Search Results for Breslau


Biographies

  1. Heinrich Schröter (1829-1892)
    • Died: 3 January 1892 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • He submitted his habilitation thesis Uber die Entwicklung der Potenzen der elliptischen Transcendenten Q und die Teilung dieser Functionen Ⓣ to the University of Breslau in the autumn of 1855.
    • After lecturing at the University of Breslau as a dozent, he become an extraordinary professor there in 1858.
    • On 8 August 1860, he married Clara Rodewald, the daughter of a lawyer from Breslau; they had four children.
    • The chair at Breslau had been held by Eduard Kummer until 1855 when he went to Berlin and, following his departure, the chair was filled by his student Ferdinand Joachimsthal.
    • Schroter was a colleague of Joachimsthal until his death in 1861 when Schroter succeeded to the Breslau chair.
    • In the following year Rudolf Lipschitz was appointed as extraordinary professor at Breslau and Schroter, Lipschitz and M Frankenheim jointly founded a seminar in mathematics and mathematical physics (for more details, see [',' T Weber, Rudolf Lipschitz as professor at Breslau University in the years 1862-1864 (Polish), Wiadom.
    • Schroter remained in Breslau for the rest of his life despite being offered another chair.
    • Schroter created at Breslau the leading centre for synthetic geometry.
    • His career in Breslau showed how strongly he had been influenced by Steiner.
    • Among his doctoral students at the University of Breslau were Rudolf Sturm (doctorate awarded in 1863 for the thesis De superficiebus tertii ordinis disquisitiones geometricae), Jakob Rosanes (doctorate awarded 1865) and Moritz Pasch (doctorate awarded in 1865 for the thesis De duarum sectionem conicarum in circulos projectione).
    • He was also keen on gymnastics and for twenty-five years he was the head of the Old Breslau Gymnastics Club.

  2. Rudolf Sturm (1841-1919)
    • Born: 6 January 1841 in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Died: 12 April 1919 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • After attending the St Maria Magdalena Gymnasium in Breslau he entered Breslau University in October 1859 to study mathematics and physics.
    • He was awarded a doctorate by Breslau in 1863 for a dissertation entitled De superficiebus tertii ordinis disquisitiones geometricae Ⓣ.
    • After the award of his doctorate he taught at Breslau as an assistant.
    • He became an ordinary professor at Munster in 1878, then he returned to Breslau in 1892 where he again held an ordinary professorship.

  3. Friedrich Schottky (1851-1935)
    • Born: 24 July 1851 in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Friedrich Schottky's father, Hermann Schottky (1816-1863), had been awarded a doctorate and was a lecturer in English at Breslau when Friedrich was born.
    • Friedrich's mother was Louise Winkler (1818-1908) who was a flower-maker from Breslau.
    • Friedrich attended the Humanistisches Gymnasium St Magdalenen in Breslau beginning his studies there in 1860.
    • After graduating from the Gymnasium, Schottky entered the University of Breslau in 1870, graduating in 1874.
    • After leaving Breslau he studied at the University of Berlin, taught by Karl Weierstrass, Eduard Kummer and Hermann von Helmholtz, obtaining his doctorate in 1875 for his thesis Uber die conforme Abbildung mehrfach zusammenhangender ebener Flachen Ⓣ.
    • After obtaining his doctorate, Schottky remained at the University of Berlin for a while but submitted his habilitation thesis to the University of Breslau in 1878.
    • His school friend Eberhard Gothein also habilitated at the University of Breslau in the same year having undertaken research in the history of economics.
    • Schottky taught as a docent at Breslau until 1882 when he was appointed professor of mathematics in the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    • During his four years lecturing at Breslau, Schottky published two papers: Abriss einer Theorie der Abel'schen Functionen von drei Variabeln Ⓣ (1880) and Uber eindeutige Functionen mit linearen Transformationen in sich Ⓣ (1882).
    • He married Henriette Hammer (1858-1947) who was the daughter of Heinrich Hammer (1823-1860) from Waldenburg (now Walbrzych) in Silesia, a District Judge from Breslau, and Eveline von Meichsner (1828-1907) from Jauer (now Jawor) in Silesia.

