had believed that the first user of the method was Pouchet in his Arithmetique lineaire, which was published in 1795.

  117. EMS Whittaker Prize
    • He had been Professor of Mathematics in the University of Edinburgh from 1912 to 1946 and was an Honorary Member of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.

  118. EMS Minutes Contents
    • 11883pages 1 to 14 .
    • 101891-92pages 96 to 101 .
    • 111892-93pages 102 to 108 .
    • 121893-94pages 109 to 117 .
    • 131894-95pages 118 to 126 .
    • 141895-96pages 127 to 134 .
    • 151896-97pages 135 to 143 .
    • 161897-98pages 144 to 151 .
    • 171898-99pages 151 to 157 .
    • 181899-00pages 158 to 164 .
    • 191900-01pages 165 to 173 .
    • 201901-02pages 174 to 184 .
    • 211902-03pages 185 to 194 .
    • 281909-10pages 241 to 248 .
    • 291910-11pages 249 to 257 .
    • 301911-12pages 258 to 267 .
    • 311912-13pages 268 to 278 .
    • 321913-14pages 279 to 287 .
    • 331914-15pages 288 to 294 .
    • 341915-16pages 295 to 303 .
    • 351916-17pages 304 to 310 .
    • 361917-18pages 311 to 316 .
    • 371918-19pages 317 to 324 .
    • 381919-20pages 325 to 332 .
    • 401921-22pages 340 to 346 .
    • 471928-29pages 9 to 16 .
    • 501931-32pages 48 to 61 .

  119. EMS Rutherford
    • Report on Dan Rutherford's lecture to the Edinburgh Mathematical Society given in the Mathematical Institute, Chambers Street, Edinburgh, on Saturday 1 November 1941.
    • Young's principal papers on this subject appeared at intervals between 1900 and 1933, but there was a long gap (1902-1927) in which none appeared; from which the lecturer drew the moral that when a problem defeats us we should keep it at hand, persevere with it, never despair.

  120. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol X (1891) 21-23 .
    • Vol X (1891) 35-37 .
    • Vol X (1891) 44-45 .
    • Vol XIV (1895) 122 .
    • Vol XIV (1895) 122-126 .
    • Vol 34 (1915) 11-17 .
    • The value of cos 2`0;/17 expressed in quadratic radicals.
    • Vol VIII (1889) 5-15 .
    • Notes: 19 (1915) .

  121. EMS 1951 Colloquium
    • St Andrews Mathematical Colloquium, 1951 .
    • It was held in St Andrews from 18 to 28 July 1951.
    • A picture of the 1951 Colloquium is available at THIS LINK.
    • Announcement of the St Andrews Mathematical Colloquium, 1951.
    • A Mathematical Colloquium under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society will be held at the University of St Andrews on July 18-28, 1951.
    • Announcement of the St Andrews Mathematical Colloquium, 1951.
    • An announcement of the 1951 St Andrews Colloquium appeared in The Mathematical Gazette.
    • The Society is once more organising such a gathering, which will take place in St Andrews from July 18th to July 28th, 1951.
    • Combined membership and accommodation fee - - 63;9 10 0 .
    • Membership fee for non-resident members - - - 63;1 12 6 .
    • The above charges include the registration fee of 10/- per person which should accompany the form of application.
    • Report on the St Andrews Mathematical Colloquium, 1951.
    • The following report of the Colloquium appeared in The Mathematical Gazette later in 1951.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/Colloquium_1951.html .

  122. EMS 1955 Colloquium
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society held its second St Andrews Colloquium after World War II in St Andrews from 6 to 16 July 1955.
    • 63;10 10 0 .
    • 63;1 12 6 .
    • The above charges include the registration fee of 10/- per person, which should accompany the form of application, obtainable by sending a stamped addressed envelope to the Colloquium Secretary, Mr J R Gray, United College, St Andrews.

  123. EMS 1968 Colloquium
    • We had a very pleasant summer in 1968, lecturing in Scotland and sight-seeing in Scotland and Ireland.
    • The first author [N H Bingham] was fortunate to hear a course of lectures by N G de Bruijn at the St Andrews Colloquium in 1968, when he was a second-year research student.
    • Andrews, Scotland, on July 10-20, 1968.

  124. EMS 1976 Colloquium

  125. EMS 1930 Colloquium
    • The title chosen is based upon that of a paper by Poincare in Louville's Journal (1901) dealing with plane curves.
    • The fee for the Colloquium (including all the lecture courses) is 63;1, of which 5s.
    • The cost of board and lodging for the period of the Colloquium (dinner on July 19th to breakfast on July 30th) will be £;5 10s.
    • The closing meeting of the Colloquium took place on Thursday 29 July at 12 noon.
    • Tracing the development of the Colloquium, he said it had been held at Edinburgh in 1913 and 1914, and in 1926 at St Andrews, and now it was being held again this year at St Andrews.
    • The Mathematical Colloquium, under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, which opened at St Andrews on 19th July, was concluded yesterday.

  126. EMS 1972 Colloquium
    • When I was there in 1972, the hottest day of the summer came in mid July; the thermometer reached 73¼.
    • The Colloquium had been self-financing apart from a grant of 63;100 from the Royal Society, and ended with a convincing surplus that would be used to support later Colloquia.
    • The October 1971 minutes say that Professors Halmos, Harary and Vajda had accepted invitations to give lecture courses, and Professors Cohn and Eells had agreed to lead series of seminars.
    • I first met Frank Harary in 1972 when he was one of the plenary speakers at the Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews.

  127. EMS 1934 Colloquium
    • The fee for the Colloquium (including all the lecture courses) is 63;1 5s, of which 5s.
    • The cost of board and lodging for the period of the Colloquium (dinner on 18th July to breakfast on 28th July) will be £5 5s.
    • The following report of the Colloquium, written by G C McVittie, appeared in The Mathematical Gazette later in 1934.

  128. 1887-88 Feb meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1887-88 .

  129. 1911-12 Nov meeting
    • Meeting of 10 November 1911 .
    • Capital account: £115/1/0 .
    • Cash account: £19/16/1 .
    • Total: £134/17/1 .
    • 58 periodicals had been bound during the session at a cost of £4/12/8.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1911-12 .

  130. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol III (1884) 95-100 .
    • Vol V (1886) 38-50 .

  131. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol X (1891) 46-50 .
    • Vol XI (1892) 61 .
    • Vol XIII (1894) 136-142 .
    • Note on the inequality theorems that lead up to the exponential limit (1+1/x)x → e as x → ∞ .
    • Vol XX (1901) 76-82 .
    • Vol 22 (1903) 22-26 .
    • Vol 22 (1903) 90-91 .
    • Vol 24 (1905) 7-19 .
    • Vol 26 (1907) 37-45 .
    • Vol 30 (1911) 67-68 .
    • Vol 36 (1917) 22-39 .
    • Vol 37 (1918) 2-25 .
    • Vol 43 (1924) 70-80 .
    • The inequality theorem xm-1/m > xn-1/n, m > n .
    • Notes: 4 (1910) .
    • Notes: 21 (1916) .

  132. Chrystal EMS tribute
    • George Chrystal died on 3 November 1911.

  133. EMS 125
    • He was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1980, to the Royal Society of London in 1989, to Foreign Membership of the French Academy of Sciences in 2000 and to Foreign Membership of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in 2007.
    • He was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1979, to the Royal Society of London in 1985, to a Fellowship of the Institute of Biology in 1988 and to the Foreign Membership of the French Academy of Sciences in 2000.
    • He was awarded the Naylor Prize of the London Mathematical Society in 1989 and he is a former President of the European Society for Mathematical and Theoretical Biology.

  134. 50 years of the EMS
    • He paid high tributes to the memory of Dr Cargill G Knott and Mr A Y Fraser, who with Mr Barclay had been most active in the formation of the Society in 1883, and gave reminiscences of his old friend and teacher Dr John Sturgeon Mackay, first President of the Society.

  135. EMS 1964 Colloquium
    • The following appeared in Mathematica Scandinavica 12 (2) (1964), 294.
    • The inclusive membership fee is £2 : 10/- per person.
    • The cost of board and lodging in University Residence Halls for the period of the Colloquium is 63;12 : 0/- per person, inclusive of gratuities.
    • The Minutes of the Committee Meeting held in January 1963 gives the dates as 15-25 July.

  136. EMS honours James Leslie
    • On Friday 4 November 1932, 100 years after the death of James Leslie, the Edinburgh Mathematical Society held a meeting in his honour:- .
    • Sir James Leslie was Professor of Mathematics in Edinburgh University from 1805 until 1819, and Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1819 until his death in 1832.
    • Sir John Leslie was born in 1766 in Upper Largo, Fife, where his little cottage may still be seen.
    • These he mastered, by himself, and, at the mature ago of 13, entered the University of St Andrews, His parents must have been hard-pressed to find the money, but such sacrifices produced fine characters; he was found qualified for the senior class in mathematics, and at the end of the year he gained a prize.
    • In 1805 at the ago of 39 he was first favourite for the Chair of Mathematics in the University of Edinburgh, from which his friend, Professor Playfair, had been translated to the Chair of Natural Philosophy.
    • On the sudden death of his friend Playfair in 1819 he was called to the Chair of Natural Philosophy.
    • In 1832, on the recommendation of Lord Brougham, then Lord Chancellor, he was created a Knight of the Guelphic Order.
    • This illness proved fatal, and he died in 1832 in his 67th year.

  137. EMS Mobius
    • Other papers of the programme were: Deformable quadrics and their circular sections, by Professor H W Turnbull, F.R.S., illustrated with a series of folding cardboard models; A note on the history of the fundamental theorem of the integral calculus, in which Professor Turnbull showed that an important theorem, commonly ascribed to Barrow in 1669, was actually contained in Gregory's Pars Universalis (1668), and should therefore be credited to the latter mathematician; On the intersection of certain quadrics, by L M Brown; and On the projective geometry of paths, by Dr J Haantjes.

  138. EMS 125 Dinner

  139. EMS William Taylor

  140. EMS Freundlich

  141. EMS honours Maxwell and Tait
    • On Friday 4 December 1931, 100 years after the birth of James Clerk Maxwell and Peter Guthrie Tait, the Edinburgh Mathematical Society held a meeting in their honour:- .
    • In 1860 he was elected to the Chair of Natural Philosophy in Edinburgh.

  142. EMS Aitken

  143. EMS 1926 Colloquium
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society held the second of its Edinburgh Colloquia in 1914.
    • The first of these was held 3 August to 13 August, 1926.
    • St Andrews Mathematical Colloquium, 1926, The Mathematical Gazette 13 (182) (May 1926), 135.
    • Under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, a Mathematical Colloquium will be held in St Andrews from 3rd August to 13th August, 1926.
    • The Society held a Summer School at the University Hall, St Andrews, from August 3rd to 13th.
    • He remarked upon the success of the two previous colloquia (1913 and 1914) which the Society had held.

  144. EMS Arithomometer
    • Report in The Evening Dispatch, Monday, June 7, 1937.

  145. EMS Copson
    • "The Society learned with deep regret of the death on 16 February 1980 of Emeritus Professor E T Copson, M.A., D.Sc., LLD., F.R.S.E., of the University of St Andrews.
    • Professor Copson was elected a member of the Society in 1922 and, over many years, devoted a great deal of his time in the service of the Society: as Secretary, then Editor of the Proceedings, and twice as President.

  146. Colloquia photographs
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society ran Colloquia in Edinburgh in 1913 and 1914.
    • After a gap caused by Word War I the meetings resumed in St Andrews in 1926 and seventeen summer meetings were held in St Andrews.
    • The 1951 meeting .

  147. EMS session 5
    • If this seems rather strange for a Society which began in 1883, we must remember that the second session of the Society (as well as the first) began in 1883.

  148. EMS Edge
    • The President referred to the Committee's nomination for Honorary Membership of Professor W L Edge, being conscious of his immense contributions to Mathematics and, in the words of the special minute of the Senatus of the University of Edinburgh on his retirement in 1975: .

  149. LMS Newsletter article
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in 1883 to provide its members, the majority of whom were schoolteachers, with lectures on advanced mathematics.
    • The Proceedings date back to 1884.
    • Whittaker was President of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in 1914-15 and President of the London Mathematical Society in 1928-29.
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society celebrated its centenary in 1983 and there were also special events in 2008 for one hundred and twenty-five years of the Society.
    • R A Rankin, The first hundred years (1883 - 1983), Proc.
    • (2) 26 (1983), no.
    • 2, 135-150.

  150. EMS Centenary Dinner

  151. EMS 1996 Colloquium
    • J Borwein, A van der Poorten, J Shallit and W Zudilin, Neverending Fractions: An Introduction to Continued Fractions (Cambridge University Press, 2014).
    • A N W Hone, Analytic solutions and integrability for bilinear recurrences of order six, Applicable Analysis 89 (2010), 473-492.
    • 359 (10) (2007), 5019-5034.
    • A van der Poorten, Hyperelliptic curves, continued fractions, and Somos sequences, Dynamics & Stochastics 48 (2006), 212-224.

  152. EMS Mackie

  153. EMS Ruse

  154. EMS 1984 Colloquium
    • Note that these dates were later than usual, chosed so as to avoid the Open Golf Championship held in St Andrews in the summer of 1984.

  155. EMS Levi-Civita
    • Tullio Levi-Civita wrote to the Edinburgh Mathematical Society on 12 June 1930: .

  156. EMS teaching
    • On 5 February 1944 the Edinburgh Mathematical Society met in 16 Chambers Street, Edinburgh.

  157. Chrystal: EMS Address
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society was founded in 1883 and the preliminary meeting of the Society was held in the Mathematics Class Room, Edinburgh University, on Friday, 2nd February 1883, at 8 p.m.

  158. EMS 1959 Colloquium
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society held its third St Andrews Colloquium after World War II in St Andrews from 8 to 18 July 1959.
    • Under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society it is proposed to hold a Colloquium in University Hall, St Andrews, from 8th July to 18th July 1959.
    • The Colloquium will be on similar lines to those held in St Andrews in 1951 and 1955.
    • The cost of board and lodging in University Residence Halls for the period of the Colloquium (dinner on 8th July to breakfast on 18th July) will be 63;10.15.0 per person, inclusive of gratuities.
    • A successful and enjoyable Colloquium was held in St Andrews from July 8 to July 18, 1959, under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, and was attended by about 80 members.

  159. EMS Lawson Ince
    • The deaths of Mr George Lawson and Dr Edward Lindsay Ince were reported to the meeting of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society held in the Mathematical Institute, Chambers Street, Edinburgh, on Friday 2 May 1941.
    • The former was President of the Society in 1937-38 and presided over the Mathematical Colloquium held during that session.

  160. EMS/SCM

  161. EMS Centenary meeting
    • He expressed the Society's good fortune, on this special occasion, of having as speaker an outstanding mathematician with a high international reputation, among whose many honours is the Fields Medal awarded in Moscow in 1966.
    • The first meeting of a mathematical nature was on 12th March 1883 and included a survey lecture by Professor Chrystal on "Present Fields of Mathematical Research".
    • He observed that, in 1983, few mathematicians are able to give such an overview, but Professor Atiyah is one of these few, and it was therefore especially fitting that he should speak on this occasion.

  162. EMS Centenary
    • He expressed the Society's good fortune, on this special occasion, of having as speaker an outstanding mathematician with a high international reputation, among whose many honours is the Fields Medal awarded in Moscow in 1966.
    • The first meeting of a mathematical nature was on 12th March 1883 and included a survey lecture by Professor Chrystal on "Present Fields of Mathematical Research".
    • He observed that, in 1983, few mathematicians are able to give such an overview, but Professor Atiyah is one of these few, and it was therefore especially fitting that he should speak on this occasion.

  163. Colloquia photographs
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society ran Colloquia in Edinburgh in 1913 and 1914.
    • After a gap caused by Word War I the meetings resumed in St Andrews in 1926 and a further seventeen summer meetings were held in St Andrews.
    • The 1951 meeting .

  164. EMS Ince

  165. EMS 1913 Colloquium
    • Under the auspices of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, a Mathematical Colloquium was held in the Mathematical Department of Edinburgh University during the week beginning Monday, 4th August, 1913, lasting five days.
    • A report on the Colloquium, written by C G Knott appeared in The Mathematical Gazette later in 1913.
    • The full reference is C G Knott, The Edinburgh Mathematical Colloquium, The Mathematical Gazette 7 (107) (October 1913), 165-167.
    • At 11.30 Professor Whittaker explained practical Harmonic Analysis and Periodogram Analysis; and at two o'clock Dr Sommerville of St Andrews expounded the mysteries of non-Euclidean Geometry and the Foundations of Geometry.

  166. EMS/SCM

  167. EMS Roll of Honour for World War I
    • The following Roll of Honour was printed in the Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society Vol XXXVII, Session 1918-1919 in pages vi-vii: .
    • Thompson, H F - Killed, 1916.

  168. EMS Copson Atiyah
    • He became a member in 1922, served as Secretary during the period 1924-30 and was twice President, in 1930-31 and 1954-55.
    • His excellent lectures at the St Andrews Colloquium in 1955 are still remembered, and he will be one of the main speakers at the next Colloquium in 1980.

  169. 1912-13 Nov meeting
    • 160 1/3 annual subscriptions had been received.
    • Capital account: £111/1/2 .
    • Cash account: £12/17/0 .
    • Total: £125/18/2 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1912-13 .

  170. 1922-23 Nov meeting
    • Capital account: £44/17/1 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1922-23 .

  171. 1907-08 Jun meeting
    • Sanjana, K J: "On factors of numbers of the form {x(2n+1)k plusminus 1} /{xk plusminus 1}" .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1907-08 .

  172. 1925-26 Feb meeting
    • 'A member may compound for his annual subscription by the payment of six guineas, subject to a reduction of £1/1/0 after ten years' membership and a further reduction of £1/15/0 for each succeeding five years' membership'.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1925-26 .

  173. 1903-04 Nov meeting
    • Cash account: £5/8/11 1/2 .
    • Total: £21/17/1 1/2 .
    • From Dr J S Mackay: £3/10 .
    • Total: £15/10 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1903-04 .

  174. 1901-02 Nov meeting
    • Meeting of 8 November 1901 .
    • 7-8(1901)] .
    • The treasurer's report showed that one Life-membership subscription had been received to the recently established "Capital Account" and that after withdrawing from this the annual subscription of 7/6 and adding it to the Cash account, there was a balance in favour of the society's Capital account of £4/18/6.
    • 166 annual subscriptions had been received and £6/11/8 had been received from the sale of the Proceedings.
    • There was a balance on the Cash account in favour of the society of £32/14/0 (1/2), and this added to the Capital account, left the society with a total balance of £37/12/6 (1/2).
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1901-02 .

