Search Results for faraday


  1. Faraday biography
    • Michael Faraday .
    • Michael Faraday did not directly contribute to mathematics so should not really qualify to have his biography in this archive.
    • Faraday's father, James Faraday, was a blacksmith who came from Yorkshire in the north of England while his mother Margaret Hastwell, also from the north of England, was the daughter of a farmer.
    • The religious influence was important for Faraday since the theories he developed later in his life were strongly influenced by a belief in a unity of the world.
    • When Faraday was thirteen years old he had to find work to help the family finances and he was employed running errands for George Riebau who had a bookselling business.
    • In 1805, after a year as an errand-boy, Faraday was taken on by Riebau as an apprentice bookbinder.
    • Riebau wrote a letter in 1813 in which he described how Faraday spent his days as an apprentice (see for example [',' T Martin, Faraday (London, 1934).','4]):- .
    • Faraday himself wrote of this time in his life:- .
    • From 1810 Faraday attended lectures at John Tatum's house.
    • In 1812 Faraday attended lectures by Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution and made careful copies of the notes he had taken.
    • In fact these lectures would become Faraday's passport to a scientific career.
    • When his apprenticeship ended in October 1812, Faraday got a job as a bookbinder but still he attempted to get into science and again he took a somewhat ambitious route for a young man with little formal education.
    • Davy, unlike Banks, replied to Faraday and arranged a meeting.
    • He advised Faraday to keep working as a bookbinder, saying:- .
    • Shortly after the interview Davy's assistant had to be sacked for fighting and Davy sent for Faraday and invited him to fill the empty post.
    • In 1813 Faraday took up the position at the Royal Institution.
    • In October 1813 Davy set out on a scientific tour of Europe and he took Faraday with him as his assistant and secretary.
    • Faraday met Ampere and other scientists in Paris.
    • Heading north again they visited Milan where Faraday met Volta.
    • The trip was an important one for Faraday [',' T Martin, Faraday (London, 1934).','4]:- .
    • These eighteen months abroad had taken the place, in Faraday's life, of the years spent at university by other men.
    • On his return to London, Faraday was re-engaged at the Royal Institution as an assistant.
    • In 1821 Faraday married Sarah Barnard whom he had met when attending the Sandemanian church.
    • Faraday was made Superintendent of the House and Laboratory at the Royal Institution and given additional rooms to make his marriage possible.
    • The year 1821 marked another important time in Faraday's researches.
    • Davy became interested and this gave Faraday the opportunity to work on the topic.
    • It is Faraday's work on electricity which has prompted us to add him to this archive.
    • However we must note that Faraday was in no sense a mathematician and almost all his biographers describe him as "mathematically illiterate".
    • Why then include him in an archive of mathematicians? Well, it was Faraday's work which led to deep mathematical theories of electricity and magnetism.
    • In particular the remarkable mathematical theories on the topic developed by Maxwell would not have been possible without Faraday's discovery of various laws.
    • In the ten years from 1821 to 1831 Faraday again undertook research on chemistry.
    • This was a difficult time for Faraday since Davy was at this time President of the Royal Society and could not see the man who he still thought of as his assistant as becoming a Fellow.
    • Faraday never held the incident against Davy, always holding him in the highest regard.
    • Faraday introduced a series of six Christmas lectures for children at the Royal Institution in 1826.
    • In 1831 Faraday returned to his work on electricity and made what is arguably his most important discovery, namely that of electro-magnetic induction.
    • In 1832 Faraday began to receive honours for his major contributions to science.
    • During this period, beginning in 1833, Faraday made important discoveries in electrochemistry.
    • The extremely high workload eventually told on Faraday's health and in 1839 he suffered a nervous breakdown.
    • Faraday's ideas on lines of force had received a mathematical treatment from William Thomson.
    • He wrote to Faraday on 6 August 1845 telling him of his mathematical predictions that a magnetic field should affect the plane of polarised light.
    • Faraday had attempted to detect this experimentally many years earlier but without success.
    • Faraday wrote (see for example [',' L P Williams, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • By the mid 1850s Faraday's mental abilities began to decline.
    • At around the same time Maxwell was building on the foundations Faraday had created developing a mathematical theory which would always have been out of reach for Faraday.
    • However Faraday continued to lecture at the Royal Institution but declined the offer of the Presidency of the Royal Society in 1857.
    • These two final series of lectures by Faraday were published and have become classics.
    • The Christmas lectures at the Royal Institution, begun by Faraday, continue today but now reach a much greater audience since they are televised.
    • [Faraday's] magnetic laboratory, where many of his most important discoveries were made, was restored in 1972 to the form it was known to have had in 1854.
    • A museum, adjacent to the laboratory, houses a unique collection of original apparatus arranged to illustrate the most important aspects of Faraday's immense contribution to the advancement of science in his fifty years at the Royal Institution.
    • Martin, in [',' T Martin, Faraday (London, 1934).','4], gives this indication of Faraday's character:- .
    • A Poster of Michael Faraday .
    • Honours awarded to Michael Faraday .
    • IEEE (Exhibition on Maxwell and Faraday) .
    • .