  4. Heinz Hopf (1894-1971)
    • Born: 19 November 1894 in Grabschen (near Breslau), Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • He joined Heinrich Kirchner at his brewery in Breslau in 1887.
    • Heinz attended Dr Karl Mittelhaus's school from 1901 until 1904 and following this he began his studies at the Konig-Wilhelm Gymnasium in Breslau.
    • In April 1913 Hopf entered the Silesian Friedrich Wilhelms University in Breslau to read for a degree in mathematics.
    • He also attended lectures by Dehn and Steinitz who taught at the polytechnic in Breslau.
    • During a fortnight's leave from military service in 1917 Hopf went to a class by Schmidt on set theory at the University of Breslau.
    • After the war Hopf returned to his studies in Breslau but after about a year he left and went to the University of Heidelberg.
    • By this time Schmidt had left Breslau and it appears that Hopf wanted to go to Heidelberg to be with his sister who had begun her studies there in the previous year.
    • Hopf continued to visit his parents in Breslau up until 1939.

  5. Jakob Rosanes (1842-1922)
    • Died: 6 January 1922 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • He attended the high school in Brody, then, in 1858 when he was sixteen years old, he went to Breslau where he became a clerk in a Mercantile house.
    • Rosanes, however, wanted to attend university and between 1858 and 1860 he prepared himself to enter the University of Breslau.
    • In this latter year he began to concentrate on mathematics and physics and, advised by Heinrich Schroeter, he undertook research and submitted his dissertation De polarium reciprocarum theoria observationes Ⓣ to the University of Breslau and was awarded his Ph.D.
    • In addition to Schroeter, Rosanes had been taught by some excellent lecturers at Breslau such as Ferdinand Joachimsthal, Rudolf Lipschitz, O E Meyer, and Paul Bachmann.
    • He returned to Breslau where he submitted his Habilitation thesis and became a Privatdozent in 1870.
    • Rosanes taught at Breslau for the rest of his life.
    • He was able to beat even one of the leading players of his time Adolf Anderssen which he did in Breslau in 1862 (although he lost to him in the following year).
    • He retired in 1911 but continued to live in Breslau for the rest of his life.

  6. Ferdinand Joachimsthal (1818-1861)
    • Died: 5 April 1861 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • His attempts to improve his position included submitting a second habilitation in 1850, this time to the University of Breslau with the thesis De duabus aequationibus quarti et sexti gradus in theoria linearum et superficierum secundi ordinis occurrunt Ⓣ.
    • Joachimsthal did not hold the chair in Halle for long since he was offered the chair of mathematics at Breslau (now Wrocław in Poland) in 1855.
    • This came about since Kummer, who had held the chair at Breslau since 1842, was offered a chair in Berlin.
    • Kummer realised that Karl Weierstrass would be a strong contender to fill the Breslau chair but he wanted Weierstrass as a colleague in Berlin (although a position was not available straight away).
    • Kummer, therefore, strongly recommended Joachimsthal, who he regarded extremely highly, to fill the chair in Breslau.
    • The scheme worked, with Joachimsthal ranked first and Weierstrass third, so Joachimsthal became Kummer's successor at Breslau in 1855.
    • At Breslau [',' K R Biermann, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).','1]:- .
    • Notes from a lecture course Joachimsthal gave in Breslau in the winter semester of 1856-57 was published as the book Anwendung der Differential- und Integralrechnung auf die allgemeine Theorie der Flachen und der Linien Doppelter Krummung Ⓣ in 1872.

  7. Moritz Pasch (1843-1930)
    • Born: 8 November 1843 in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Simon was a businessman who married Rosalie Isaac from Birnbaum, Posen, in Breslau on 29 July 1841.
    • Pasch attended the Elisabeth Gymnasium in Breslau, graduating in 1860.
    • He then entered the University of Breslau with the intention of studying chemistry but soon changed topic to study for a degree in mathematics.
    • Pasch's father died in Breslau on 24 October 1866 and he gave up his research towards his habilitation in order to help care for his family.
    • In August 1873 he was promoted to extraordinary professor, then two years later he was made an ordinary professor after turning down an offer of a similar post at the University of Breslau.
    • Pasch married Laura Reichenbach from Breslau on 15 September 1875, three weeks after being made a full professor.
    • The marriage took place in Breslau and they had two daughters, Toni born on 18 July 1878 and Gertrud born on 16 February 1882.