  175. 15th February 2008: EMS 125th Anniversary

  176. 1905-06 Nov meeting
    • Meeting of 10 November 1905 .
    • Capital account: £22/14/5 .
    • Cash account: £19/2/9 1/2 .
    • Total: £41/17/2 1/2 .
    • The cost of publishing the index-volume had been almost completely covered by donations from members, with the exception of 17/6.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1905-06 .

  177. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol X (1891) 83-90 .
    • Vol XI (1892) 137-166 .
    • Vol XI (1892) 167-170 .
    • Vol XIV (1895) 148-174 .
    • Vol XIV (1895) 31-34 .
    • Vol XVI (1897) 2-12 .
    • Vol XVI (1897) 99-110 .
    • Vol XVII (1898) 10-32 .
    • Vol XX (1901) 2-5 .
    • Vol 22 (1903) 11 .
    • Vol 22 (1903) 64-67 .
    • Vol 25 (1906) 18-25 .
    • Vol III (1884) 61-70 .
    • Vol 38 (1919) 6-9 .
    • Vol 39 (1920) 25-33 .
    • Vol IV (1885) 88-91 .
    • Vol 40 (1921) 9-20 .
    • Vol 41 (1922) 2-25 .
    • Vol 44 (1925) 39-46 .
    • Vol 44 (1925) 47-54 .
    • A short notice of the additions to the mathematical theory of heat since the transmission of Fourier's memoir of 1811 to the French Academy .
    • Notes: 1 (1909) .
    • Notes: 20 (1916) .

  178. 1927-28 Nov meeting
    • Capital account: £7/17/1 .
    • Cash account: £2/14/1 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1927-28 .

  179. 1891-92 Dec meeting
    • Meeting of 11 December 1891 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1891-92 .

  180. 1930-31 Rules meeting
    • Rules 1-9 and rules 15-16 were agreed upon in May 1931.
    • Rules 10-14 were originally proposed with the words ÒScottish Mathematical JournalÓ instead of ÒMathematical NotesÓ.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1930-31 .

  181. 1930-31 meeting
    • Rules 1-9 and rules 15-16 were agreed upon in May 1931.
    • Rules 10-14 were originally proposed with the words ÒScottish Mathematical JournalÓ instead of ÒMathematical NotesÓ.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1930-31 .

  182. 1904-05 Nov meeting
    • Capital account: £21/4/3 .
    • Cash account: £14/0/6 1/2 .
    • Total: £35/4/9 1/2 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1904-05 .

  183. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol VII (1888) 10-22 .
    • Vol XII (1893) 31-33 .
    • Vol XVI (1897) 78-81 .
    • Vol XX (1901) 50-61 .
    • Vol 22 (1903) 54-63 .

  184. 1902-03 Nov meeting
    • 113 annual subscriptions had been received of a total of 150.
    • Capital Account: £15/19/4 .
    • Cash Account: £27/7/0 1/2 .
    • Total: £43/6/4 1/2 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1902-03 .

  185. 1924-25 Mar meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1924-25 .

  186. 1896-97 April meeting
    • Jack, John: "The factorisation of 1 - 2 xn cos alpha + x2n " .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1896-97 .

  187. EMS 1964
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1964 .

  188. 1909-10 Nov meeting
    • Meeting of 12 November 1909 .
    • Capital account: £94/19/8 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1909-10 .

  189. 1895-96 Nov meeting
    • The financial statement showed a deficit of £21/1/8.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1895-96 .

  190. EMS 1926
    • Edinburgh Mathematical Society Colloquium in St Andrews in 1926 .

  191. 1894-95 Feb meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1894-95 .

  192. 1896-97 Feb meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1896-97 .

  193. 1896-97 Nov meeting
    • The financial statement showed a deficit of £5/17/1.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1896-97 .

  194. 1903-04 Feb meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1903-04 .

  195. 1884-85 May meeting
    • Mackay, John Sturgeon: "Mnemonics for π;, 1/π, e" .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1884-85 .

  196. 1912-13 summaries index
    • Meetings for 1912-13 .

  197. 1910-11 Nov meeting
    • 171 annual subscriptions and 1 life subscription had been received.
    • Total: £121/7/4 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1910-11 .

  198. 1911-12 summaries index
    • Meetings for 1911-12 .

  199. 1904-05 Jan meeting
    • Valentine, George D: "Two theorems on the factors of 2p -1", [Title] .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1904-05 .

  200. 1891-92 Apr meeting
    • Pressland, Arthur John: "On the history and degree of certain geometrical approximations", {Part 2 of 2 (Part 1: December 1891)} .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1891-92 .

  201. 1912-13 Feb meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1912-13 .

  202. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol XV (1896) 81 .
    • Vol 24 (1905) 61-77 .
    • Vol 24 (1905) 78-119 .
    • Vol 25 (1906) 114-132 .
    • Vol 26 (1907) 58-66 .
    • Vol 27 (1908) 89-93 .
    • Vol 32 (1913) 30-35 .
    • Vol 33 (1914) 42-47 .
    • Vol 34 (1915) 176-196 .
    • Vol 37 (1918) 33-47 .
    • Vol 41 (1922) 26-48 .
    • Vol 44 (1925) 47-54 .
    • Vol 44 (1925) 57-71 .
    • Vol VIII (1889) 81-89 .
    • Notes: 1 (1909) .
    • Notes: 4 (1910) .
    • Notes: 4 (1910) .
    • Notes: 5 (1910) .
    • Notes: 11 (1912) .
    • Notes: 12 (1913) .
    • Notes: 12 (1913) .
    • Notes: 12 (1913) .
    • Notes: 15 (1914) .
    • Notes: 15 (1914) .
    • Notes: 23 (1925) .

  203. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Notes: 6 (1910) .
    • The tangents of 15 degrees and 22 1/2 degrees .
    • Notes: 7 (1911) .
    • Notes: 10 (1912) .
    • Vol 38 (1919) 2-5 .
    • Vol 44 (1925) 90-97 .

  204. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol VIII (1889) 19-21 .
    • Vol XIII (1894) 126-128 .
    • Vol 22 (1903) 27-27 .
    • Vol 22 (1903) 86-89 .
    • Vol 22 (1903) 89-89 .
    • Vol 23 (1904) 43-48 .
    • Vol 24 (1905) 31-33 .
    • Vol 25 (1906) 26-35 .
    • Vol 25 (1906) 69-79 .
    • Notes: 1 (1909) .
    • Notes: 3 (1909) .
    • Notes: 3 (1909) .
    • Notes: 6 (1910) .
    • Notes: 6 (1910) .
    • Notes: 14 (1913) .
    • Notes: 14 (1913) .
    • Notes: 17 (1915) .

  205. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol 28 (1909) 60-61 .
    • Vol 28 (1909) 62-63 .
    • Vol 31 (1912) 35-48 .
    • Vol 38 (1919) Notes .
    • Notes: 6 (1910) .
    • Notes: 10 (1912) .
    • Notes: 13 (1913) .
    • Notes: 15 (1914) .
    • Notes: 15 (1914) .
    • Notes: 17 (1915) .
    • Notes: 18 (1915) .
    • Notes: 19 (1915) .
    • Notes: 20 (1916) .
    • Notes: 23 (1925) .

  206. 1914-15 May meeting
    • The secretary has made a mistake and written the date of the meeting as 14.6.15.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1914-15 .

  207. 1897-98 Nov meeting
    • The financial statement showed a balance in favour of the society of £9/11/5 (1/2).
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1897-98 .

  208. EMS Proceedings papers
    • Vol XI (1892) 104-106 .
    • Vol XI (1892) 19-57 .
    • Vol XI (1892) 92-103 .
    • Vol XII (1893) 2-16 .
    • Vol XII (1893) 86-105 .
    • Vol XIII (1894) 103-104 .
    • Vol XIII (1894) 166-178 .
    • Vol XIII (1894) 37-102 .
    • Vol XIV (1895) 37-103 .
    • Vol XV (1896) 100-118 .
    • Vol XX (1901) 18-22 .
    • Vol XX (1901) 35-39 .
    • Vol 23 (1904) 80-88 .
    • Vol III (1884) 105-105 .
    • Mnemonics for π;, 1/π, e .
    • Vol III (1884) 105-107 .
    • Vol III (1884) 2-11 .
    • Vol IV (1885) 51-55 .
    • Vol V (1886) 2-22 .
    • Vol V (1886) 61-61 .
    • Vol V (1886) 62-78 .
    • Vol VI (1887) 2-12 .
    • Vol IX (1890) 83-91 .
    • Notes: 2 (1909) .
    • Notes: 11 (1912) .
    • Notes: 12 (1913) .

  209. 1924-25 Dec meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1924-25 .

  210. 1892-93 Apr meeting
    • Meeting of 14 April 1893 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1892-93 .

  211. 1898-99 Nov meeting
    • The financial statement showed a balance in favour of the society of £8/7/0 (1/2).
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1898-99 .

  212. 1898-99 Jun meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1898-99 .

  213. 1923-24 Jun meeting
    • Saddler, William: "The geometrical interpretation of the complete system of two double binary (2, 1) forms", [Proceedings, session 43] .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1923-24 .

  214. 1900-01 Nov meeting
    • 112 (1901)] .
    • The financial statement showed a balance in favour of the society of £9/16/2.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1900-01 .

  215. 1892-93 Nov meeting
    • The annual financial statement showed a balance in favour of the Society of £7/3/1.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1892-93 .

  216. 1893-94 Nov meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1893-94 .

  217. 1901-02 Mar meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1901-02 .

  218. 1898-99 Dec meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1898-99 .

  219. 1883 Feb meeting
    • Professor Tait had suggested "that the Society regard itself as the resuscitation of the Physio-Mathematical Society, which had led a vigorous existence during the years 1836-39, had revived at subsequent intervals, but finally collapsed in 1859, leaving behind it however, a library, some fragmentary apparatus, and a ballot box." .
    • Motion 8: That the committee be instructed to draw up the Constitution for the Society and submit it to the Society at the first Ordinary Meeting to be held on Friday March 9, 1883 at 8 p.m.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1883 .

  220. 1901-02 Jun meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1901-02 .

  221. 1892-93 April meeting
    • Meeting of 14 April 1893 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1892-93 .

  222. 1888-89 Jan meeting
    • Meeting of 11 January 1889 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1888-89 .

  223. 1927-28 Jun meeting
    • Steggall, John Edward Aloysius: "On the factorization of 232+ 1", [Not printed in an EMS publication] .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1927-28 .

  224. 1895-96 Feb meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1895-96 .

  225. 1903-04 Jan meeting
    • Tweedie, Charles: "Inequality theorem regarding the lines joining corresponding vertices of two equilateral, or directly similar, triangles", {Part 1 of 2 (Part 2: 12 February 1904)} .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1903-04 .

  226. 1924-25 Nov meeting
    • Cash account: £50/3/10 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1924-25 .

  227. 1883 Mar meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1883 .

  228. 1894-95 April meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1894-95 .

  229. 1894-95 Apr meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1894-95 .

  230. 1897-98 Jun meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1897-98 .

  231. 1892-93 Mar meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1892-93 .

  232. 1896-97 Jan meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1896-97 .

  233. 1894-95 May meeting
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1894-95 .

  234. 1907-08 Nov meeting
    • Capital account: £53/12/9 .
    • Cash account: £9/1/9 .
    • Total: £62/14/6 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1907-08 .

  235. 1902-03 May meeting
    • Holm, Alexander: "On the convergents to a recurring continued fraction, with applications to finding integral solutions of the equation x2 - Cy2 = (-1)nD[n]", {Title in minutes: "The convergents to a recurring continued fraction"} .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1902-03 .

  236. 1896-97 Apr meeting
    • Jack, John: "The factorisation of 1 - 2 xn cos alpha + x2n " .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1896-97 .

  237. 1919-20 Nov meeting
    • Capital account: £79/13/7 .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1919-20 .

  238. 1891-92 April meeting
    • Pressland, Arthur John: "On the history and degree of certain geometrical approximations", {Part 2 of 2 (Part 1: December 1891)} .
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1891-92 .

  239. 1906-07 Nov meeting
    • Capital account: £32/15/11 .
    • Total: £44/16/2 .
    • There was a total balance of the year's financial transactions of £2/18/11 1/2.
    • Index of summaries for meetings in 1906-07 .


BMC Archive

  1. Report2014.html
    • The British Mathematical Colloquium 2014 took place between 07-10 April 2014 at Queen Mary University of London.
    • Regarding (B), the prestigious list of speakers attracted around 310 registered academic participants, which is a great success compared to 202, 148 in the previous two years, and it was the largest BMC since Leeds 2000.
    • Up to 63;12,500, used for all speakers' registration and conference dinner expenses, all non-CMI Plenary speakers, all Morning speakers, all non-CMI Workshop speakers.
    • We used £5, 000 for covering full local expenses of 19 PhD students from the UK and overseas.
    • Eshop conference delegates, early bird (120@63;75)12725 .
    • Eshop conference delegates, standard (37@63;95)3315 .
    • Eshop conference dinner delegates (79@63;55)4345 .
    • Maths department delegates (34@63;75)2550 .
    • Maths department dinner delegates (3@63;55)165 .
    • Institutional delegates (15@63;75 [5 UCL; 10 Imperial])1125 .
    • LMS speaker delegates (53@63;130)6890 .
    • Google sponsorship delegates (16@63;130)2080 .
    • Ambassadors (6 for 30 hours @ 63;22.50 p/h)4050 .
    • Plenary speaker registration and dinner fee (8 @ 63;130)1040 .
    • Morning speaker conference fee and dinner (10 x 63;130)1300 .
    • Workshop speaker conference fee and dinner (30 x 63;130)3900 .
    • Workshop speaker accomodation (Non-Clay Ibis)1971 .
    • Conference fee and dinner for 19 bursary candidates (@63;130)2470 .
    • Fee waivers (2 x £75)150 .

  2. Minutes for 2000
    • R W K Odoni (r.odoni@maths.gla.ac.uk), 53rd BMC, Glasgow, 2001 (Chair) .
    • R J Steiner (r.steiner@maths.gla.ac.uk), 53rd BMC, Glasgow, 2001 (Secretary) .
    • Minutes of 1999 Scientific Committee Meeting in Southampton .
    • The LMS made a grant of £7000 (63;1000 for each special session and £5000 for other purposes).
    • Mathematics Year 2000 made a grant of 63;1000 for posters and for videos of the plenary lectures.
    • The Irish Mathematical Society has offered 63;1500, and the Chairman should write to thank them.
    • Possible UK based morning speakers for Glasgow (2001) .
    • subarea 2: 1 Leary (1), T Brady (2), M Dunwoody, G Niblo; .

  3. BMC Report
    • Maths2010: Joint meeting of British Mathematical Colloquium & British Applied Mathematics Colloquium Edinburgh, 6-9 April, 2010 .
    • Report September 1, 2010 .
    • A joint meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium and the British Applied Mathematics Colloquium was held in Edinburgh during the week 6-9 April, 2010.
    • Nevertheless, the conference made a net deficit of around 63;1,000 on a turnover in the region of 63;100,000.
    • Fees(1) 63;72,101 .
    • Total £99,551 .
    • Accommodation(2) 63;67,840.20 .
    • Speakers' expenses(3) 63;8,918.22 .
    • Total 63;100,549.23 .