  2. Maxwell biography
    • One of Maxwell's most important achievements was his extension and mathematical formulation of Michael Faraday's theories of electricity and magnetic lines of force.
    • His paper On Faraday's lines of force was read to the Cambridge Philosophical Society in two parts, 1855 and 1856.
    • He asked Faraday to act as a referee for him, in a letter written on 30 November 1859.
    • IEEE (Exhibition on Maxwell and Faraday) .

  3. Zeeman biography
    • Elected to the Royal Society of London in 1975, he was awarded the Societies' Faraday Medal in 1988.
    • He delivered the 1978 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures on BBC television - the first time in the 150-year history of these lectures, founded by Michael Faraday, that the topic was mathematics.
    • For his work in the public understanding of science he received the prestigious Royal Society Faraday Medal in 1988.

  4. Plucker biography
    • [In 1847] he became interested in Faraday's work.
    • Faraday had begun to experiment with electrical discharge in gases, noting the spark effect.
    • Geissler and Plucker had propelled Faraday's Effect into a visual manifestation.

  5. Ampere biography
    • Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in 1821 and, after initially believing that he had himself discovered the effect in 1822, Ampere agreed that full credit for the discovery should go to Faraday.

  6. Hiebert biography
    • Erwin was six years old when his family moved to Winnipeg and there he attended Faraday Grade School and completed his schooling at Sir Isaac Newton High School.
    • Both these schools are in the North District of Winnipeg, the Faraday Grade School being an Elementary School and the Sir Isaac Newton High School being, as the name indicates, a High School.

  7. Thomson biography
    • It was at Liouville's request that Thomson began to try to bring together the ideas of Faraday, Coulomb and Poisson on electrical theory.
    • W Thomson was the first who tried to treat mathematically Faraday's conception of lines of force, and he introduced J C Maxwell to the problems of the electromagnetic field not only by his works, but also by his personal initiative.

  8. Davies Paul biography
    • Certainly the Templeton Prize was a very major award but Davies continued to receive a host of others including: the Asteroid 1992 OG was renamed (6870) Pauldavies (1999); he received the Kelvin Medal from the UK Institute of Physics (2001); he received the Michael Faraday Prize from the Royal Society (2002); he received the American Institute of Physics Science Writing Award (2003); he received the Trotter Prize from Texas A & M University, USA (2004); and received an honorary D.Sc.

  9. Mansion biography
    • He wrote on the history of Greek mathematics and on many mathematicians including: Hermite, Abel, de la Vallee Poussin, Saccheri, Lobachevsky, de Tilly, Poincare, Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Huygens, Leibniz, Newton, d'Alembert, Euler, Laplace, Ampere, Faraday, Quetelet, Lord Kelvin, and Helmholtz.

  10. Coulson biography
    • He was awarded the Davy medal from the Royal Society in 1970, and the Faraday and Tilden medals from the Chemical Society in 1968 and 1969 respectively.

  11. Lissajous biography
    • At the conclusion of this beautiful series of experiments, which, thanks to the skill of those who performed them, were all successful, on the motion of Mr Faraday, the thanks of the meeting were unanimously voted to M M Lissajous and Duboscq and communicated to those gentlemen by his Grace the President, The Duke of Northumberland.

  12. FitzGerald biography
    • telegraphy owes a great deal to Euclid and other pure geometers, to the Greek and Arabian mathematicians who invented our scale of numeration and algebra, to Galileo and Newton who founded dynamics, to Newton and Leibniz who invented the calculus, to Volta who discovered the galvanic coil, to Oersted who discovered the magnetic actions of currents, to Ampere who found out the laws of their action, to Ohm who discovered the law of resistance of wires, to Wheatstone, to Faraday, to Lord Kelvin, to Clerk Maxwell, to Hertz.