  8. Max Born biography
    • Born: 11 December 1882 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • His father, Gustav Born, was a distinguished medical professor of embryology at the University of Breslau.
    • Max's mother, Margarete Kaufmann, came from a Breslau family who were in the textile industry.
    • Max attended the Konig Wilhelm Gymnasium in Breslau, studying a wide range of subjects such as mathematics, physics, history, modern languages, Latin, Greek, and German.
    • Entering the University of Breslau in 1901 he took a wide range of science subjects, mainly to go along with his father's wishes (his father had died shortly before Max left school).
    • Back in Breslau he talked to his fellow students Toeplitz and Hellinger who told him of the great teachers of mathematics, Klein, Hilbert and Minkowski, at the University of Gottingen.
    • Leaving Cambridge, Born returned to Breslau.

  9. Wilhelm Specht biography
    • Feigl had been extraordinary professor at Berlin when Specht left Berlin for Konigsberg but Feigl had been appointed to the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Breslau in 1935 where he was head of the Department.
    • In Breslau, Feigl became a colleague of Johann Radon who had held a chair there since 1928.
    • Feigl and Radon were keen to have Specht join them in Breslau, and he took up a position there in March 1936.
    • One year later, in the spring of 1937, Specht habilitated at Breslau.
    • However, he was successful at his second attempt and, in September 1938, he became a docent at the University of Breslau.
    • The mathematics department at Breslau, headed by Feigl and Radon, had a pleasant atmosphere unlike that at Konigsberg.
    • There were also a number of more junior colleagues who worked with Specht at Breslau over the following years including Hans-Joachim Kanold, Georg Tautz (1901-1983) and Hans-Heinrich Ostmann (1913-1959).
    • We note that Tautz and Ostmann had both been students at Breslau having Radon as their thesis advisor and awarded their doctorates in 1930 and 1938 respectively.
    • Kanold had also been a student at Breslau with both Feigl and Radon as advisors and was awarded his doctorate in 1941.
    • This happy and productive time at Breslau came to an abrupt end in August 1940 when Specht was called up for military service.
    • When the war ended in 1945, the university in Breslau had been destroyed, his home had been destroyed, all his books were lost and his friends were scattered in different parts of the world.

  10. Ernst Steinitz (1871-1928)
    • He prepared for university entrance at the Friedrich Gymnasium in Breslau where his love of mathematics made him decide to study that subject at university rather than music.
    • He entered the University of Breslau in 1890.
    • After a year at the University of Breslau, Steinitz went to Berlin to study mathematics attending lectures by many famous scientists including Georg Frobenius, Leopold Kronecker and Max Planck.
    • After spending two years in Berlin, he returned to Breslau in 1893.
    • The offer of a professorship at the Technical College of Breslau saw him return to Breslau in 1910.
    • After spending ten years at the Technical College of Breslau, he moved to Kiel in 1920 where he was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the Christian-Albrechts University.
    • Steinitz died from heart problems in 1928, was cremated on 3 October 1928 in Lubeck but his ashes were buried in Breslau.
    • Only a few weeks before his death Erich Hecke wrote to Adolf Kneser, who was at Breslau, about Steinitz:- .
    • After the death of her husband, Martha returned to Breslau with their sixteen year old son Erhard but after the Nazis came to power in 1933 Martha and Erhard went to Palestine.
    • Sadly, Martha chose to return to Breslau where she became a victim of the Nazis.

  11. Paul Gordan (1837-1912)
    • Born: 27 April 1837 in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Paul Gordan's father, David Gordan,was a merchant in Breslau, and his mother was Friedericke Friedenthal.
    • Paul was educated in Breslau where he attended the Gymnasium, going on to study at the business school.
    • His university career began at the University of Breslau but, as almost all German students did at this time, he undertook part of his university studies at different universities.
    • Returning to the University of Breslau he submitted a dissertation on geodesics of spheroids in 1862.
    • This was a fine piece of work and the dissertation, which employed methods devised by Lagrange and Jacobi, was awarded a prize by the Philosophy Faculty at Breslau.

  12. Georg Landsberg (1865-1912)
    • Born: 30 January 1865 in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Georg Landsberg attended school at Breslau.
    • He then studied at the Universities of Breslau and Leipzig between 1883 and 1889.
    • His doctorate was awarded by the University of Breslau in 1890.
    • In 1904 he returned to Breslau as extraordinary professor of mathematics but he was only there for two years accepting an offer of a post at the University of Kiel.