  4. BMC Plenary speakers
    • Adler, R : 2016, 2016 .
    • Aidan, S : 1991 .
    • Ambrosio, L : 2016, 2016 .
    • Askey, R : 1994 .
    • Atiyah, M F : 1973, 2000, 2014 .
    • Babai, L : 1993 .
    • Baez, J : 2013 .
    • Bass, H : 1974 .
    • Bauer, H : 1979 .
    • Bayer-Fluckiger, E : 2017 .
    • Berestycki, H : 2001 .
    • Bessenrodt, C : 2012 .
    • Beurling, A : 1963 .
    • Bieri, R : 1989 .
    • Birch, B J : 1973 .
    • Bombieri, E : 1975, 1995 .
    • Bott, R H : 1977, 1962 .
    • Brieskorn, E : 1974 .
    • Broue, M : 2001 .
    • Browder, W : 1979 .
    • Buchsbaum, D : 1980 .
    • Buekenhout, F : 1999 .
    • Calderbank, R : 2015 .
    • Carleson, L : 1971 .
    • Cartan, H : 1955 .
    • Carter, R W : 1995 .
    • Cartier, P : 1975 .
    • Cartwright, M L : 1950 .
    • Cassels, J W S : 1951 .
    • Casson, A : 1996 .
    • Cherry, C : 1961 .
    • Chevalley, C : 1965 .
    • Choquet, G : 1977 .
    • Chudnovsky, M : 2016, 2016 .
    • Clark, R S : 1962 .
    • Connes, A : 1981, 1998, 2007 .
    • Dade, E C : 1971 .
    • Damon, H : 2001 .
    • Davenport, H : 1952 .
    • Davies, E T : 1960 .
    • de Rham, G W : 1956 .
    • DeMarco, L : 2018 .
    • Diaconis, P : 2014 .
    • Dieudonne, J A : 1969 .
    • Dinur, I : 2018 .
    • Dowker, C H : 1954 .
    • Eckmann, B : 1960 .
    • Effros, E G : 1993 .
    • Ekeland, I : 1991 .
    • Erdelyi, A : 1965 .
    • Erdos, P : 1957 .
    • Fefferman, C L : 1985 .
    • Feit, W : 1990, 1967 .
    • Ferrand, M O J L : 1972 .
    • Fuglede, B : 1980 .
    • Fukaya, K : 2017 .
    • Fulton, W : 1997 .
    • Furstenberg, H : 1984 .
    • Gallagher, I : 2017 .
    • Ghys, E : 1999 .
    • Gordon, C McA : 1992 .
    • Gorenstein, D : 1982 .
    • Gowers, T : 2011 .
    • Graham, R : 1990, 2009 .
    • Green, J A : 1977, 2002 .
    • Gromov, M : 1985 .
    • Guralnick, R : 2014 .
    • Hacon, C : 2010 .
    • Hairer, M : 2018 .
    • Halmos, P R : 1965, 1986 .
    • Harder, G : 1976 .
    • Hasse, H : 1961 .
    • Hayman, W K : 1952, 1956 .
    • Heilbronn, H : 1951 .
    • Helson, H : 1967 .
    • Henniart, G : 2013 .
    • Henrici, P : 1964 .
    • Higman, G : 1957 .
    • Hirsch, K A : 1959 .
    • Hirzebruch, F : 1975, 1961 .
    • Hodge, W V D : 1951 .
    • Jessen, B : 1957 .
    • Joshi, N : 2018 .
    • Kadison, R V : 1966 .
    • Kahane, J -P : 1968 .
    • Kaplansky, I : 1966 .
    • Kapranov, M : 2013 .
    • Kendall, D G : 1962 .
    • Klingenberg, W : 1969 .
    • Kothee, G : 1959 .
    • Kreisel, G : 1958 .
    • Kronheimer, P : 2015 .
    • Kuiper, N H : 1971 .
    • Lafforgue, L : 2017 .
    • Lagarias, J : 2010 .
    • Lang, S : 1993 .
    • Lenstra, H W : 1987 .
    • Lieb, E : 1992 .
    • Lindenstrauss, E : 2011 .
    • Lions, J L : 1976 .
    • Lions, P : 1997 .
    • Lorenz, M : 2012 .
    • Lovasz, L : 1988 .
    • Lubotzky, A : 1997, 2016, 2016 .
    • Lurie, J : 2017 .
    • Macbeath, A M : 1963 .
    • Macdonald, I G : 1998 .
    • Mahler, K : 1959 .
    • Maynard-Smith, J : 1981 .
    • Milnor, J : 1978, 1958 .
    • Montgomery, H L : 1994, 2008 .
    • Mumford, D : 1980, 2002 .
    • Myhill, J : 1972 .
    • Neumann, P M : 1987 .
    • Newman, M H A : 1955 .
    • Neyman, J : 1958 .
    • Ngo Bao Chau : 2014 .
    • Nirenberg, L : 1983 .
    • Northcott, D G : 1954 .
    • Odlyzko, A : 1991 .
    • Osher, S : 2015 .
    • Pedit, F : 2011 .
    • Phelps, R R : 1978 .
    • Piene, R : 2013 .
    • Pisier, G : 2004, 1995 .
    • Quillen, D G : 1983 .
    • Rabin, M : 1984 .
    • Rado, R : 1953 .
    • Rees, D : 1950 .
    • Reidermeister, K : 1955 .
    • Reiten, I : 2012 .
    • Robinson, A : 1970 .
    • Rogers, C A : 1964 .
    • Roquette, P : 1986 .
    • Roth, K F : 1979 .
    • Rouquier, R : 2011 .
    • Saloff-Coste, L : 2013 .
    • Samuel, P : 1968 .
    • Sarnak, P : 2016, 2016 .
    • Schick, T : 2013 .
    • Schmidt, W : 1981 .
    • Schwartz, L : 1954 .
    • Segre, B : 1966 .
    • Seidel, J J : 1976 .
    • Serfaty, S : 2015 .
    • Serre, J-P : 1970, 1984, 1995 .
    • Seymour, P : 2018 .
    • Shalev, A : 1999 .
    • Shelah, S : 1988 .
    • Sims, C C : 1989 .
    • Singer, I M : 1988 .
    • Smale, S : 1969, 1982 .
    • Soare, R : 2012 .
    • Specker, E : 1968 .
    • Springer, T A : 1972 .
    • Staffilani, G : 2010 .
    • Stampacchia, G : 1974 .
    • Sullivan, D P : 1983 .
    • Synge, J L : 1960 .
    • Szemeredi, E : 2014 .
    • Taubes, C : 2001 .
    • Taylor, R : 1950 .
    • Taylor, S J : 1990 .
    • Thurston, W P : 1986 .
    • Tijdeman, R : 1989 .
    • Tits, J L : 1964, 1973 .
    • Trang, L D : 1987 .
    • Tretter, C : 2012 .
    • Uhlenbeck, K K : 1998 .
    • Valiant, L : 1994 .
    • van Lint, J H : 1992 .
    • Viana, M : 2018 .
    • Villani, C : 2014 .
    • Vogan, D : 1999 .
    • Vogtmann, K : 2011 .
    • Voisin, C : 2014 .
    • Walker, A G : 1953 .
    • Weil, A : 1956 .
    • Werner, W : 2015 .
    • Wielandt, H : 1978, 1963 .
    • Wiles, A : 1996, 2015 .
    • Wilkinson, A : 2016, 2016 .
    • Woodin, W H : 1998 .
    • Yau, S T : 1982 .
    • Zaanen, A C : 1970 .
    • Zagier, D : 1985, 2014 .
    • Zeeman, E C : 1967 .
    • Zelmanov, E : 1996, 2004 .

  5. BMC Special Session speakers
    • Albrecht, S : 2017 .
    • Alcock, L : 2013 .
    • Alon, N : 1996 .
    • Altmann, K : 2010 .
    • Ara, D : 2013 .
    • Azzam, J : 2018 .
    • Baba, S : 2017 .
    • Bailey, R : 2018 .
    • Baker, S : 2018 .
    • Baland, S : 2012 .
    • Ballesteros, D : 2017 .
    • Barlow, M : 1999 .
    • Barnes, B : 2011 .
    • Barnes, D : 2017 .
    • Barrow-Green, J : 2015 .
    • Barthe, B : 2011 .
    • Batty, C : 2012 .
    • Berger, T : 2017 .
    • Berman, R : 2015 .
    • Besson,G : 2015 .
    • Bjorklund, M : 2016 .
    • Blokhuis, A : 1996 .
    • Bochi, J : 2018 .
    • Boettcher, A : 1995 .
    • Boffa, M : 1998 .
    • Boileau, M : 1997 .
    • Bolte, J : 2012 .
    • Bonnaillie-Noel, V : 2016 .
    • Boote, Y : 2017 .
    • Bottcher, J : 2015 .
    • Bowditch, B H : 1999 .
    • Bowman, C : 2016 .
    • Bradford, J : 2015 .
    • Braun, A : 2012 .
    • Brezis, H : 1997 .
    • Bridgeland, T : 2010 .
    • Brodzki, J : 2013 .
    • Brown, G : 2018 .
    • Brown, M : 2012 .
    • Bruin, B : 2011 .
    • Bruns, W : 1995 .
    • Burness, T : 2018 .
    • Burstall, F : 1996 .
    • Buzzard, K : 2001 .
    • Calderbank, C : 2011 .
    • Carbery, T : 2018 .
    • Carmen, M : 2016 .
    • Cavalletti, F : 2016 .
    • Chadwick, E : 2012 .
    • Charlton, S : 2017 .
    • Chemin, J-Y : 2001 .
    • Cherniha, R : 2015 .
    • Chu, D : 2012 .
    • Ciobanu, L : 2018 .
    • Coates, T : 2010 .
    • Cockshott, P : 2012 .
    • Collet, P : 2001 .
    • Constantinescu, A : 2017 .
    • Cook, J : 2017 .
    • Corner, A : 2015 .
    • Crane, E : 2015 .
    • Cremona, J : 2016 .
    • Cretney, R : 2015 .
    • Cuntz, J : 1995 .
    • Dalla Riva, M : 2015 .
    • Das, S : 2016 .
    • Davies, E B : 1997, 2002 .
    • De Visscher, M : 2018 .
    • De, T : 2016 .
    • Deshouillers, J M : 1994 .
    • Dokchitser, V : 2013 .
    • Donaldson, D : 2011 .
    • Doucet, A : 2016 .
    • Dougall, R : 2016 .
    • Dufresne, E : 2012 .
    • Dunwoody, M J : 1994 .
    • East, J : 2018 .
    • Eckhoff, M : 2013 .
    • Egidi, M : 2017 .
    • Elkies, N : 2017 .
    • Elkin, A : 2012 .
    • Elkin, E : 2011 .
    • Ellis, D : 2015 .
    • Elmer, J : 2012 .
    • Embrechts, P : 2010 .
    • Enblom, A : 2017 .
    • England, M : 2012 .
    • Enright, J : 2018 .
    • Erdmann, E : 2011 .
    • Everitt, B : 2017, 2018 .
    • Eveson, S : 2012 .
    • Fassler, K : 2016 .
    • Farwa, S : 2012 .
    • Fenn, R : 1997 .
    • Ferreira, J : 2012 .
    • Fesenko, I : 2013 .
    • Fink, A : 2017 .
    • Fisher, T : 2012 .
    • Flock, T : 2016 .
    • Forlano, J : 2018 .
    • Fountoulakis, N : 2015 .
    • Fresneda-Portillo, C : 2015 .
    • Gambino, N : 2013 .
    • Gangl, G : 2011 .
    • Gardener, T : 1998 .
    • Garret, S : 2012 .
    • Gekeler, E -U : 2001 .
    • Georgakopoulos, A : 2016 .
    • Gerencser, M : 2018 .
    • Ghani, N : 2013 .
    • Ghazouani, S : 2017 .
    • Giansiracusa, G : 2011 .
    • Gibbons, J : 2013 .
    • Gill, C : 2012 .
    • Gittins, K : 2017 .
    • Gloria, A : 2016 .
    • Gozlan, N : 2016 .
    • Graham, D : 2012 .
    • Granstrom, J : 2014 .
    • Gray, J : 2013 .
    • Grazian, V : 2018 .
    • Grenier, E : 2001 .
    • Grigoryan, A : 1999 .
    • Gruenberg, K W : 1994 .
    • Gubinelli, M : 2016 .
    • Hall, R R : 1994 .
    • Hambly, B : 2002, 2013 .
    • Harman, D : 2011 .
    • Harman, G : 1994 .
    • Harper, A : 2016 .
    • Harper,J : 2015 .
    • Hawkins, E : 2013 .
    • Heard, J : 2015 .
    • Hein,, H : 2011 .
    • Hempel, R : 1997 .
    • Hepworth, R : 2017 .
    • Hering, M : 2015, 2017 .
    • Hernandez-Martinez, P : 2012 .
    • Hetherington, T : 2012 .
    • Hinz, A : 1995 .
    • Hitchin, H : 2011 .
    • Hodges, A : 2012 .
    • Hogarth, M : 2012 .
    • Hollings, C : 2013, 2015 .
    • Holroyd, A : 2015 .
    • Holt, D F : 1994 .
    • Howie, J : 1999 .
    • Huggett, S : 2013 .
    • Hunton, J : 2013, 2013 .
    • Huxol, T : 2016 .
    • Hyland, M : 2013 .
    • Iannone, P : 2012 .
    • Iyudu, N : 2012, 2013 .
    • Jarai, A : 2013 .
    • Jarai, A : 2016 .
    • Johansson, C : 2013 .
    • Johnson, M : 2018 .
    • Jones, I : 2012 .
    • Jones, J : 2016 .
    • Jordan,, J : 2011 .
    • Jorgensen, J : 2011 .
    • Joseph, M : 2013 .
    • Jung, J-H : 2018 .
    • Jurga, N : 2018 .
    • Kahle, T : 2017 .
    • Karmazyn, J : 2015 .
    • Kasprzyk, A : 2012 .
    • Kedziorek, M : 2013 .
    • Kemp, G : 2012 .
    • Kemper, G : 2017 .
    • Kempton, T : 2018 .
    • Kohls, M : 2012 .
    • Koivusalo, H : 2016 .
    • Kosloff, Z : 2016 .
    • Kosta, D : 2017 .
    • Kraehmer, U : 2012 .
    • Kremnitzer, K : 2013 .
    • Kropholler, P H : 1995 .
    • Yang, A L B : 2018 .
    • Labbe, C : 2015 .
    • Lambrechts, L : 2011 .
    • Langer, M : 2012 .
    • Larson, S : 2017 .
    • Lauter, K : 2016 .
    • Le, E : 2016 .
    • Le, P : 2016 .
    • Lebed, V : 2013 .
    • Lee, M : 2016 .
    • Leinster, T : 2015 .
    • Lenagan, T H : 1995 .
    • Lenagan, T : 2013 .
    • Lenstra, H : 2016 .
    • Leroy, A : 2013 .
    • Letzter, S : 2016 .
    • Levy, L S : 1995 .
    • Li, L : 2017 .
    • Li, X : 2018 .
    • Lima, Y : 2016 .
    • Lindsey, K : 2016 .
    • Liu, H : 2016 .
    • Lombardo, S : 2012 .
    • Long, E : 2016 .
    • Lopes , M M : 2015 .
    • Lopez, J : 2012 .
    • Lowe, T : 2013 .
    • Lyle, S : 2016 .
    • McCartney, M : 2015 .
    • McGerty, K : 2012 .
    • Macintyre, A J : 1998 .
    • Macpherson, H D : 1998 .
    • Makhlouf, A : 2013 .
    • Malcolm, A : 2016 .
    • Maleva, M : 2011 .
    • Mann, T : 2018 .
    • Marletta, M : 2012 .
    • Marsh, S : 2013 .
    • Martesinos, J M : 1997 .
    • Martin, U : 2018 .
    • Martsinkovsky, A : 2013 .
    • Marzec, J : 2017 .
    • Meeks, K : 2018 .
    • Meng, M : 2011 .
    • Merkulov, S : 1996 .
    • Metayer, F : 2013 .
    • Michaelson, G : 2012 .
    • Miemietz, V : 2016 .
    • Mohammadi, F : 2017 .
    • Moktefi, A : 2018 .
    • Montanaro, A : 2012 .
    • Montgomery, R : 2015 .
    • Morrison, N : 2016 .
    • Nakajima, H : 1996 .
    • Narayanan, B : 2015 .
    • Nelson, J : 2013 .
    • Newton, R : 2012, 2017 .
    • Nikolov, N : 2016 .
    • Noohi, N : 2011 .
    • O'Buachalla, R : 2012 .
    • Odoni, R W K : 1994 .
    • Oliveira e Silva, D : 2018 .
    • Olsen, L : 2013 .
    • Otter, N : 2017 .
    • Owens, B : 2017 .
    • Paget, P : 2011 .
    • Palmer, M : 2013 .
    • Paoli, S : 2017 .
    • Pasquinelli, I : 2017 .
    • Pauksztello, D : 2016 .
    • Penrose, R : 2011 .
    • Pfirsch, B : 2017 .
    • Plymen, R : 2013 .
    • Pocovnicu, O : 2018 .
    • Pohl, A : 2017 .
    • Pokrovksiy, A : 2016 .
    • Pomerleano, D : 2017 .
    • Pridham, P : 2011 .
    • Pritchard, D : 2013 .
    • Pumpluen, S : 2016 .
    • Radu, O : 2012, 2012 .
    • Ramero, R : 2011 .
    • Reid, M : 2015 .
    • Richards, B : 2012 .
    • Richter, B : 2013 .
    • Rippon, P : 2018 .
    • Rivin, I : 1999 .
    • Roberts, M : 2013 .
    • Robertson, E F : 2008, 2018 .
    • Robinson, J : 2018 .
    • Roditty-Gershon, E : 2016 .
    • Roendigs, R : 2011 .
    • Roitzheim, C : 2013, 2017 .
    • Rolen, L : 2017 .
    • Rolfsen, D : 1997 .
    • Rose, C : 2017 .
    • Rowlett, P : 2013 .
    • Rule, D : 2012 .
    • Rupflin,M : 2015 .
    • Russhard, A : 2013 .
    • Schlichtkrull, S : 2011 .
    • Seco, D : 2015 .
    • Sezer, M : 2012 .
    • Sharp, B : 2016 .
    • Sharp,, S : 2011 .
    • Shirikyan, A : 2001 .
    • Shur, A : 2018 .
    • Siegmund, D : 1999 .
    • Sierra, S : 2012 .
    • Siksek, S : 2016 .
    • Simpson, A : 2012 .
    • Sisask, S : 2011 .
    • Sloane, N J A : 1996 .
    • Smith, J : 2018 .
    • Smith, R : 1995 .
    • Smoktunowicz, A : 2013 .
    • Sohinger, V : 2018 .
    • Sousi, P : 2015 .
    • Speight, M : 2012 .
    • Spencer, C : 2012 .
    • Staden, K : 2018 .
    • Stallard, G : 2018 .
    • Stancu, R : 2012 .
    • Stannett, M : 2012 .
    • Stenhouse, B : 2018 .
    • Susa-Quintero, C : 2015 .
    • Sutcliffe, P : 1996 .
    • Szymik, M : 2013 .
    • Talbot,J : 2015 .
    • Taormina, A : 2012 .
    • Tateo, R : 2012 .
    • Terhesiu, D : 2016 .
    • Testa, D : 2012 .
    • Tilouine, J : 2001 .
    • Tkocz, T : 2015 .
    • Tolomeo, L : 2017 .
    • Totaro, B : 2010 .
    • Tracey, K : 2018 .
    • Tsatsoulis, P : 2018 .
    • Turner, A : 2013 .
    • Turner, T : 2011 .
    • Urbanski,, U : 2011 .
    • van Gennip, Y : 2015 .
    • van Order, J : 2017 .
    • van Strien, S J : 1998 .
    • Varju, P : 2016 .
    • Vassiliev, D : 1997 .
    • Velani, S : 2013 .
    • Veselov, A : 2012 .
    • Veselov, V : 2011 .
    • Vickers, S : 2015 .
    • Vishe, P : 2016 .
    • Vishik, V : 2011 .
    • Viti, J : 2012 .
    • Voigt, C : 2013 .
    • Vokes, K : 2017 .
    • von Glehn, T : 2015 .
    • von, T : 2013 .
    • Vozzo, R : 2013 .
    • Wade, A : 2013 .
    • Wadsley, S : 2012 .
    • Wang, L : 2015 .
    • Warnke, L : 2015 .
    • Warren, J : 2016 .
    • Wess, J : 2018 .
    • Williamson, W : 2011 .
    • Windridge, P : 2013 .
    • Winn, B : 2012 .
    • Wolf, J : 2015, 2018 .
    • Woolf, J : 2013, 2017 .
    • Wright, N : 2013 .
    • Wright, W : 2011 .
    • Yafaev, Y : 2011 .
    • Yoccoz, J-C : 1998 .
    • Young, C : 2012 .
    • Young, L-S : 1998 .
    • Zamaraev, V : 2018 .
    • Zhao, Y : 2016 .
    • Zhelezov, D : 2016 .

  6. Report2015.html
    • Six student prizes were awarded, each of 63;100; three were SIAM prizes for the best applied-mathematics oral presentations, two were for the best pure mathematics oral presentations, and one was for the best poster.
    • Due to generous sponsorship by GCHQ (Heilbronn Institute), Schlumberger and MathWorks totalling 63;10,150 (an order of magnitude larger than the original budget), 87 bursaries were awarded to students, covering at least their conference registration fee.
    • LMS3;21,000.00 .
    • Other sponsors and publishers (see [1]) 63;5,459.67 .
    • Conference Dinner63;17,040.00 .
    • Total63;131,801.71 .
    • Speakers Expenses63;17,934.30 .
    • Student Bursaries63;10,292.50 .
    • ?Room Hire & AV Streaming63;12,966.00 .
    • Conference Packs63;11,430.41 .
    • Administrative Support63;13,761.20 .
    • Conference Dinner 63;15,239.57 .
    • Gratis Non-Speaker Registrations/Banquets? 63;2,600.00 .
    • Other (Transport, Hoodies, Stand Payments, Advertising)63;1,182.11 .
    • Returned to LMS£4,615.84 .
    • Total63;131,801.71 .
    • The registration fee was set in November 2014 at 63;115 (or 63;163 including the conference dinner); registration included three buffet lunches, two receptions, and continuous morning coffee and afternoon tea.
    • a surplus made on accommodation (63;2,943.40 on a turnover of £58,829.15); .
    • The difference between these refunds is the 63;1,260.00 subsidy that the conference made to the LMS reception in recognition of the 150th anniversary celebrations.
    • 63;3915.65 on Scheme 3 workshops, compared with a LMS Grant of £3000), in many cases the funds available were not sufficient even to pay the registration fee for all the speakers (let alone travel/subsistence expenses).
    • As we understand it, not covering such expenses is in line with convention at recent BMCs (since the change to workshops in 2011) and BAMCs, but it can be somewhat embarrassing (indeed, some workshop organisers queried this convention in disbelief).