  13. Whewell biography
    • In fact many of these words were coined by Whewell at the request of friends, for example terms "anode", "cathode" and "ion" were for Faraday, while "scientist" was produced at the request of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

  14. Plateau biography
    • Faraday later wrote:- .

  15. Jahn biography
    • He received his doctorate on 14 February 1935 and was appointed to a position in the Davy-Faraday Laboratory of the Royal Institution in Albermarle Street, London.

  16. Neumann Carl biography
    • he treated mathematically the rotation of the plane of polarization of light by magnetism (the Faraday effect).

  17. Pople biography
    • He received the Marlow Medal from the Faraday Society in 1958, the Pauling Award in 1977, the Davy Medal from the Royal Society in 1988, the Wolf Prize in Chemistry in 1991, and the Award for Computers in Chemistry from the American Chemical Society.

  18. Herschel biography
    • In 1830 Herschel published his famous treatise Discourse on Natural Philosophy the importance of which is beautifully described by Faraday in writing to Herschel:- .

  19. Arago biography
    • Arago carried out further experiments of this type and demonstrated several effects which led Faraday later to explain them as induction.

History Topics

  1. Classical light
    • The next major advances were due to Faraday and Maxwell and in some sense these completed the 'classical' understanding of light.
    • Before we move on to look at Faraday and Maxwell's major contributions let us look briefly at some other contributions from the middle of the 19th century.
    • Faraday did not himself have the necessary mathematical skills but his work was crucial in allowing Maxwell to develop a sophisticated mathematical theory based on the understanding which Faraday had brought to the study of electricity, magnetism, gravity and light.
    • In 1845 Faraday studied the effect of a magnetic field on plane-polarised light.
    • He discovered what is now called the Faraday effect, namely that if a beam of light is passed through a substance which polarises it, then the plane of polarisation is rotated by a magnetic field parallel to the ray of light.
    • In 1846 Faraday gave a lecture at the Royal Institution in which he put forward his view that there is a unity in the forces of nature.
    • Faraday's ideas provided the basis on which Maxwell built his mathematical electromagnetic theory.
    • At a meeting of the Royal Institution, with Faraday in the audience, Maxwell projected the three images, the image made with the red filter being projected with red light and similarly the others.

  2. Orbits references
    • A B Kozhevnikov, The views of Faraday and Maxwell on gravitation (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences XXXI (Moscow, 1985), 129-134.

  3. Orbits references
    • A B Kozhevnikov, The views of Faraday and Maxwell on gravitation (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences XXXI (Moscow, 1985), 129-134.

  4. Modern light
    • In the article Maxwell, despite Faraday's introduction of field theory, states clearly that he believes in an aether:- .

Societies etc

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  1. References for Faraday
    • References for Michael Faraday .
    • .
    • T Martin, Faraday (London, 1934).
    • L Pearce Williams, Michael Faraday : A biography (London-New York, 1965).
    • .

  2. References for Thomson
    • D Gooding, A convergence of opinion on the divergence of lines : Faraday and Thomson's discussion of diamagnetism, Notes and Records Roy.
    • D Gooding, Faraday, Thomson, and the concept of the magnetic field, British J.
    • E Prochazkova, William Thomson and the theory of the Faraday model of the electromagnetic field (Czech), DVT - Dejiny Veda Techniky 8 (1975), 22-29.

  3. References for Arago
    • P Tucci, The Arago - Faraday controversy concerning electromagnetic induction (Italian), in Science and philosophy (Milan, 1985, 796-808.

  4. References for Newton
    • N Feather, Rutherford - Faraday - Newton, Notes and Records Roy.

  5. References for Plucker
    • Faraday.

  6. References for Hertz Heinrich
    • O Darrigol, The electrodynamics of moving bodies from Faraday to Hertz, Centaurus 36 (1993), 245-260.

Famous Curves

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  1. Chronology for 1850 to 1860
    • Maxwell publishes On Faraday's lines of force showing that a few relatively simple mathematical equations could express the behaviour of electric and magnetic fields and their interrelation.

  2. Mathematical Chronology
    • Maxwell publishes On Faraday's lines of force showing that a few relatively simple mathematical equations could express the behaviour of electric and magnetic fields and their interrelation.

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JOC/BS August 2001