  13. Werner Rogosinski biography
    • Born: 24 September 1894 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • His parents were Hermann Rogosinski, a counsellor in Breslau, and Helma Braun.
    • Werner was born in Breslau, at that time a German town, although his parents were from Jewish Polish families.
    • In 1900, Werner entered the St Maria Magdalena Gymnasium in Breslau [',' W K Hayman, Werner Wolfgang Rogosinski.
    • Rogosinski graduated from the Gymnasium in 1913 and entered Breslau University to study mathematics.

  14. Otto Toeplitz (1881-1940)
    • Born: 1 August 1881 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Otto was brought up in Breslau and he attended a Gymnasium in that city.
    • After completing his secondary education in Breslau, Toeplitz entered the university there to study mathematics.
    • After graduating, he continued with his studies of algebraic geometry at the University of Breslau, being awarded his doctorate in 1905.

  15. Richard Courant biography
    • When Richard was nine his family moved again, this time to Breslau.
    • His father Siegmund was now in problems since he had agreed to buy another business before being persuaded by his brother Jakob to break the contract and move to Breslau.
    • Siegmund worked for an insurance company in Breslau and Richard attended school there, entering the Konig-Wilhelm Gymnasium.
    • In 1904 Richard's parents left Breslau and moved to Berlin.
    • Richard was earning enough to support himself, even now that he had to rent accommodation in Breslau.
    • Although he had not yet passed the examinations necessary to enter university, Richard left school in 1905 and attended classes in mathematics and physics at the University of Breslau.
    • Courant had studied at Breslau with two fellow students Otto Toeplitz and Ernst Hellinger.
    • In the spring of 1907 Courant left Breslau, spent a semester at Zurich, then began his studies at Gottingen on 1 November 1907.
    • He had married Nelly Neumann in the summer of 1912, a friend from his days in Breslau who was also a mathematician.

  16. Adolf Kneser (1862-1930)
    • Died: 24 January 1930 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Kneser submitted his habilitation thesis to the University of Marburg where he taught for a while, then he moved to Breslau (now Wrocław in Poland) where he also lectured.
    • After five years in Berlin, he returned to Breslau where he spent the rest of his career.
    • In 1911 Kneser published his famous text, Die Integralgleichungen und ihre Anwendungen in der mathematischen Physik: Vorlesungen an der Universitat zu Breslau Ⓣ.

  17. Hermann Kober biography
    • When he was still young the family moved to Breslau (now Wrocław), so making a move from Upper Silesia to Lower Silesia.
    • Breslau was the sixth largest city of Germany and, in that thriving industrial city, Kober attended school.
    • He then entered the University of Breslau but like most German students of that time, he spent part of his university studies at another university.
    • His doctorate, awarded by the University of Breslau in 1911, was directed by Adolf Kneser.
    • He was therefore happy to accept a position as a teacher of mathematics at the Johannes Gymnasium in Breslau.
    • After his military service he returned to his teaching post at Breslau but in the 1920s he decided to study law on a part-time basis.
    • Breslau had a large Jewish community with around 10,000 living in the city at the time Hitler came to power.
    • Kober was forced out of his teaching post in 1934 but he continued with his teaching career, now at a Jewish school in Breslau.
    • Kober's wife provided him with the sort of back-up which allowed him to make lengthy visits to Cambridge in England, for she simply took over teaching his classes in Breslau while he spent time at Cambridge doing research.

  18. Stefan Cohn-Vossen biography
    • Born: 28 May 1902 in Breslau, Germany, now Wrocław, Poland .
    • Stefan was brought up and educated in Breslau.
    • Cohn-Vossen attended Breslau University and his thesis advisor there was Adolf Kneser.

  19. Felix Hausdorff (1868-1942)
    • Born: 8 November 1868 in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Felix was still a young boy when the family moved from Breslau to Leipzig, and it was in Leipzig that he grew up.

  20. Reinhard Selten biography
    • Born: 5 October 1930 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • As Soviet troops approached the city of Breslau, which had been fortified by the Nazis, German people began to leave, the exodus beginning in 1944.

  21. Heinrich Maschke biography
    • Born: 24 October 1853 in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • Heinrich attended the Gymnasium in Breslau where he showed great ability.