  7. BMC Morning speakers
    • Aczel, P : 1978 .
    • Adams, J F : 1960, 1969, 1979 .
    • Aitken, A C : 1956 .
    • Allan, G R : 1986, 1971 .
    • Allenby, R B J T : 1984 .
    • Alperin, J L : 1973 .
    • Anantharaman, N : 2016 .
    • Anderson, I : 1992 .
    • Anthony, M H G : 1996 .
    • Archbold, R J : 1995 .
    • Ardakov, K : 2013 .
    • Armitage, J V : 1972 .
    • Armstrong, M A : 1972 .
    • Aschbacher, M : 1976 .
    • Atiyah, M F : 1957, 1962 .
    • Atkin, A O L : 1969 .
    • Austin, T : 2014 .
    • Bachoc, C : 2014 .
    • Bailey, R A : 1985 .
    • Baker, A J : 1998 .
    • Baker, A : 1970 .
    • Baker, I N : 1992, 1963 .
    • Baker, R C : 1977 .
    • Ball, J M : 1997, 1981 .
    • Barlow, M : 1990 .
    • Barnard, G A : 1955 .
    • Barnett, C : 1986 .
    • Barratt, M G : 1953 .
    • Barrow-Green, J E : 1996 .
    • Barrow-Green, J : 2013 .
    • Barry, P D : 1965 .
    • Batty, C J K : 1983 .
    • Bayer, A : 2015 .
    • Beardon, A F : 1987, 1969 .
    • Beineke, L W : 1974 .
    • Bennett, J : 2018 .
    • Benson, D : 1990 .
    • Berestycki, N : 2016 .
    • Bernardi, A : 2017 .
    • Berry, M V : 1996 .
    • Bertrand, D : 1982 .
    • Besicovitch, A S : 1958 .
    • Besson, G : 2017 .
    • Biggs, N L : 1999, 1980 .
    • Bingham, N H : 1984 .
    • Binmore, K G : 1974 .
    • Birch, B J : 1985, 1960, 1971 .
    • Black, S : 2012 .
    • Blackburn, N : 1964 .
    • Blackburn, S R : 1997 .
    • Bley, W : 1999 .
    • Blyth, T S : 1979 .
    • Boca, F P : 1998 .
    • Boettcher, A : 1995 .
    • Bollobas, B : 1981 .
    • Bondy, J A : 1989 .
    • Bonsall, F F : 1952, 1963, 1975 .
    • Borovik, A V : 1999 .
    • Borovik, A : 2014 .
    • Bott, R H : 1966 .
    • Bourguignon, J P : 1983 .
    • Bournaveas, N : 2001 .
    • Brannan, D A : 1977 .
    • Brendle, T : 2017 .
    • Brenner, S : 1992 .
    • Brezis, H : 1991 .
    • Bridgeland, T : 2003, 2013 .
    • Bridson, M R : 1996, 2003 .
    • Bridson, M : 2014 .
    • Brightwell, G R : 1991 .
    • Britton, J L : 1968 .
    • Brookes, C J B : 1991 .
    • Brown, A L : 1979 .
    • Brown, E H : 1983 .
    • Brown, G : 1973 .
    • Brown, G : 2013 .
    • Brown, K A : 1988 .
    • Brown, K : 2012 .
    • Brown, R : 1985, 1999, 1967 .
    • Browning, T : 2015 .
    • Bruce, J W : 1986, 1989, 1999 .
    • Bruinier, J : 2017 .
    • Bruns, W : 1995 .
    • Bryant, R M : 1981 .
    • Buck, D : 2010 .
    • Bullett, S R : 1999 .
    • Burgess, D A : 1966 .
    • Burkill, J C : 1952 .
    • Burns, D : 1999 .
    • Burshill-Hall, P : 1993 .
    • Bushnell, C J : 1998, 1980 .
    • Butler, M C R : 1962 .
    • Cameron, P J : 1996, 1978 .
    • Camina, A : 1978 .
    • Camina, R : 2012 .
    • Caramello, O : 2017 .
    • Carbery, A : 1991 .
    • Carne, T K : 2004, 1988 .
    • Carr, J : 1992 .
    • Carter, R W : 1963, 1970, 1980 .
    • Carter, S : 1994 .
    • Cartwright, M L : 1951 .
    • Cassels, J W S : 1963, 1971, 1979 .
    • Casson, A : 1970 .
    • Chapman, J : 1999 .
    • Chatters, A W : 2002, 1979 .
    • Chen, W W L : 1990 .
    • Chetwynd, A G : 1990 .
    • Chillingworth, D R J : 1993, 1979 .
    • Chiswell, I M : 1989 .
    • Chu, C-H : 1993 .
    • Churchhouse, R F : 1975 .
    • Clark, R S : 1962 .
    • Clarke, F W : 1997, 1982 .
    • Clunie, J G : 1961, 1972 .
    • Coates, J : 2000, 1977 .
    • Cockcroft, W H : 1956, 1961 .
    • Cocks, C : 2018 .
    • Cohen, P : 1999 .
    • Cohn, P M : 2002, 1957, 1964, 1973 .
    • Collingwood, E F : 1956 .
    • Collins, D J : 1982 .
    • Collins, M J : 1977 .
    • Conlon, D : 2018 .
    • Constantin, A : 2015 .
    • Conway, J H : 1986, 1970 .
    • Cook, R J : 1983 .
    • Cooper, J L B : 1953 .
    • Cooper, S B : 1997 .
    • Cornelissen, G : 2017 .
    • Corner, A L S : 1966 .
    • Cowling, M : 2010 .
    • Craw, I G : 1979 .
    • Crawley-Boevey, W : 1996, 2002 .
    • Cremona, J E : 1995 .
    • Crossley, J N : 1979 .
    • Cuntz, J : 1995 .
    • Curtis, R T : 1993, 2002 .
    • Cusack, E : 1992 .
    • Cutland, N J : 1989 .
    • Dales, H G : 2002, 1980 .
    • Davenport, H : 1962 .
    • Davenport, J H : 1986 .
    • Davie, A M : 1996, 1972 .
    • Davies, E B : 1992, 1997, 1979 .
    • Davies, R O : 1977 .
    • Davis, M H A : 1988, 2005 .
    • de Jeu, R : 2001, 2002 .
    • Dembowski, P : 1963 .
    • Deshouillers, J-M : 1994 .
    • Devlin, K J : 1980 .
    • Diamond, H G : 1974 .
    • Dieudonne, J A : 1951 .
    • Dineen, S : 2004, 1982 .
    • Dirac, G A : 1966 .
    • Dixon, P G : 1984 .
    • Dokchitser, T : 2013 .
    • Dold, A : 1964 .
    • Donaldson, S K : 1986 .
    • Donkin, S : 1990 .
    • Dooley, T : 2013 .
    • Douglas, R : 1974 .
    • Dowker, C H : 1960 .
    • Dowker, Y N : 1958 .
    • Drake, F R : 1984 .
    • Drutu, C : 2012 .
    • Du Sautoy, M P F : 1998 .
    • du Val, P : 1957 .
    • du-Plessis, A : 1982 .
    • Duncan, J : 1969 .
    • Dunwoody, M J : 1984, 1994 .
    • Dye, R H : 1978 .
    • Dzamonja, M : 2000, 2015 .
    • Eaton, C : 2018 .
    • Eccles, P : 1981 .
    • Edge, W L : 1956, 1971 .
    • Edmunds, D E : 1994, 1971 .
    • Edrei, A : 1964 .
    • Edwards, D A : 1962 .
    • Eells, J : 1972 .
    • Eggleston, H G : 1954, 1960, 1974 .
    • Eke, B G : 1973 .
    • Eklof, P C : 1981 .
    • Elliott, R J : 1980 .
    • Ellis, A J : 1974 .
    • Ellis, G : 1990, 2004 .
    • Elworthy, K D : 1987 .
    • Epstein, D B A : 1985, 1965, 1974 .
    • Erdmann, K : 1989, 2003 .
    • Erdos, J A : 1993 .
    • Etheridge, A M : 1995, 2005 .
    • Evans, D E : 1994 .
    • Evans, D M : 1993 .
    • Evans, D : 2012 .
    • Evans, W D : 1976 .
    • Everest, G R : 1996 .
    • Everitt, W N : 1967, 1977 .
    • Falconer, K J : 1985, 1994, 2001 .
    • Farahat, H K : 1957 .
    • Fellows, M : 2018 .
    • Fenn, R A : 1978, 1997 .
    • Fesenko, I B : 1998 .
    • Flavell, P J : 1999 .
    • Flett, T M : 1957 .
    • Flynn, E V : 1996 .
    • Fountain J B : 1989 .
    • Fowler, D : 1984 .
    • Fox, L : 1970 .
    • Fremlin, D H : 1978 .
    • Freyd, P : 1981 .
    • Friedlander, F G : 1951 .
    • Frohlich, A : 1956, 1969, 1973 .
    • Gandy, R O : 1965, 1972 .
    • Gardiner, A D : 1985 .
    • Gardiner, S J : 1992 .
    • Garling, D J H : 1967 .
    • Gee, T : 2014 .
    • Gibbons, G W : 1981 .
    • Giblin, P J : 1977 .
    • Gilbert, N D : 1995 .
    • Gillespie, T A : 1981 .
    • Goldie, A W : 1958, 1963, 1972 .
    • Goldie, C M : 1991 .
    • Goodstein, R L : 1951 .
    • Gordon, C McA : 1975 .
    • Gordon, C : 2001 .
    • Goryunov, V V : 1998 .
    • Gould, V : 2018 .
    • Gowers, W T : 1995 .
    • Gratton-Guiness, G : 1981 .
    • Gravett, K A H : 1957 .
    • Gray, J J : 1988, 1990, 2002 .
    • Greaves, G : 1982 .
    • Green, J A : 1955, 1965 .
    • Greenlees, J P : 1992 .
    • Greenlees, J : 2011 .
    • Griffiths, H B : 1961, 1974 .
    • Grigor'yan, A : 2017 .
    • Grimmett, G : 1981 .
    • Gruenberg, K W : 1958, 1974, 1994 .
    • Halberstam, H : 1990, 1961, 1971 .
    • Hall, P : 1949 .
    • Hall, R R : 1981 .
    • Hammersley, J M : 1985, 1959 .
    • Harding, R D : 1985 .
    • Harel, D : 2012 .
    • Harman, G : 1989 .
    • Harrop, R : 1960 .
    • Hart, R : 1978 .
    • Hartley, B : 1973 .
    • Harvey, W J : 1983 .
    • Haskins, M : 2010 .
    • Hawkes, A G : 1978 .
    • Hawkes, J : 1992 .
    • Hawkes, T O : 1985 .
    • Haydon, R G : 1993, 1976 .
    • Hayman, W K : 1970, 1980 .
    • Hazrat, R : 2010 .
    • Heath-Brown, R : 2005, 1979 .
    • Helfgott, H : 2014 .
    • Higgins, P J : 1961, 1971 .
    • Higman, G : 1951 .
    • Hill, R : 1988 .
    • Hilton, P J : 1950, 1955, 1959 .
    • Hinz, A M : 1995 .
    • Hirsch, K A : 1952 .
    • Hirschfeld, J W P : 1982 .
    • Hirzebruch, F : 1964 .
    • Hitchin, N J : 1996, 1976 .
    • Hoare, C A R : 1985 .
    • Hodges, W A : 1994, 1983 .
    • Hodgkin, L : 1975, 1986 .
    • Holland, F : 1978 .
    • Holland, M P : 1996 .
    • Holt, D F : 1983, 1994 .
    • Hooley, C : 1985, 1972 .
    • Hopf, H : 1952 .
    • Horrocks, G : 1959, 1971, 1980 .
    • Howie, J : 1986, 2006 .
    • Howie, J M : 1992, 1968 .
    • Hubbuck, J : 1971 .
    • Hudson, J F P : 1966 .
    • Hughes, D R : 1972 .
    • Humphreys, J F : 1987 .
    • Hunter, J : 1977 .
    • Hunton, J R : 1998 .
    • Hurder, S : 2011 .
    • Huxley, M N : 1992 .
    • Hyland, M : 2011 .
    • Ingleton, A W : 1967 .
    • Irwin, M C : 1974 .
    • Ivanov, A : 2001 .
    • Jackson, W : 1984 .
    • Jacob, N : 2011 .
    • James, G D : 1996, 1980 .
    • James, I M : 1957 .
    • Jameson, G J O : 1983 .
    • Jategaonkar, A V : 1982 .
    • Jerrum, M R : 1995, 2001 .
    • Johnson, B E : 1986, 1968, 1977 .
    • Johnson, D L : 1979 .
    • Johnson, F E A : 1987 .
    • Johnstone, P T : 1987 .
    • Jones, G A : 1999 .
    • Jones, J D S : 1996, 1981 .
    • Jordan, D : 1994 .
    • Joyce, D : 2011 .
    • Kassel, F : 2017 .
    • Kastler, D : 1989 .
    • Kearton, C : 1977 .
    • Keating, J P : 1998 .
    • Kegel, O H : 1971 .
    • Kendall, D G : 1955, 1973 .
    • Kendall, W S : 1983 .
    • Kennedy, P B : 1960 .
    • Keogh, F R : 1962 .
    • Kessar, R : 2016 .
    • Kim, M : 2011 .
    • Kingman, J F C : 1966, 1972 .
    • Kirby, D : 1960, 1984 .
    • Kirwan, F C : 1991, 1999 .
    • Klopsch, B : 2017 .
    • Kohn, K : 2014 .
    • Konig, S : 2001 .
    • Korner, T : 1973, 1989, 2003 .
    • Kosniowski, C : 1983 .
    • Kovacs, L G : 1961 .
    • Kovari, T : 1971 .
    • Kowalski, E : 2016 .
    • Kozlowski, O : 2001 .
    • Kral, D : 2018 .
    • Krieger, H : 2018 .
    • Kronheimer, P B : 1992 .
    • Kropholler, P H : 1990, 1995 .
    • Kupisch, H : 1968 .
    • Kuran, U : 1971 .
    • Kurylev, Y : 2015 .
    • Kuttner, B : 1957 .
    • Lamperti, J : 1967 .
    • Lance, C : 1973 .
    • Lance, E C : 1985, 1994 .
    • Langley, J K : 1989, 1997 .
    • Larman, D G : 1972 .
    • Laxton, R : 1973 .
    • Leader, I B : 1999, 2007 .
    • Leary, I : 2001, 2009 .
    • Ledermann, W : 1991, 1954, 1967 .
    • Ledger, A : 1968 .
    • Leedham-Green, C R : 1985 .
    • Lehrer, G I : 1997 .
    • Leinster, T : 2013 .
    • Lenagan, T H : 1980, 1995, 2000 .
    • Levi, R : 2001 .
    • Levy, L S : 1995 .
    • Lewis, D J : 1976 .
    • Lewis, J T : 1995, 1981 .
    • Lickorish, W B R : 1987 .
    • Liebeck, M W : 1989 .
    • Lighthill, M J : 1964 .
    • Livingstone, D : 1975 .
    • Lloyd, K : 1979 .
    • Lloyd, N G : 1994, 1982 .
    • Lob, M H : 1969 .
    • Looijenga, E J N : 1983 .
    • Luczak, M : 2012 .
    • Lusztig, G : 1973 .
    • Lykova, Z : 2013 .
    • Lyndon, R C : 1965 .
    • Lyons, T J : 1987, 1998 .
    • Macbeath, A M : 1958, 1977 .
    • MacCallum, M A H : 1992 .
    • McConnell, J : 1976 .
    • Macdonald, I G : 1986, 1961, 1970 .
    • McDuff, D : 1978 .
    • MacHale, P D : 1992 .
    • Macintyre, A J : 1991, 1973 .
    • MacKay, R S : 1996 .
    • McKee, J F : 1998, 2001 .
    • Mackey, G W : 1967 .
    • Maclachlen, C : 1984 .
    • Maclagan, D : 2010, 2017 .
    • McLeod, J B : 1963, 1980 .
    • McMullen, P : 1997, 1975 .
    • Macpherson, H D : 1997 .
    • Madsen, Ib : 1980 .
    • Mahler, K : 1950, 1953 .
    • Malchiodi, A : 2016 .
    • Manning, A : 1975 .
    • Markovic, V : 2014 .
    • Marstrand, J M : 1961, 1979 .
    • Martin, P : 2001 .
    • Martin, U : 1991 .
    • Martino, A : 2010 .
    • Mason, L J : 1995 .
    • Masser, D W : 1975 .
    • Maunder, C R F : 1972 .
    • May, D : 1990 .
    • Mazzocco, M : 2018 .
    • Micallef, M J : 1991 .
    • Milnor, J : 1964 .
    • Mirrlees, J A : 1982 .
    • Mirsky, L : 1956 .
    • Mislin, G : 1979 .
    • Mitchell, C J : 1997 .
    • Montesinos, J M : 1997 .
    • Moran, W : 1975 .
    • Morris, A O : 1982 .
    • Morris, I : 2018 .
    • Morton, H R : 1988 .
    • Morton, K W : 1982 .
    • Mulvey, C : 1982 .
    • Munn, W D : 1959, 1972 .
    • Murray, J D : 1987 .
    • Nair, M : 1980 .
    • Nash-Williams, C St J A : 1976 .
    • Neumann, B H : 1952, 1958 .
    • Neumann, F : 2010 .
    • Neumann, H : 1954, 1960 .
    • Neumann, P M : 1997, 1971, 1982 .
    • Newman, M H A : 1950 .
    • Newns, W F : 1978 .
    • Newstead, P E : 1973 .
    • Nikulin, V V : 2001 .
    • Noble, M E : 1959 .
    • Northcott, D G : 1950, 1952, 1966 .
    • Nucinkis, B : 2015 .
    • O''Connell, N : 2015 .
    • O'Carroll, L : 1988 .
    • O'Farrell, A G : 1999, 1980 .
    • Odoni, R W K : 1991, 1976 .
    • Offord, A C : 1956, 1969 .
    • Paris, J B : 1995, 1977 .
    • Parnovski, L : 2012 .
    • Parry, W : 1985, 1968 .
    • Partington, J R : 1996, 2006 .
    • Passmann, D S : 1977 .
    • Paterson, M : 1985 .
    • Patterson, S J : 1993, 1977 .
    • Pearson, D B : 1992 .
    • Penrose, O : 1989 .
    • Penrose, R : 1997, 1975 .
    • Perfect, H : 1973 .
    • Pinch, R : 2010 .
    • Piper, F C : 1994 .
    • Pitt, H R : 1949, 1953 .
    • Pitts, A M : 1986 .
    • Plymen, R J : 1990 .
    • Pollicott, M : 1997 .
    • Pommerenke, C : 1966 .
    • Powell, M B : 1974 .
    • Power, S C : 1997, 1984 .
    • Praeger, C E : 1988 .
    • Preiss, D : 1991, 2003 .
    • Premet, A A : 1998 .
    • Prest, M Y : 1990 .
    • Preston, G B : 1962, 1976 .
    • Priddy, S B : 1974 .
    • Pride, S J : 1988 .
    • Priestley, H A : 1987 .
    • Pyber, L : 2016 .
    • Pym, J S : 1985, 1970 .
    • Rado, R : 1975 .
    • Rand, D : 1982 .
    • Randal-Williams, O : 2017 .
    • Ranicki, A A : 1983 .
    • Rankin, R A : 1953, 1969 .
    • Ransford, T J : 1987 .
    • Ray, N : 1991, 1974 .
    • Read, C J : 2006, 1984 .
    • Rees, D : 1954, 1959, 1974 .
    • Rees, E G : 1994, 1972, 1984 .
    • Rees, S E : 1993 .
    • Rees, S M : 1985, 2004 .
    • Rees, S : 2012 .
    • Reeve, J E : 1965 .
    • Reid, A W : 1995 .
    • Reid, G A : 1972 .
    • Reid, M : 1995 .
    • E R : 1952 .
    • Reinert, G : 2013 .
    • Reiter, H : 1965 .
    • Rempe-Gillen, L : 2013 .
    • Reuter, G E H : 1951, 1958 .
    • Richardson, R : 1973 .
    • Rickard, J C : 1998 .
    • Rietsch, K : 2011 .
    • Ringel, C : 1995 .
    • Ringrose, J R : 1960, 1970 .
    • Riordan, O : 2015 .
    • Rippon, P J : 1987 .
    • Robertson, A P : 1956 .
    • Robertson, S A : 1962, 1972 .
    • Robertson, W : 1961 .
    • Robinson, C A : 1973 .
    • Robinson, J : 2017 .
    • Robson, J C : 1989, 1974 .
    • Roe, J : 1997 .
    • Rogers, C A : 1955, 1984 .
    • Rogers, F A : 1993 .
    • Rogers, L C G : 1988 .
    • Roney-Dougal, C : 2011 .
    • Rose, J S : 1971 .
    • Roseblade, J E : 1966, 1975 .
    • Rosenberg, H : 1976 .
    • Roth, K F : 1957 .
    • Roth, L : 1958 .
    • Rourke, C P : 1969, 1986 .
    • Rowlinson, P : 1993 .
    • Rumynin, D : 2015 .
    • Ruston, A F : 1955 .
    • Rutherford, D E : 1951 .
    • Salamon, D A : 1991 .
    • Sanderson, B J : 1971 .
    • Sands, A D : 1969 .
    • Sarig, O : 2016 .
    • Saxl, J : 1998 .
    • Schmidt, K D : 1987 .
    • Schofield, A H : 1986 .
    • Scholl, A J : 1994, 2006 .
    • Schwarzenberger, R L E : 1963, 1973, 1989 .
    • Scott, D B : 1950, 1954, 1959 .
    • Scott, D S : 1974 .
    • Scott, P : 1976 .
    • Segal, D : 1987 .
    • Segal, G B : 1971, 1977 .
    • Semple, J G : 1954 .
    • Series, C M : 1981, 1994, 2003 .
    • Seymour, R M : 1980 .
    • Shank, J : 2011 .
    • Sharp, R Y : 1978 .
    • Sheehan, J : 1993 .
    • Shephard, G C : 1989, 1968 .
    • Shepherdson, J C : 1951 .
    • Shiel-Small, T : 1979 .
    • Sibson, R : 1977 .
    • Sidorova, N : 2011 .
    • Siebenmann, L : 1981 .
    • Sinclair, A M : 1978 .
    • Singer, I M : 1969 .
    • Singerman, D : 1999 .
    • Slater, J B : 1978 .
    • Slater, M : 1971 .
    • Sleeman, B D : 1988 .
    • Slodowy, P : 1987 .
    • Small, L W : 1973 .
    • Smith, P F : 1986 .
    • Smith, R : 1995 .
    • Smith, S : 2018 .
    • Smithies, F : 1994, 1950, 1955, 1964 .
    • Smyth, B : 1970 .
    • Solomon, L : 1972 .
    • Sparrow, C T : 1988 .
    • Stafford, J T : 1983 .
    • Stafford, T : 2010 .
    • Stallard, G : 2010 .
    • Stefan, P : 1978 .
    • Steiner, R : 1984 .
    • Stephens, N M : 1990 .
    • Stewart, I N : 1977 .
    • Stone, A H : 1953 .
    • Stone, D : 1954 .
    • Stone, M : 1982 .
    • Stonehewer, S E : 1972 .
    • Streater, R F : 1986 .
    • Strickland, N P : 1999, 2003 .
    • Sudakov, B : 2016 .
    • Swinnerton-Dyer, H P F : 1976 .
    • Symonds, P : 2012 .
    • Szegedy, B : 2016 .
    • Taorima, A : 2012 .
    • Taunt, D R : 1952 .
    • Taylor, J L : 1975 .
    • Taylor, M J : 1997, 1981 .
    • Taylor, R L : 1995 .
    • Taylor, S J : 1962, 1975 .
    • Temple, G : 1965 .
    • Tennison, B R : 1976 .
    • Thoma, E : 1968 .
    • Thomas, C B : 1975 .
    • Thomas, R M : 1992 .
    • Thomas, R : 2015 .
    • Thomason, A G : 1988 .
    • Thomassen, C : 1983 .
    • Thompson, E A : 1984 .
    • Thompson, J G : 1969 .
    • Tian, Y : 2015 .
    • Tillmann, U : 2000, 2002, 2015 .
    • Timoney, R M : 1993 .
    • Titchmarsh, E C : 1950 .
    • Todd, J A : 1954 .
    • Toland, J F : 1995, 1983 .
    • Truss, J K : 1992 .
    • Turing, A M : 1951 .
    • Twomey, J B : 1994 .
    • Tyrrell,J A : 1968 .
    • Ulcigrai, C : 2014 .
    • Vajda, S : 1965 .
    • Valko, B : 2016 .
    • Vallette, B : 2013 .
    • Vamos, P : 1981 .
    • van den Berg, M : 1998 .
    • Varopoulos, N Th : 1970 .
    • Vaughan, R C : 1974, 1978, 1988 .
    • Vaughan-Lee, M R : 1993 .
    • von Below, J : 2012 .
    • Wainer, S S : 1982 .
    • Waldhausen, F : 1982 .
    • Wall, C T C : 1962, 1970, 1980 .
    • Wall, G E : 1955, 1967 .
    • Wallace, D A R : 1967 .
    • Walters, P : 1979 .
    • Ward, R S : 1991 .
    • Ward, T : 2011 .
    • Wassermann, A S : 1980 .
    • Weber, H : 2018 .
    • Wehrfritz, B A F : 1976 .
    • Weir, A J : 1959 .
    • Welsh, D J A : 1993, 1980 .
    • Wenger, S : 2016 .
    • West, A : 1989 .
    • West, T T : 1971 .
    • Weston, J D : 1953 .
    • White, M C : 1999 .
    • White, S : 2013 .
    • Whitehead, J H C : 1949, 1950, 1953 .
    • Wiegold, J : 1975 .
    • Wilkie, A J : 1990, 2003 .
    • Wilkinson, J H : 1964, 1978 .
    • Williams, D : 1994, 1976 .
    • Williamson, J H : 1959, 1976 .
    • Willmore, T J : 1956, 1963, 1979 .
    • Wilson, P M H : 1992 .
    • Wilson, R : 2001 .
    • Wilson, R A : 1987 .
    • Wilson, R M : 1979 .
    • Wood, J C : 2005, 1983 .
    • Wood, R : 1976 .
    • Woodall, D R : 1977 .
    • Woodhouse, N M J : 1983 .
    • Wraith, G C : 1975 .
    • Wright, E M : 1953 .
    • Wright, J D M : 1974 .
    • Yafaev, A : 2014 .
    • Yates, C E M : 1976 .
    • Yates, F : 1955 .
    • Young, N J : 2000, 1983 .
    • Zeeman, E C : 1958, 1988 .
    • Zerbes, S : 2016 .
    • Zygmund, A : 1954 .

  8. BMC speakers
    • Aczel, P : 1978 .
    • Adams, J F : 1960, 1969, 1979 .
    • Adler, R : 2016, 2016 .
    • Aidan, S : 1991 .
    • Aitken, A C : 1956 .
    • Albrecht, S : 2017 .
    • Alcock, L : 2013 .
    • Allan, G R : 1986, 1971 .
    • Allenby, R B J T : 1984 .
    • Alon, N : 1996 .
    • Alperin, J L : 1973, 2003 .
    • Altmann, K : 2010 .
    • Ambrosio, L : 2016, 2016 .
    • Anantharaman, N : 2016 .
    • Anderson, I : 1992 .
    • Anthony, M H G : 1996 .
    • Ara, D : 2013 .
    • Archbold, R J : 1995 .
    • Ardakov, K : 2013 .
    • Armitage, J V : 1972 .
    • Armstrong, M A : 1972 .
    • Aschbacher, M : 1976 .
    • Askey, R : 1994 .
    • Atiyah, M F : 1957, 1962, 1973, 2000, 2014 .
    • Atkin, A O L : 1969 .
    • Austin, T : 2014 .
    • Azzam, J : 2018 .
    • Baba, S : 2017 .
    • Babai, L : 1993 .
    • Bachoc, C : 2014 .
    • Baez, J : 2013 .
    • Bailey, R A : 1985 .
    • Bailey, R : 2018 .
    • Baker, A J : 1998 .
    • Baker, A : 1970 .
    • Baker, I N : 1992, 1963 .
    • Baker, R C : 1977 .
    • Baker, S : 2018 .
    • Baland, S : 2012 .
    • Ball, J M : 1997, 1981, 2005 .
    • Ballesteros, D : 2017 .
    • Barlow, M : 1990, 1999 .
    • Barnard, G A : 1955 .
    • Barnes, B : 2011 .
    • Barnes, D : 2017 .
    • Barnett, C : 1986 .
    • Barratt, M G : 1953 .
    • Barrow-Green, J E : 1996 .
    • Barrow-Green, J : 2013, 2015 .
    • Barry, P D : 1965 .
    • Barthe, B : 2011 .
    • Bass, H : 1974, 2009 .
    • Batty, C J K : 1983 .
    • Batty, C : 2012 .
    • Bauer, H : 1979 .
    • Bayer, A : 2015 .
    • Bayer-Fluckiger, E : 2017 .
    • Beardon, A F : 1987, 1969 .
    • Beineke, L W : 1974 .
    • Bennett, J : 2018 .
    • Benson, D : 1990 .
    • Berestycki, H : 2001 .
    • Berestycki, N : 2016 .
    • Berger, T : 2017 .
    • Berman, R : 2015 .
    • Bernardi, A : 2017 .
    • Berry, M V : 1996, 2005 .
    • Bertrand, D : 1982 .
    • Besicovitch, A S : 1958 .
    • Bessenrodt, C : 2012 .
    • Besson, G : 2017 .
    • Besson,G : 2015 .
    • Beurling, A : 1963 .
    • Bieri, R : 1989 .
    • Biggs, N L : 1999, 1980 .
    • Bingham, N H : 1984 .
    • Binmore, K G : 1974 .
    • Birch, B J : 1985, 1960, 1971, 1973 .
    • Bjorklund, M : 2016 .
    • Black, S : 2012 .
    • Blackburn, N : 1964 .
    • Blackburn, S R : 1997 .
    • Bley, W : 1999 .
    • Blokhuis, A : 1996 .
    • Blyth, T S : 1979 .
    • Boca, F P : 1998 .
    • Bochi, J : 2018 .
    • Boettcher, A : 1995, 1995 .
    • Boffa, M : 1998 .
    • Boileau, M : 1997 .
    • Bollobas, B : 1981 .
    • Bolte, J : 2012 .
    • Bombieri, E : 1975, 1995 .
    • Bondy, J A : 1989 .
    • Bonnaillie-Noel, V : 2016 .
    • Bonsall, F F : 1952, 1963, 1975 .
    • Boote, Y : 2017 .
    • Borovik, A V : 1999 .
    • Borovik, A : 2014 .
    • Bott, R H : 1977, 1962, 1966 .
    • Bottcher, J : 2015 .
    • Bourguignon, J P : 1983 .
    • Bournaveas, N : 2001 .
    • Bowditch, B H : 1999 .
    • Bowman, C : 2016 .
    • Bradford, J : 2015 .
    • Brannan, D A : 1977 .
    • Braun, A : 2012 .
    • Brendle, T : 2017 .
    • Brenner, S : 1992 .
    • Brezis, H : 1991, 1997 .
    • Bridgeland, T : 2003, 2010, 2013 .
    • Bridson, M R : 1996, 2003 .
    • Bridson, M : 2014 .
    • Brieskorn, E : 1974 .
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    • Praeger, C E : 1988 .
    • Preiss, D : 1991, 2003 .
    • Premet, A A : 1998 .
    • Prest, M Y : 1990 .
    • Preston, G B : 1962, 1976 .
    • Priddy, S B : 1974 .
    • Pride, S J : 1988 .
    • Pridham, P : 2011 .
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    • Rees, S E : 1993 .
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    • Rees, S : 2012 .
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    • Stefan, P : 1978 .
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    • Stenhouse, B : 2018 .
    • Stephens, N M : 1990 .
    • Stewart, I N : 1977 .
    • Stone, A H : 1953 .
    • Stone, D : 1954 .
    • Stone, M : 1982 .
    • Stonehewer, S E : 1972 .
    • Streater, R F : 1986 .
    • Strickland, N P : 1999, 2003 .
    • Sudakov, B : 2016 .
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    • Temple, G : 1965 .
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    • Tillmann, U : 2000, 2002, 2015 .
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    • Zerbes, S : 2016 .
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    • Zygmund, A : 1954 .

  9. SCminutes2015b.html
    • Cambridge (2015): .
    • Bristol (2016): .
    • Durham (2017): .
    • St Andrews (2018): .
    • As previously reported, the dates are 21-24 March, 2016, at the University of Bristol.
    • We were awarded the LMS funding (63;12,500).
    • The Heilbronn Chair has agreed to provide £6,000, and the Heilbronn Associate Chair has agreed to provide 63;1,500-2,000.
    • Monday: 1:00-2:15 registration/coffee 2:15-2:30 welcome 2:30-3:30 plenary (Peter Sarnak) 3:40-4:40 plenary (Maria Chudnovsky) 5:30-6:30 public (Kristen Lauter) 6:30-8:00 reception .
    • Tuesday morning: 9:00-9:50 morning talks 10:00-10:50 morning talks 11:00-11:30 coffee 11:30- 12:30 plenary (Alex Lubotzky) 12:30-2:00 lunch .
    • Tues afternoon: 2:00-4:30 special sessions (talks 2-2:30, 2:40-3:10, 3:20-3:50, 4-4:30) 4:30-5:00 coffee 5:00-6:00 plenary (Robert Adler) 7:00- ? conference dinner .
    • Wed morning: 9:00-9:50 morning talks 10:00-10:50 morning talks 11:00-11:30 coffee 11:30- 12:30 plenary (Amy Wilkinson) 12:30-2:00 lunch .
    • Thurs morning: 9:00-9:50 morning talks 10:00-10:50 morning talks 11:00-11:30 coffee 11:30- 12:30 plenary (Luigi Ambrosio) .
    • Following discussions on the draft timetable, the local organisers have (post meeting) suggested that on Tuesday morning, Lubotzky's talk starts at 11:45, following a 15 minute LMS presentation, that the AGM should be on on Tuesday afternoon, after the plenary talk and before the conference dinner, and that the meeting of the BMC Scientific Committee should be during lunch on Wednesday.
    • It was observed that, of twenty-two UK-based speakers at the 2014, 2015, 2016 BMCs, only two were from northern universities (including Scottish).
    • We received the full amount applied for: 63;15,540.
    • Mike Todd reported that The dates will be 11-14 June 2018.
    • The current proposal is during lunchtime (12:30-14:00) on Wednesday 23 March.

  10. Minutes for 1999
    • A decision on the host for 2004 would be made at the AGM in 2001.
    • Special sessions and plenary speakers for Glasgow 2001 .
    • There will be 14 morning speakers, and suggested names were the following.

  11. Minutes for 2005
    • Minutes of the BMC Scientific Committee held at the University of Liverpool at 1 pm on 7 April 2005.
    • Maurice Dodson mmd1@york.ac.uk .

  12. Minutes for 1994
    • was asked to work out a detailed proposal, to be considered at the British Mathematical Colloquium at Cardiff in 1994.
    • Although it was decided, at the BMC Committee meeting in 1993, to include specialist sessions as an additional part of the programme at future meetings of the Colloquium, in the proposals now brought forward, there is no intention to diminish in any way the generalist or expositional nature of lectures offered in the general programmne.

  13. Minutes for 1977
    • The minutes of the committee meeting on April 8, 1976 in Aberystwyth were read and approved.
    • It was agreed that in 1978, films should if possible be shown on one afternoon and one evening.
    • 3) The Forum on Mathematics Education was considered to have been successful, and should be repeated in 1978.
    • 1) It was confirmed that the 1978 colloquium would be held on 5, 6 and 7th April.

  14. BMC special session speakers
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Buzzard, K : 2001 .
    • Chemin, J-Y : 2001 .
    • Collet, P : 2001 .
    • Embrechts, P : 2010 .
    • Gekeler, E -U : 2001 .
    • Grenier, E : 2001 .
    • Shirikyan, A : 2001 .
    • Tilouine, J : 2001 .

  15. BMC Plenary speakers
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Aidan, S : 1991 .
    • Berestycki, H : 2001 .
    • Bombieri, E : 1975, 1995 .
    • Bott, R H : 1962, 1977 .
    • Broue, M : 2001 .
    • Carleson, L : 1971 .
    • Cassels, J W S : 1951 .
    • Cherry, C : 1961 .
    • Connes, A : 1981, 1998, 2007 .
    • Dade, E C : 1971 .
    • Damon, H : 2001 .
    • Ekeland, I : 1991 .
    • Feit, W : 1967, 1990 .
    • Hacon, C : 2010 .
    • Halmos, P R : 1965, 1986 .
    • Hasse, H : 1961 .
    • Hayman, W K : 1952, 1956 .
    • Heilbronn, H : 1951 .
    • Hirzebruch, F : 1961, 1975 .
    • Hodge, W V D : 1951 .
    • Kuiper, N H : 1971 .
    • Lagarias, J : 2010 .
    • Maynard-Smith, J : 1981 .
    • Milnor, J : 1958, 1978 .
    • Odlyzko, A : 1991 .
    • Schmidt, W : 1981 .
    • Serre, J-P : 1970, 1984, 1995 .
    • Smale, S : 1969, 1982 .
    • Staffilani, G : 2010 .
    • Taubes, C : 2001 .
    • Tits, J L : 1964, 1973 .
    • Wielandt, H : 1963, 1978 .

  16. SCminutes2017a.html
    • Durham (2017): Andrew Lobb, Alexander Stasinski, one to continue to 30 September 2017.
    • St Andrews (2018): Colva Roney-Dougal, Mike Todd.
    • Lancaster (2019): Jan Grabowski, Tony Nixon.
    • Update on Plans for BMC in St Andrews 11-14 June 2018 .
    • Plans for BMC in Lancaster 8-11 April 2019 .
    • YRM (Young Researchers in Mathematics) 2017 will be in Kent, 1-4 August 2017.
    • BCTCS (British Colloquium in Theoretical Computer Science) 2017 will be in St Andrews, 26-28 April 2017.

  17. Minutes for 2010
    • Chair of the Committee from 1 June 2011.
    • It was noted that the nomination will be posted on the 2011 BMC website and other nominations can be made up to 2 weeks before the AGM.
    • If there are other nominations then an election will take place at the AGM in 2011.
    • Plans for Leicester 18-21 April 2011 .
    • Giblin pointed out that the 2011 YRM will take place in Warwick.
    • The BAMC is in Birmingham in 2011.
    • Goldie asked whether Leicester would ask for a speaker from Kent (2012) in keeping with the BMC tradition.
    • Plans for Kent 16-19 April 2012.
    • Chen replied that most of the roughly 300 participants are from the UK but that somewhere in the range 50-100 were from abroad.
    • Edmund Roberston reported that while he only remains on the Scientific Committee until May 2011, he would be happy to continue to maintain the internet Archive for the BMC but that he would need to receive the reports and minutes by e-mail to do so.

  18. SCminutes2015a.html
    • Cambridge (2015): .
    • Bristol (2016): .
    • Durham (2017): .
    • St Andrews (2018): .
    • As previously reported, the dates are 21-24 March, 2016, at the University of Bristol.
    • Proposed schedule for these: Tues, Weds afternoons: 2:00-2:40 2:50-3:10 3:20-4:00 4:10-4:30 (then coffee and then a plenary talk at 5:00) .
    • It was noted that the YRM (Young Researchers in Mathematics) 2015 meeting would be held at the University of Oxford from 17-20 August 2015.
    • The BCTCS (British Colloquium in Theoretical Computer Science) 2015 meeting will be held at Middlesex University from 14-18 September 2015.

  19. BMC speakers
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height-80) {v = screen.height-80;} .
    • Adams, J F : 1960, 1969, 1979 .
    • Aidan, S : 1991 .
    • Allan, G R : 1971, 1986 .
    • Atiyah, M F : 1957, 1962, 1973, 2000 .
    • Baker, I N : 1963, 1992 .
    • Ball, J M : 1981, 1997, 2005 .
    • Barlow, M : 1990, 1999 .
    • Beardon, A F : 1969, 1987 .
    • Berestycki, H : 2001 .
    • Biggs, N L : 1980, 1999 .
    • Birch, B J : 1960, 1971, 1973, 1985 .
    • Boettcher, A : 1995, 1995 .
    • Bollobas, B : 1981 .
    • Bombieri, E : 1975, 1995 .
    • Bonsall, F F : 1952, 1963, 1975 .
    • Bott, R H : 1962, 1966, 1977 .
    • Bournaveas, N : 2001 .
    • Brezis, H : 1991, 1997 .
    • Brightwell, G R : 1991, 2004 .
    • Brookes, C J B : 1991 .
    • Broue, M : 2001 .
    • Brown, R : 1967, 1985, 1999 .
    • Bruce, J W : 1986, 1989, 1999 .
    • Bruns, W : 1995, 1995 .
    • Bryant, R M : 1981 .
    • Buck, D : 2010 .
    • Bushnell, C J : 1980, 1998 .
    • Buzzard, K : 2001 .
    • Cameron, P J : 1978, 1996 .
    • Carbery, A : 1991 .
    • Carleson, L : 1971 .
    • Carter, R W : 1963, 1970, 1980, 1995 .
    • Cartwright, M L : 1950, 1951 .
    • Cassels, J W S : 1951, 1963, 1971, 1979 .
    • Casson, A : 1970, 1996 .
    • Chemin, J-Y : 2001 .
    • Cherry, C : 1961 .
    • Chillingworth, D R J : 1979, 1993 .
    • Clark, R S : 1962, 1962 .
    • Clarke, F W : 1982, 1997 .
    • Clunie, J G : 1961, 1972 .
    • Cockcroft, W H : 1956, 1961 .
    • Cohn, P M : 1957, 1964, 1973, 2002 .
    • Collet, P : 2001 .
    • Connes, A : 1981, 1998, 2007 .
    • Conway, J H : 1970, 1986, 2003 .
    • Cowling, M : 2010 .
    • Cuntz, J : 1995, 1995 .
    • Dade, E C : 1971 .
    • Damon, H : 2001 .
    • Davenport, H : 1952, 1962 .
    • Davie, A M : 1972, 1996 .
    • Davies, E B : 1979, 1992, 1997, 1997, 2002 .
    • de Jeu, R : 2001, 2002 .
    • Dieudonne, J A : 1951, 1969 .
    • Dowker, C H : 1954, 1960 .
    • Dunwoody, M J : 1984, 1994, 1994 .
    • Eccles, P : 1981 .
    • Edge, W L : 1956, 1971 .
    • Edmunds, D E : 1971, 1994 .
    • Eggleston, H G : 1954, 1960, 1974 .
    • Ekeland, I : 1991 .
    • Eklof, P C : 1981 .
    • Embrechts, P : 2010 .
    • Epstein, D B A : 1965, 1974, 1985 .
    • Everitt, W N : 1967, 1977 .
    • Falconer, K J : 1985, 1994, 2001 .
    • Feit, W : 1967, 1990 .
    • Fenn, R A : 1978, 1997 .
    • Freyd, P : 1981 .
    • Friedlander, F G : 1951 .
    • Frohlich, A : 1956, 1969, 1973 .
    • Gandy, R O : 1965, 1972 .
    • Gekeler, E -U : 2001 .
    • Gibbons, G W : 1981 .
    • Gillespie, T A : 1981 .
    • Goldie, A W : 1958, 1963, 1972 .
    • Goldie, C M : 1991 .
    • Goodstein, R L : 1951 .
    • Gordon, C : 2001 .
    • Gordon, C McA : 1975, 1992 .
    • Gratton-Guiness, G : 1981 .
    • Gray, J J : 1988, 1990, 2002 .
    • Green, J A : 1955, 1965, 1977, 2002 .
    • Grenier, E : 2001 .
    • Griffiths, H B : 1961, 1974 .
    • Grimmett, G : 1981 .
    • Gruenberg, K W : 1958, 1974, 1994, 1994 .
    • Hacon, C : 2010 .
    • Halberstam, H : 1961, 1971, 1990 .
    • Hall, R R : 1981, 1994 .
    • Halmos, P R : 1965, 1986 .
    • Hammersley, J M : 1959, 1985 .
    • Harman, G : 1989, 1994 .
    • Haskins, M : 2010 .
    • Hasse, H : 1961 .
    • Haydon, R G : 1976, 1993 .
    • Hayman, W K : 1952, 1956, 1970, 1980 .
    • Hazrat, R : 2010 .
    • Heilbronn, H : 1951 .
    • Higgins, P J : 1961, 1971 .
    • Higman, G : 1951, 1957 .
    • Hilton, P J : 1950, 1955, 1959 .
    • Hirsch, K A : 1952, 1959 .
    • Hirzebruch, F : 1961, 1964, 1975 .
    • Hitchin, N J : 1976, 1996 .
    • Hodge, W V D : 1951 .
    • Hodges, W A : 1983, 1994 .
    • Hodgkin, L : 1975, 1986 .
    • Holt, D F : 1983, 1994, 1994 .
    • Hooley, C : 1972, 1985 .
    • Horrocks, G : 1959, 1971, 1980 .
    • Howie, J : 1986, 1999, 2006 .
    • Howie, J M : 1968, 1992 .
    • Hubbuck, J : 1971 .
    • Ivanov, A : 2001 .
    • James, G D : 1980, 1996 .
    • Jerrum, M R : 1995, 2001 .
    • Johnson, B E : 1968, 1977, 1986 .
    • Jones, J D S : 1981, 1996 .
    • Konig, S : 2001 .
    • Korner, T W : 1973, 1989, 2003 .
    • Kegel, O H : 1971 .
    • Kendall, D G : 1955, 1962, 1973 .
    • Kingman, J F C : 1966, 1972 .
    • Kirby, D : 1960, 1984 .
    • Kirwan, F C : 1991, 1999 .
    • Kovacs, L G : 1961 .
    • Kovari, T : 1971 .
    • Kozlowski, O : 2001 .
    • Kropholler, P H : 1990, 1995, 1995 .
    • Kuiper, N H : 1971 .
    • Kuran, U : 1971 .
    • Lagarias, J : 2010 .
    • Lance, E C : 1985, 1994 .
    • Langley, J K : 1989, 1997 .
    • Leary, I : 2001, 2009 .
    • Ledermann, W : 1954, 1967, 1991 .
    • Lenagan, T H : 1980, 1995, 1995, 2000 .
    • Levi, R : 2001 .
    • Levy, L S : 1995, 1995 .
    • Lewis, J T : 1981, 1995 .
    • Lloyd, N G : 1982, 1994 .
    • Lyons, T J : 1987, 1998 .
    • Macbeath, A M : 1958, 1963, 1977 .
    • Macdonald, I G : 1961, 1970, 1986, 1998 .
    • Macintyre, A J : 1973, 1991, 1998 .
    • Maclagan, D : 2010 .
    • Macpherson, H D : 1997, 1998 .
    • Mahler, K : 1950, 1953, 1959 .
    • Marstrand, J M : 1961, 1979 .
    • Martin, P : 2001 .
    • Martin, U : 1991 .
    • Martino, A : 2010 .
    • Maynard-Smith, J : 1981 .
    • McKee, J F : 1998, 2001 .
    • McLeod, J B : 1963, 1980 .
    • McMullen, P : 1975, 1997 .
    • Micallef, M J : 1991 .
    • Milnor, J : 1958, 1964, 1978 .
    • Munn, W D : 1959, 1972 .
    • Neumann, F : 2010 .
    • Neumann, P M : 1971, 1982, 1987, 1997 .
    • Neumann, B H : 1952, 1958 .
    • Neumann, H : 1954, 1960 .
    • Newman, M H A : 1950, 1955 .
    • Nikulin, V V : 2001 .
    • Northcott, D G : 1950, 1952, 1954, 1966 .
    • O'Farrell, A G : 1980, 1999 .
    • Odlyzko, A : 1991 .
    • Odoni, R W K : 1976, 1991, 1994 .
    • Offord, A C : 1956, 1969 .
    • Paris, J B : 1977, 1995 .
    • Parry, W : 1968, 1985 .
    • Patterson, S J : 1977, 1993, 2004 .
    • Penrose, R : 1975, 1997 .
    • Pinch, R : 2010 .
    • Pitt, H R : 1949, 1953 .
    • Power, S C : 1984, 1997 .
    • Preiss, D : 1991, 2003 .
    • Preston, G B : 1962, 1976 .
    • Pym, J S : 1970, 1985 .
    • Rado, R : 1953, 1975 .
    • Rankin, R A : 1953, 1969 .
    • Ray, N : 1974, 1991 .
    • Rees, D : 1950, 1954, 1959, 1974 .
    • Rees, E G : 1972, 1984, 1994 .
    • Reuter, G E H : 1951, 1958 .
    • Ringrose, J R : 1960, 1970 .
    • Robertson, S A : 1962, 1972 .
    • Robertson, W : 1961 .
    • Robson, J C : 1974, 1989, 2003 .
    • Rogers, C A : 1955, 1964, 1984 .
    • Rose, J S : 1971 .
    • Roseblade, J E : 1966, 1975 .
    • Roth, K F : 1957, 1979 .
    • Rourke, C P : 1969, 1986 .
    • Rutherford, D E : 1951 .
    • Salamon, D A : 1991 .
    • Sanderson, B J : 1971 .
    • Schmidt, W : 1981 .
    • Schwarzenberger, R L E : 1963, 1973, 1989 .
    • Scott, D B : 1950, 1954, 1959 .
    • Segal, G B : 1971, 1977 .
    • Series, C M : 1981, 1994, 2003, 2007 .
    • Serre, J-P : 1970, 1984, 1995 .
    • Shephard, G C : 1968, 1989 .
    • Shepherdson, J C : 1951 .
    • Shirikyan, A : 2001 .
    • Siebenmann, L : 1981 .
    • Singer, I M : 1969, 1988 .
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    • Smale, S : 1969, 1982 .
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  20. Report2016.html
    • Following negotiation within the University of Bristol, we had no costs relating to lecture room hire or administration, and could keep the registration fees low -- 63;75 standard/£40 discounted (student/retired) early registration fees, 63;90/63;50 late registration fees.
    • Therefore we had funds left over from 63;17,100 that we applied for, and we returned them to the LMS.
    • The significant expenses were plenary/morning/special session speakers' costs £9930, early career funding 63;1,991, catering £8,956 (two wine receptions, lunches, tea/coffee/buscuits), conference dinner £5,416, registration packs 63;1,899, technical support and poster session support £465.

  21. Gminutes2016.html
    • This is to be held at the University of St Andrews, with the non-standard timing of 11-14 June 2018.
    • The provisional dates are 8-11 April 2019.

  22. Gminutes2017.html
    • This is to be held at the University of St Andrews, with the non-standard timing of 11-14 June 2018.
    • This is to be held at the University of Lancaster from 8-11 April 2019.
    • His term of office is for three years beginning on 1 June 2017.

  23. Gminutes2015.html

  24. BMC 2018
    • This was held at St Andrews: 11-14 June 2018 nnnn .
    • Dinur, IUnique games is 1/2-hard .

  25. Minutes for 1987
    • Dr O'Connor anticipated a profit in the region of 63;1000, arising largely from membership about 35 more than the 200 budgeted for.
    • The registration fee could have been 63;10 instead of 63;12 and the "full package" 63;60 rather than £64.
    • to Reading in 1993.
    • J F Adams (1) Cambridge .
    • P Vamos (1) Exeter .
    • R R Laxton (1) Nottingham .
    • D K Oates (1) Exeter .
    • 1991 Bath (1-5 April) .

  26. BMC advice
    • A ball park total of 63;13-14K was suggested.
    • £1K for each Special Session [63;1.2K is more realistic] .
    • A more positive approach of offering a reduction of 63;10 for early registration was suggested.
    • York was given 63;1500 to subsidise graduate students' registration by £20.
    • Usually 12/14; in 1 hour parallel slots.
    • 12-16 held in slots during the afternoons.

  27. Minutes for 2012
    • There was a verbal report from John Hunton on BMC 2011 (Leicester).
    • BMC 2013 will continue to use the pattern of workshops used by BMC 2011 and BMC 2012.

  28. SCminutes2016a.html
    • Bristol (2016): Tim Dokchitser, Lynne Walling, one to continue to 30 September 2016.
    • Durham (2017): Andrew Lobb, Alexander Stasinski.
    • St Andrews (2018): Colva Roney-Dougal, Mike Todd.
    • Lancaster (2019): Jan Grabowski, A.
    • Plans for BMC in St Andrews 11-14 June 2018 .
    • He reported that the provisional dates are 8-11 April 2019 and that the second representative of Lancaster on the Scientific Committee would be Tony Nixon.
    • YRM (Young Researchers in Mathematics) 2016 will be in St Andrews from 1-4 August 2016.
    • BCTCS (British Colloquium in Theoretical Computer Science) 2016 clashed with this BMC.

  29. SCminutes2016b.html
    • Bristol (2016): .
    • Durham (2017): .
    • St Andrews (2018): .
    • Lancaster (2019): .
    • Plans for BMC in St Andrews 11-14 June 2018 .
    • Early Plans for BMC in Lancaster 8-11 April 2019 .
    • It was reported (post meeting) that the YRM (Young Researchers in Mathematics) 2017 meeting would be held at the University of Kent and that YRM 2018 would be held at the University of Southampton.
    • The BCTCS (British Colloquium in Theoretical Computer Science) 2017 meeting will be held at the University of St Andrews and BCTCS 2018 meeting will be held at Royal Holloway, University of London.

  30. SCminutes2013b.html
    • Plans for BMC 2014, 7-10 April, QMUL .
    • Awarded 63;12,000 from LMS Programme Committee.
    • The organisers are waiting for two more morning speakers to confirm so there will be 10 morning speakers.
    • Awarded 63;18,000 from the LMS; 63;15,000 towards the conference and £3,000 towards the Society Meeting and "LMS Enhanced Day".
    • Dates: 2014; 7-10 April for BMC, early July for YRM .
    • Dates: 2014; 7-11 April so it overlaps with the BMC.
    • [Post-meeting Note: the date for the AGM of the British Mathematics Colloquium will be 9 April 2014 at 11.30] .
    • The meeting ended at 13.00.

  31. LMS Meeting 2009
    • Note of meeting held on 12 February 2009 to discuss the Society's grants made to BMCs .
    • A grant application for a larger sum than the normal maximun for Scheme 1 will be considered (63;10k in 2008) and applications will be considered (and a grant awarded and payable) up to three years ahead of a BMC.
    • The LMS expects BMC organisers to follow the Society's general policy on the level of registration fees (normally 63;10-20/day in 2008).

  32. SCminutes2013a.html
    • Sheffeld (2013): Eugenia Cheng, David Jordan.
    • QMUL (2014): Peter Cameron, Ivan I Tomašić.
    • Cambridge (2015): Rachel Camina, Tom Fisher.
    • Plans for BMC at QMUL, 7-10 April 2014 .
    • A public lecture will be given by Persi Diaconis, associated with the 100th anniversary of the birth of Martin Gardner; plenary speakers will include: Endre SzemerŽdi (Combinatorics), Ng™ B63;o Ch‰u (Number Theory) and Robert Guralnick (Algebra); workshops will be: Combinatorics, Ergodic Theory, Geometry, Group Theory and Number Theory.

  33. Minutes for 1982
    • in Hull from 7th to 11th April 1986: the invitation was accepted by acclamation.

  34. BMC 2014
    • This was held at QMUL: 7 - 10 April 2014 nnnn .

  35. Report2013.html
    • The Annual General Meeting was held at 11:30 on Wednesday 27 March, immediately followed by a lively Forum on Open Access Publishing, chaired by John Greenlees and featuring a panel consisting of John Baez, Susan Hezlet (LMS), Carmen O'Dell (Univ of Sheffield Library) and Joerg Sixt (Springer).
    • An joint grant of 63;1800.00 was awarded by the LMS and administered by YRM whose meeting took place in Edinburgh in June.
    • Lunches & Refreshments n4212.65 .
    • Morning speakers' expenses n1247.11 .
    • Non-speakers' expenses n1416.20 .
    • The registration fees of LMS officers, together with some meals, were paid by the LMS to the BMC as part of a supplementary grant of 63;1500.00 to cover the costs of staging an LMS Meeting within the BMC.
    • After payment for these fees and meals, 63;422.00 remained available but this was neither needed nor claimed.
    • The registration fee was 63;50.00 (postgraduate £35.00), increased to £70.00 (63;50.00) for late registra- tion and reduced to £35.00 (63;20.00) for partial registration.
    • At a late stage in planning, 65 ensuite rooms in University accommodation became available at 63;35.00 per night.
    • This was attended by 131 delegates and was subsidised, with £36.00 of the £39.60 cost charged to delegates.

  36. SCminutes2014b.html
    • The minutes of the previous meeting, held on 10th April 2014 at QMUL, were approved.
    • RC reported on arrangements for the joint BMC-BAMC meeting to be held in Cambridge, 30th March - 2nd April, 2015.
    • Rachel Camina, 29/09/2014 .

  37. Gminutes2014.html
    • The BMC model, where each BMC is a stand-alone enterprise of its host Department, has proved resilient, with an unbroken succession of annual meetings since the first in 1949.

  38. BMC 2010
    • BMC Scientific Committee 2010-11 .

  39. BMC 2019
    • This will be held at Lancaster: 8-11 April 2019 nnnn .

  40. BMC 2008
    • Robertson, E FThe Edinburgh Mathematical Society: the first 50 years (1883 - 1933) .

  41. BMC 2009

  42. BMC 2015

  43. Minutes for 2008
    • Meeting of the Scientific Committee of the BMC to beheld in the National Science Learning Centre, University of York, at 13.15 on Friday 28th March 2008.
    • They will be Alex Clark (adc20@mcs.le.ac.uk) as Secretary for BMC 2011 and John Hunton (jrh7@mcs.le.ac.uk) as Chair of BMC 2011.] .
    • Minutes of meeting in De Morgan House on 19 September 2007; matters arising not covered elsewhere.
    • [The AGM taking place before this meeting will have confirmed Peter Giblin as the new Chairman to officially take over on 1 June 2008] .
    • Joint BAMC/BMC meeting in 20010.
    • [I have suggested to Chris Howls (Chair BAMC) that he should coordinate with Peter regarding the joint BAMC/BMC meeting in Edinburgh in 20010.] .
    • Report on 2011 hosts.
    • [Leicester should be confirmed at the AGM as the 2011 hosts] .
    • Minutes of the Scientific Committee of the BMC held in the National Science Learning Centre, University of York, at 13.15 on Friday 28th March 2008.
    • The Chairman informed the committee that the representatives from Leicester joining the committee from 1st June 2008 would be Alex Clark (Secretary of BMC 2011) and John Hunton (Chair of BMC 2011).
    • Minutes of the meeting in De Morgan House on 19th September 2007 (and matters arising not otherwise on the agenda:) .
    • At the AGM of the BMC (at 18.00 on Wednesday 26th March) Peter Giblin was elected as the Chairman of the Scientific Committee with effect from 1st June 2008 until 31st May 2011.
    • The LMS is contributing 63;10,000 (of which £2,000 is towards the Special Sessions), the Irish Mathematical Society will contribute €2,000-€3,000.
    • It is anticipated that National University of Ireland Galway will provide at least S64;1,000 and that some funds will also be available from the Department of Mathematics.
    • Report on 2011 hosts: .
    • The invitation by Leicester to hold the 2011 BMC was accepted by acclamation at the BMC AGM.

  44. Minutes for 1983

  45. Minutes for 2012
    • Minutes of the meeting of 18 September 2012 De Morgan House .
    • Kent (2012): James Shank.
    • Sheffield (2013): Eugenia Cheng, David Jordan.
    • QMUL (2014): Peter Cameron, Ivan Tomašić.
    • Cambridge (2015): Rachel Camina, Tom Fisher.
    • Minutes of Scientific Committee meeting at Kent on 18th April 2012 .
    • Minutes of BMC AGM at Kent on 17th April 2012 .

  46. Woodall letter 1989
    • It is a convention (dating from an agreement made in 1975) that the Committee has 16 members, of whom two are appointed by the LMS, two by the EMS, and the remaining twelve are elected by the General Meeting (although on the only occasion I know of when there were more candidates than places, the Committee was enlarged by one to avoid an election!).

  47. Minutes for 2003
    • Financial support has been secured from the LMS (63;9000) and the Irish Mathematical Society (IMS) (2000 Euro).

  48. BMC 2017

  49. SCminutes2017b.html
    • Durham (2017): .
    • St Andrews (2018): .
    • Lancaster (2019): .
    • Update on plans for BMC in St Andrews 11-14 June 2018 .
    • Plans for BMC in Lancaster 8-11 April 2019 .
    • It was reported that the YRM (Young Researchers in Mathematics) 2018 meeting would be held at the University of Southampton.

  50. Minutes for 1994
    • A General Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in Lecture Theatre A, Cardiff Institute of Higher Education, Cyncoed Centre at 1.50 p.m.

  51. BMC 2016

  52. Minutes for 2012
    • Minutes of the meeting of 18 April 2012 .
    • Kent (2012): Peter Fleischmann, James Shank.
    • Sheffield (2013): Eugenia Cheng, David Jordan.
    • QMUL (2014): Peter Cameron (Queen Mary), Ivan Tomašić.
    • Cambridge (2015): Rachel Camina, Tom Fisher.
    • Minutes of Scientific Committee meeting at the LMS on 20th October 2011 .
    • Some alternatives, including Durham who last hosted the BMC in 1953, were discussed.

  53. Report2011.html
    • Report on the 2011 Leicester BMC .
    • The 2011 BMC was held 18 to 21 April 2011 at the University of Leicester.

  54. Gminutes2013.html
    • BMC 2014 at Queen Mary University of London, 7 10 April.

  55. BMC 2011
    • This was held at Leicester: 18 - 21 April 2011 nnnn .
    • are available by clicking on a link belowGeneral Meeting Minutes for 2011 .
    • Scientific Committee Meeting Minutes: April 2011 .
    • Scientific Committee Meeting Minutes: October 2011 .
    • Report on the 2011 Leicester BMC .

  56. SCminutes2014a.html
    • The minutes of the previous meeting, held on 10th Sep 2014 at the LMS, were approved.
    • Rachel Camina, 11/04/2014 .

  57. BMC 2013

  58. BMC 2012
    • This was held at Kent: 16 - 19 April 2012 nnnn .

  59. Report2012.html
    • The 2012 BMC was held 16-19 April 2012 at the Canterbury campus of the University of Kent.
    • Details of the programme can be viewed at http://www.kent.ac.uk/smsas/events/160412.html.
    • Printing and publicity540.91 .
    • Total Income £24,152.25 .
    • Deficit63;146.82 .
    • The LMS grant was for 63;12,000.

  60. Minutes for 1989
    • Professor D A Burgess was in the chair and opened the meeting at 14.05.
    • The meeting closed at 14.25 .

  61. Minutes for 1999
    • The minutes of the Annual General Meeting held in Manchester on April 7th 1998 were accepted.
    • The 53rd BMC would be held at Glasgow from 9th April to 12th April 2001.
    • Chair of the (n+1)st BMC (as Chair); .
    • Secretaries of the nth, (n+1)st, (n+2)nd and (n+3)rd BMCs; .
    • He saw a general downward trend in numbers, comparing the Southampton figure of 165 to the attendance figure for the 50th BMC in Manchester of 195 and earlier figures.
    • (a) The chair of the (n+1)st BMC (as Chair); .

  62. Minutes for 1986
    • The minutes of the General Meeting held in Cambridge in 1985 were read and approved.
    • Dr J H Davenport invited the meeting to a BMC in Bath in 1991; precise dates were unavailable so many years ahead.

  63. Minutes for 2010
    • Time : Wednesday 7 April 2010, 17:30 .
    • Peter Giblin (Liverpool) - until 31 May 2011 .
    • To be appointed, from the representatives of the 2011 venue (Leicester) .
    • Sandra Pott (Glasgow) - until 31 May 2011 .
    • Edmund Robertson (St Andrews) - until 31 May 2011 .
    • Maxwell Institute, Edinburgh (2010): .
    • Leicester (2011): .
    • Kent (2012) .
    • Progress on the Leicester meeting in 2011.
    • Peter Giblin retires from the Committee on 31 May 2011.
    • (i) A 'search committee' of two members of the Scientific Committee, other than the Chair, consults as appropriate and finds a suitable candidate who is willing to be Chair of the Scientific Committee for three years from 1 June 2011.
    • (iii) The vacancy for a Chair, together with the name of the person as above, is advertised well in advance on the website of the 2011 BMC (Leicester), with a deadline of two weeks before the 2011 AGM for the receipt by the Chair of the local organizing committee of any other nominations for Chair of the Scientific Committee.
    • (iv) If necessary an election is held at the AGM in 2011; if only one candidate is forthcoming then the AGM is asked to approve this person as Chair for three years.
    • Chair Peter Giblin (Liverpool), until 31 May 2011 .
    • Sandra Pott (Glasgow), until 31 May 2011 .
    • Edmund Robertson (St Andrews), until 31 May 2011 .
    • Maxwell Institute, Edinburgh (2010) Jim Howie, Michael Singer .
    • Leicester (2011) John Hunton, Alex Clark .
    • Kent (2012) Peter Fleischmann, James Shank .
    • Progress on the Leicester meeting in 2011 .
    • The dates have beenset as 18{21 April, 2011.
    • 's support of large conferences and by another large maths conference being held in 2011.
    • It was noted that the EdMS had funded two of the speakers at the current (2010) meeting, and it was suggested that Jim Howie be contacted for possible funding for next year's meeting.
    • It was noted that the Leicester 2011 meeting did have a pre-meeting" planned for postgraduates.
    • In September the plenary speakers for the Leicester (2011) meeting will be discussed.
    • One potential problem to be addressed for Sheffield (2012) is the housing, and it was noted that the hotel accommodation in Galway (2009) seemed to work.

  64. Minutes for 1990
    • Dr A Camina was in the chair and the meeting opened at 1400 hours.
    • The Meeting closed at 14.30 hours.
    • Minutes signed by G R Everest and A R Camina on 18 April 1990.

  65. Constitution 2004

  66. Minutes for 1985

  67. Minutes for 1981
    • General Meeting Minutes for 1981 .
    • A General Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in the Zoology Building of the University of Oxford on Wednesday 1st April 1981 at 2.00 pm.
    • (a) Dr Barker asked whether with the present balances a fee of 63;10 was necessary: Prof Atiyah said the present idea was to use the balance for overseas speakers.
    • Minutes signed by R Brown on 1/4/82.

  68. Minutes for 2009
    • Time : 18:15 Wednesday 8 April 2009 Place:Clybaun Hotel .
    • Peter Giblin (Liverpool) - until 31 May 2011 .
    • Sandra Pott (Glasgow) - until 31 May 2011 .
    • Edmund Robertson (St Andrews)  until 31 May 2011 .
    • Edinburgh (2010): .
    • Leicester (2011): .
    • Plans for 2011 (Leicester) .
    • It was felt that the proposed level of registration fees (63;120, including £40 for the conference dinner) was on the high side, but just about acceptable.
    • Arrangements for the meeting in Leicester in 2011.
    • Dates will be 18-21 April 2011 (the week immediately preceding the Easter weekend).
    • Expected accommodation charges are £54 pppn dinner, bed and breakfast, with a 63;13 pn discount for non-ensuite.
    • Peter Cooper circulated notes of a meeting held at De Morgan House on 12 February 2009, in which Peter Cooper, Charles Goldie, Peter Giblin and Stephen Huggett had discussed the mechansism for LMS support for the BMC.

  69. BMC 1995

  70. Minutes for 2007
    • Meeting of the Scientific Committee of the BMC to be held in the Reading Room of the Mathematics Department, University of Swansea, on 18 April and 19 April 2007.
    • First part Wednesday 18.15 - 19.00 in the Reading Room of the Mathematics Department.
    • Joint BAMC/BMC meeting in 20010.
    • Report on 2011 hosts.
    • Minutes of the Scientific Committee of the BMC held in the Mathematics Seminar Room, University of Swansea, from 13.00--14.00 on Thursday 19 April, 2007.
    • Chair announced that BMC 2011 is to be hosted by the University of Leicester, under the auspices of John Hunton.
    • Steve Donkin sd510@york.ac.uk .
    • Maurice Dodson mmd1@york.ac.uk .

  71. Minutes for 2006
    • Meeting of the Scientific Committee of the BMC to be held in Merz Court, University of Newcastle at 13.30 on 13 April 2006.
    • Meet 13.30 in the buttery, L401, Merz Court, for lunch.
    • Then 14.00 in the library, M412 Merz Court, for the business.
    • Steve Donkin sd510@york.ac.uk .
    • Maurice Dodson mmd1@york.ac.uk .

  72. Minutes for 2011
    • Scientific Committee Meeting Minutes for October 2011 .
    • Minutes of the meeting of 20 October 2011 .
    • Leicester (2011): John Hunton; .
    • Kent (2012): Peter Fleischmann, James Shank; .
    • Sheffield (2013): David Jordan, Eugenia Cheng; .
    • Queen Mary (2014): Peter Cameron, Ivan Tomašić; .
    • Elected at the 2011 BMC: Mark Haskins; .
    • Minutes of the meeting of 20 April 2011 .
    • Queen Mary (2014): Easter is 20 April and the two weeks before that are the most likely date candidates.
    • BMC/BAMC (2015): Charles Goldie has been communicating with Martin Hyland.
    • Report from Leicester (18-21 April 2011): .
    • This resulted in a significant reduction in the fees charged by the University and was the primary reason BMC 2011 was able to return over £4300 pounds to the LMS.
    • Plans for Kent (16-19 April 2012): .
    • An LMS Scheme 1 grant of 63;12K has been awarded.
    • An LMS Scheme 1 grant of 63;12K has been awarded.
    • At last year's BMC, Oxford University Press sponsored a poster competition; it was suggested that significantly increasing the value of the prize (~63;1000?) and advertising at the YRM might attract additional participants.
    • Data from the Minute Book covering 1984 to 2001, discovered recently in Swansea, has now been added to the BMC Archive see the link given above.

  73. Minutes for 2004
    • About 63;1000 is still owed by publishers.
    • For legal reasons, the EdMS had requested the termination of this arrangement, and at the BMC in Glasgow 2001, it had been agreed to transfer the balance, about £7000, to the LMS.
    • Nicholas Young invited the BMC to the University of Newcastle on 10 -13 April 2006.

  74. Minutes for 1958
    • The Minutes of the Committee meeting held at Nottingham in 1957 were read and approved.
    • The attention of the Committee was drawn to Minute 4(c) of the Committee meeting in 1949.
    • (*) This minute concerns accommodation charges and states that, "There should be a single inclusive fee covering all charges which should not exceed 63;1 a day." .
    • The Committee approved of the action of the retiring Chairman and Secretary in allowing the average daily charge for accommodation at Reading to slightly exceed 63;1 a day and moved that the Minute in question be amended to read as follows; .

  75. Scientific Committee 2006
    • Meeting of the Scientific Committee of the BMC to be held at De Morgan House, London at 11.00 am on 20 September 2006.
    • Minutes of meeting in Newcastle on 13 April 2006; matters arising not .
    • Preliminary thoughts on 2011 .
    • Suggestion is Monday 6 April at 1 p.m.
    • until Thursday 9 April at 1 p.m.
    • Easter Sunday is 12 April .
    • [Thursday 19 April 2007, 13.00 - 14.30 (lunch during the meeting).] .
    • Minutes of the meeting in Newcastle on 13th April 2006 .
    • Preliminary thoughts on 2011 .
    • The Chair explained that he had been in correspondence with Peter Fleischmann of the University of Kent at Canterbury, who had expressed an interest in holding the BMC in 2011, but that this was still at an informal stage.
    • We would hope to have a reasonably definite venue for 2011 in time for the committee meeting in Swansea.
    • Zinaida Lykova tabled a report on the 58th BMC held 10th-13th April 2006 in Newcastle.
    • The substantial surplus of 3;3185 was due to several .
    • Francis Clarke presented a paper on plans for the 59th BMC to be held 16th-19th April 2007 in Swansea.
    • Swansea, Thursday 19th April 2007, 13:00-14:30.

  76. Minutes for 2008
    • A General Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in the National Science Learning Centre, University of York at 18.00 on Wednesday 26 March, 2008.
    • The minutes of the AGM held on 17 April 2007 in Swansea were approved.
    • John Hunton invited the BMC to the University of Leicester in 2011.

  77. Letter 1985
    • This was actually attempted a few years ago, and the files are full of a series of these entertainments at which every little detail was discussed by a committee of 10.

  78. Minutes for 1984
    • Odoni formally invited the Colloquium to Exeter in 1988.
    • The dates to be 11th to 15th April, with 12th to 14th working days.

  79. Minutes for 1951
    • Committee Meeting Minutes for 1951 .
    • A meeting of the Committee of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in Wills Hall, Bristol, on September 12th, 1951.
    • The minutes of the Committee Meeting held at Oxford in 1950 were read and approved.
    • (ii) that the Universities Bureau of the British Commonwealth (5 Gordon Square, London, W.C.1) and the Society for Visiting Scientists (5 Old Burlington St., London, W.1) be notified of future meetings; .

  80. Scientific Committee 2008
    • BMC 2011: AC, JH .
    • Future BMCs: John Hunton informed the committee that a provisional holding of rooms from 18th to 21st April 2011 (the week leading to Easter) has been made.
    • There were approximately 100 to 150 residents/night on campus in York.
    • Also York was in a difficult starting position having been quoted 3;21,000 for hire of rooms.
    • The organisers paid a very favourable rate of 63;1,000 to the company to do all this administration.
    • Overall income was 63;11,600 from registration fees, EPSRC and the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.
    • Expenditure was 63;18,900, which deficit was met from the LMS grant of 63;10,000 (including £2,000 for Special Sessions), the surplus being returned to the LMS.
    • In the ensuing discussion it was felt that 63;1,200 might be more appropriate per Special Session, and perhaps the Programme Committeee of the LMS might consider this and also slightly more flexible use of the LMS grant, in that hitherto no expenses have been paid to morning speakers so perhaps a small sum (63;50 per speaker?) might be allocated for that purpose in future.
    • Regarding funding, there is up to 63;10,000 from the LMS, e2000 from the Irish Mathematical Society and e1000 from NUI, Galway Millennium fund.

  81. Minutes for January 2004
    • Meeting of the Scientific Committee of the BMC at 11.00am, 22 January 2004, De Morgan House, London.
    • I have a copy of the programme for 17 of the years in the period 1975-1999 (thanks to Graham Jameson).
    • Meeting of the Scientific Committee Meeting at De Morgan House, London at 11 am on 22 January 2004.
    • Until 2001, the treasurer of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society audited the BMC accounts; however this came to an end in 2001 at the request of the EdMs, and the residual money was given to the LMS (see below).
    • 63;2000.
    • Woodhouse (LMS Treasurer) had met on 13 June 2003 to discuss various aspects of BMC arrangements.
    • For legal reasons the EdMS had wanted this arrangement to cease, and it was agreed at the Glasgow BMC in 2001 that the balance then held, c.
    • 63;7500, should be given to the LMS in exchange for assurances of continuing LMS support for BMCs.
    • Following a recommendation from the meeting of 13 June, it was agreed that each BMC is to be free-standing, and that the Scientific Committee is to be advisory only and is to have no responsibility in respect of financial matters.
    • Manchester had been tentatively proposed as a venue for a B(A)MC in 2008 (the 50th anniversary of the BAMC), although the BMCs of 1996 and 1998 were held at UMIST and Manchester University.
    • It is provisionally planned that the BMC should run from 1 pm on Monday 3 April to 1 pm on Thursday 6 April 2006.
    • (Good Friday falls on 14 April.) The hire of lecture rooms will not be expensive.

  82. Minutes for 1998
    • 63;3,000 of the budget had been earmarked for postgraduates, who were offered a 50% discount on meals and accommodation and free registration.
    • 63;500 had been earmarked for this purpose, with the same discounts given to morning speakers as to postgraduates.
    • LMS grants of 63;1,000 for each of the special sessions had been slightly overspent.
    • 1999: 51st BMC at Southampton University (29/3--1/4) .
    • 2001: 53rd BMC at Glasgow University (9/4--12/4) .
    • There being no other business, Prof Dunwoody closed the meeting at 10:15pm.

  83. Minutes for 1950
    • After discussion, Professor Heilbronn was asked to make arrangements for a meeting in Bristol in September 1951.
    • Professor Burchnall reported that accommodation could probably [inserted word!] be found for the Colloquium in Durham in 1952.
    • It was agreed that the general arrangements for accommodation and for lectures and discussions should be the same as in 1950 (see Minutes 4 & 5 of 1949).
    • 12th 1951.

  84. BMC 1999

  85. Minutes for 2005
    • Niels Jacob invited the BMC to Swansea on 16-19 April 2007, and Maurice Dodson invited the BMC to York on 17-20 March 2008.
    • Minutes signed by H R Morton on 18 April 2005.

  86. Minutes for 1982
    • The minutes of the Committee Meeting of 1/4/81 at Oxford were taken a read, and signed by Prof Hubbuck.
    • The Mathematical Association meeting in 1983 would clash with the BMC in Aberdeen, but the dates for 1984 were separate.
    • The meeting closed at 10.30 pm.

  87. Minutes for 1980
    • there for April 10-12 (9-13 in total) 1984: the invitation was accepted with acclamation.
    • Dr Jameson pointed out that rail fares would be cheaper for Tuesday-Friday but Dr Porteous pointed out that this would no longer be the case in 1984, and Dr Bryant pointed out the general conference rail facilities available.
    • Minutes signed by Michael Atiyah on 1st April 1981.

  88. BMC 1993
    • This was held at Reading: 30 March - 1 April 1993 nnnn .

  89. Minutes for 1996
    • For the year 2001 Colloquium, it was agreed that Glasgow, Warwick and Newcastle should be approached by the 49th BMC Secretary (G de Barra).
    • The meeting closed at 10.20pm approximately.

  90. Minutes for 2001
    • Scientific Committee Meeting Minutes for 2001 .
    • 53rd British Mathematical Colloquium: Minutes of the Scientific Committee Meeting Glasgow 10th April 2001.
    • Meeting closed at 10.45pm.

  91. BMC-BAMC meeting 2005

  92. EMS Mar89.html

  93. Minutes for 1959
    • A General Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in University College, Cardiff, at 1.45 p.m.

  94. Scientific Committee 2002
    • Minutes of the Scientific Committee of the BMC held in De Morgan House, London at 11.15 a.m.
    • on 14 October 2002.
    • The meeting opened at 11.15, and the Chairman, H G Dales, welcomed everyone to the first meeting of the Scientific Committee of the British Mathematical Colloquium in its new form.
    • There was general feeling that the BMC should be held in the South of the UK in 2007 (10 years after Southampton??).
    • It is "understood" that the LMS will continue funding the BMC at approximately 63;10k per event (a rolling grant).
    • Garth Dales recalled that the BMC in Leeds 2000 received a "purse" belonging to the BMC which contained a reserve fund of 63;10k.
    • Colin Rourke noted that for the joint meeting in Warwick they applied for 63;13k from the LMS and were awarded 63;10k with the understanding that they could have a further £3k if necessary.
    • Colin Rourke suggested that Liverpool apply for 63;16k.
    • The Warwick provisional finances show that £;2,175 was spent on temporary secretarial support but that this figure in no way reflected the true cost.
    • It was mentioned also that the charge to the publishers would be 63;1.20 per registered delegate to the BMC.
    • It was felt that there should be at most four overseas speakers from the total of 16 morning speakers.

  95. Minutes for 1988
    • Minutes of the Committee meeting held in the Library at Birks Halls Central Block, University of Exeter, at 8.00 pm on 13 April 1988.
    • Dr Pears explained the recent "one-off" grant of 63;1,000 to the BTMC by the LMS, which will stand as its guarantor.
    • There was a discussion of venues and dates to 1993, in which it was suggested that the Bath BMC be moved back a day in order to avoid travel home on Good Friday.
    • As to 1994, a positive response had been received from Prof C Hooley (Cardiff).
    • The meeting closed at 11.02 pm.

  96. Minutes for 1949
    • A meeting of the Committee of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held on 10th September 1949.
    • (c) there should be a single inclusive fee covering all charges, which should not exceed 63;1 per day.
    • Minutes signed by M H A Newman on 13 April 1950.

  97. Minutes for 2011
    • Scientific Committee Meeting Minutes for April 2011 .
    • Minutes of the meeting of 20 April 2011 .
    • Leicester (2011): John Hunton, Alex Clark; .
    • Kent (2012): Peter Fleischmann, James Shank; .
    • Sheffield (2013): David Jordan, Eugenia Chang; .
    • Representative of the 2011 BMC: Mark Haskins (Imperial); .
    • In attendance: Charles Goldie, Chair of the Scientific Committee from 1 June 2011.
    • corrections; revised minutes were circulated electronically 21 April 2011.
    • The number of PhD students participating was disappointingly low; the Young Researchers in Mathematics conference was held April 14 - 16 and many PhD students will have chosen to attend the YRM rather than the BMC.
    • Progress on the Kent meeting (2012): .
    • Plans for Sheffield (2013): .
    • (ii) Number Theory: Martin Taylor (Oxford) (morning speaker 1997, 1981), Richard Taylor .
    • physics, 2011 Eisenbud Prizewinner).
    • Peter Giblin has circulated a correspondence from the organisers of YRM 2012, which is to be held at Bristol and is tentatively scheduled for April 2 - 4 (emails from PC and PG both circulated 26 April 2011) .
    • Date of the September 2011 meeting: .

  98. Minutes for 2005
    • De Morgan House, London: 21 September 2005, 11.00 am .
    • Invitations to Swansea (16-19 April 2007) and York (25-28 March 2008) accepted at the AGM in Liverpool.
    • Minutes of the Scientific Committee of the BMC held at the LMS, De Morgan House, Russell Square, London at 11 am on 22 September 2005.
    • Future BMCs were confirmed to be in Swansea (16-19 April 2007) and York (25-28 March 2008).
    • The date of the next meeting was set to be 13 April 2005.

  99. BMC 2006
    • This was held at Newcastle: 10 - 13 April 2006 nnnn .
    • Valette, AQuasi-isometric embeddings of groups and growth of 1-cocycles .

  100. Minutes for 1972
    • The dates for the Colloquium were given as 1 - 5 April 1974.

  101. Minutes for 1983
    • Minutes of a Committee Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium held in the SCR of Johnstone Hall, University of Aberdeen on Wednesday, April 6th 1983 at 8.30 p.m.
    • There was a general consensus that the overall balance of about £7,000 should be maintained and possibly increased slightly with inflation, and so an increase in the colloquium fee from 63;10 to 63;12 would not be unreasonable.
    • The Secretary had begun negotiations with Dr Odoni of the University of Exeter with a view to holding the colloquium there in 1988.
    • The committee meeting closed at 10.55 p.m.

  102. BMC 1971
    • This was held at Kent: 30 March - 1 April 1971 nnnn .
    • General Meeting Minutes for 1971 .
    • Committee Meeting Minutes for 1971 .

  103. BMC 1984
    • This was held at Bristol: 10 - 12 April 1984 nnnn .
    • Allenby, R B J TResidual properties of 1-relator groups .

  104. Minutes for 1998
    • Professor R W K Odoni issued an invitation for the 53rd BMC to be held at The University of Glasgow from April 9 to April 12, 2001.
    • The 51st BMC would be at Southampton, March 29 to April 1, 1999; .
    • The two colloquiua were being held concurrently at Manchester and Brunel in 1998, and this caused problems for exhibitors, which this year included EPSRC and the Computers in Teaching Initiative as well as publishers.
    • The meeting closed at 20.10 hours.

  105. Scientific Committee 2004
    • It was confirmed that the meeting would take place in De Morgan House on Thursday 30 September 2004 at 11.00 am.
    • The preliminary budget shows a deficit of some 63;1000; the generous policy on registration fees, which were waived for graduates and retired people, and last minute changes by participants, appear to be the main factors.
    • There are a total of 11 Plenary speakers, of whom roughly 6 fall in BAMC areas and 5 in BMC.
    • The meeting closed at 11.30.
    • Minutes signed by Hugh Morton on 10 May 2004.

  106. Memorandum 1982
    • The Bangor committee discussed this at length and decided to retain the 63;10 fee.
    • £5,000 63;5,000 .

  107. Minutes for 1988
    • Vamos was in the chair and opened the meeting at 14.02.
    • Dr A J W Hilton invited the meeting to Reading in 1993.
    • Bath 25-29 March 1991 .
    • The meeting closed at 14.11.

  108. Minutes for 1997
    • A General Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in Royal Holloway College, University of London on 15th April 1997.
    • The 51st BMC would be at Southampton, March 29 to April 1, 1999; .
    • The meeting closed at 20.15 hours.

  109. Minutes for 1990
    • It was reported that UMIST had promised a decision in June about whether they would be able to organise the 47th BMC in 1995.

  110. BMC Report
    • A satellite conference, "3rd International Workshop on Elementary Operators and their applications", was held at Queen's University Belfast, 14-17 April 2009.

  111. Minutes for 1981
    • Committee Meeting Minutes for 1981 .
    • A Committee Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in Room A, St Catherine's College, Oxford on Wednesday 1st April, 1981 at 8.30 pm.
    • The minutes of the meeting of the Committee held on 10th April 1980 were taken a read; no matters arose.
    • The meeting closed at 10.30 pm.

  112. Minutes for 1997
    • it was agreed that the 53rd BMC should be at Glasgow University in 2001.
    • There being no other business, Prof Plymen closed the meeting at 10.00 pm.

  113. Minutes for 2009
    • Provisional dates are 16-19 April.
    • Arrangements for the 2011 meeting in Leicester.

  114. BMC 2007
    • This was held at Swansea: 16 - 19 April 2007 nnnn .
    • McKean, H Camassa-Holm: a 1-dimensional caricature of Euler's equation .

  115. Minutes for 1980
    • Minutes of the meeting of the Committee for the BMC held on Thursday April 10th 1980 in the Upper Library of Ranmoor House, University of Sheffield at 8 pm.
    • A list of possible speakers for the 1981 meeting in Oxford was proposed; the chairman was given power to send invitations on the basis of the list, but also to be free to vary the list if required.
    • The Committee discussed the likely registration fee and agreed that if necessary it should be 63;10: the local committee to decide.
    • The meeting closed at 10.30 pm.
    • Minutes signed by R Brown on 1/4/81.

  116. Minutes for 1951
    • General Meeting Minutes for 1951 .
    • A General Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium was held in Wills Hall, Bristol, on September 12th, 1951.
    • The minutes of the General Meeting held at Oxford in 1950 were read and approved.
    • Minutes signed by J H C Whitehead on July 30th 1952.

  117. Minutes for 1969
    • It was decided that the Colloquium membership fee should be increased to 63;1 and that the practice of doubling the fee for registrations after February 28th should be continued.
    • at the University of Kent at Canterbury from 29th March to 2nd April, 1971.
    • to meet at Glasgow in 1972 and Prof J F Adams agreed to look into the possibility of holding the twenty fifth meeting in Manchester in1973.
    • Minutes signed by M E Noble on 9.4.1970.


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Astronomy section

  1. The Reaches of the Milky Way
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • It was not until the telescope in 1609 and our ability to examine them properly that we realised that they weren't simply stationary and that the sun was not a perfect sphere.
    • After many attempts to measure the distance to the sun, Le Verrier in 1872 was the first to do so with a value close to our current approximation.
    • (The mean distance to sun is now believed to be 1.5 5; 1011m).
    • In 1655-56 Newton had discovered that white light was composite, and in 1802 Wollaston saw dark lines in the spectrum that he believed were boundaries between the colours.
    • However, later in 1814-15 Fraunhofer, who invented the first spectroscope, observed the sun and saw hundreds of dark lines.
    • Doppler, in 1842 proposed his famous theory that the colour of light would be affected by the velocity of its propagator.
    • Fizeau in 1860 came to more accurate conclusions and the effect was first measured in the years around 1890 using spectroscopy by Vogel, Scheiner and Keeler in Potsdam and California after unsuccessful attempts by Huggins and Secchi.
    • When put together with measurements of the distance of closer variable stars using secular parallax by Herzsprung (1913) and then Shapley (more accurately in 1918), Leavitt's period-luminosity relationship provided a way of measuring the distances away of Cepheids by comparing their absolute to their apparent magnitudes.
    • A Berry, A short history of astronomy from the earliest times through the nineteenth century (New York, 1961) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • P Bowler, I Morus, Making Modern Science: A historical survey (Ch 12.

  2. Astronomical items in History Topics
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  3. A Brief History of Time and Calendars
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Meanwhile, Persian calendar reforms, initiated by Mailk Shah, sultan of the Seljuq Empire in 1079, had prompted Omar Khayyam to an outstandingly accurate measurement of the year - by far the most accurate of the pre-telescope era.
    • With enormous confidence, Khayyam gave the length as 365.24219858156 days.
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .

  4. Astronomy timeline from the 16th Century
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  5. List of astronomers

  6. Astronomical Societies
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  7. The Dynamics of the Solar System
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • Galileo is famous for being the first person to use the telescope in 1609 (a then recent invention) to observe the skies through which he saw craters on the moon (disproving Aristotle's theory of celestial bodies being perfect and spherical, and the moons of Jupiter (proving that some heavenly bodies revolved around objects other than Earth).
    • In doing so, he theorised in 1609-21 that celestial orbits were ellipses caused by some physical force that was pushing the planets along its path.
    • In 1650 Descartes built on Kepler's ideas to say that tides were caused by the force from the sun and moon and in 1681 Flamsteed recognised that comets had a closed orbit and so were terrestrial objects rather than celestial.
    • A Berry, A short history of astronomy from the earliest times through the nineteenth century (New York, 1961) .
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00033795500200335 .

  8. The Structure of the Solar System
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • 6th to 10th centuries), astronomical progress was sparse in Europe.
    • His work was cited at least twenty-three times in Copernicus's De revolutionibus published in 1543.
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .

  9. The Infinite Universe
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .
    • As early as 1344 Bradwardine attacked the Aristotelian idea that the universe was finite in size, arguing that the universe was infinite in extent as God himself was.
    • Einstein's revolutionary general theory of relativity in 1916 had a finite universe (Einstein had to include a cosmological constant to achieve this as he believed the universe was static) and depended on non-Euclidean space.
    • In 1917 de Sitter suggested an infinite universe to make Relativity and Euclidean space compatible.
    • Friedmann and Lemaitre independently explored solutions to Einstein's field equations and came to the conclusion that the universe was expanding in the 1920s, before Hubble observationally established that this was the case in 1929.
    • If the galaxies are moving away from each other, it made sense that they started from an original point, a conclusion Lemaitre came to in 1931.
    • In 1948 Gamow and Alpher calculated that in order for chemical elements to be synthesised in the ratios we see them today, it was necessary for the universe to have a hot, dense phase in its early stages.
    • Also in 1948, Alpher and Hermann probed deeper into the early universe and came to the conclusion that there would be leftover thermal radiation from this stage.
    • It was first measured by Penzias and Wilson in 1965 and forms part of the static you hear on the radio.
    • Recently, over one hundred years after they were predicted by Poincare in 1905, gravitational waves were detected in 2016 to the excitement of the scientific community.
    • D Leverington, Encyclopaedia of the History of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Cambridge, 2013) .
    • P Bowler, I Morus, Making Modern Science: A historical survey (Ch 12.

  10. Astronomy in different cultures
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  11. List of astronomers
    • function win1(file,h,v) {if (v > screen.height) {v = screen.height-50;} .

  12. Extras Index
    • HobsonErnest Hobson addresses the British Association in 1910 .


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