  22. Hans Lewy biography
    • Born: 20 October 1904 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .
    • He spent his boyhood in Breslau before becoming a student at Gottingen.

  23. Klaus Roth biography
    • Born: 29 October 1925 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland) .

  24. Johann Radon (1887-1956)
    • In 1928 Radon moved again, this time to the University of Breslau where he succeeded Adolf Kneser on his retirement.
    • After happy times in Greifswald and Erlangen, fate was cruel to Radon in Breslau.
    • The Germans fortified Breslau but it came under increasing Russian pressure from August 1944 as the Russian offensive swept rapidly west.
    • The centre of Breslau was bombed on 7 October 1944 but the Mathematical Institute was essentially undamaged (only 4 panes of glass were broken).
    • By January 1945 the Russian army was advancing towards Breslau and a decision was taken to move the mathematicians from the city.
    • In February Feigl and his colleagues moved the Mathematical Institute from Breslau to Schonburg Castle at Wechselburg, not far from Leipzig.

  25. Hans Rademacher (1892-1969)
    • In April 1925 Rademacher left Hamburg to become an ordinary professor at Breslau.
    • Had Hecke succeeded in his attempt to get Hamburg to offer Rademacher an ordinary professorship then he would almost certainly have remained there, but the university would not make the offer that Hecke requested and, after much thought, Rademacher went to Breslau.
    • Naturally, someone like Rademacher would also be appropriate if you think that there is a prospect that he would exchange Breslau for Kiel.
    • In different political circumstances one would have expected Rademacher to remain at Breslau for the rest of his career.
    • However he was passionate in his concern for human rights and while in Breslau he joined the International League for Human Rights.
    • Normal expectations were completely overturned for most people and in particular for Rademacher the expectation that he would remain in Breslau vanished.

  26. Paul Wittich biography
    • Born: 1546 in Breslau, Hapsburg Empire (now Wrocław, Poland) .

  27. Erich Hans Rothe biography
    • Rothe had worked at the Institute of Applied Mathematics at the University of Berlin in 1926-27 before being appointed to the Engineering School in Breslau in 1927 and habilitating there in 1928.
    • In addition to his position at the Engineering School, he was appointed as a docent at the University of Breslau in 1931 after a second habilitation there.
    • During his time in these positions in Breslau, Rothe took study leave for a year which he spent at the University of Gottingen.
    • On 15 April 1931, Erich and Hildegard Rothe had a son, Erhard William Rothe, who was born in Breslau.
    • During their years in Breslau both Rothe and his wife reviewed many mathematical papers.

  28. Georg Feigl (1890-1945)
    • Two years later, in 1935, Feigl was appointed to the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Breslau where he was head of the Department.
    • 79 (1969), 53-60.','3] Pinl explains that in Breslau:- .
    • The centre of Breslau was bombed on 7 October 1944 but the Mathematical Institute was essentially undamaged (only 4 panes of glass were broken).
    • By January 1945 the Russian army was advancing towards Breslau and a decision was taken to move the mathematicians from the city.
    • In February Feigl and his colleagues moved the Mathematical Institute from Breslau to Schonburg Castle at Wechselburg, not far from Leipzig.

  29. Rudolf Lipschitz (1832-1903)
    • Then in 1862 he became an extraordinary professor at Breslau.
    • During his two years in Breslau, Lipschitz wrote two not very important papers.
    • The paper [',' T Weber, Rudolf Lipschitz as professor at Breslau University in the years 1862-1864 (Polish), Wiadom.
    • He was nominated an ordinary professor by the University of Bonn and he left Breslau at Easter 1864.

  30. Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891)
    • After spending the summer of 1843 at the University of Bonn, which he went to because of his interest in astronomy rather than mathematics, he then went to the University of Breslau for the winter semester of 1843-44.
    • The reason that he went to Breslau was certainly because of his interest in mathematics because he wanted to study again with his old school teacher Kummer who had been appointed to a chair at Breslau in 1842.
    • Kronecker spent a year at Breslau before returning to Berlin for the winter semester of 1844-45.

  31. Hans Samelson biography
    • The Samelson family were expelled from Strasbourg by the new French authorities and, after a brief stay in the Black Forest, they returned to Siegfried's hometown of Breslau, where Siegfried became a professor of paediatrics and director of school health system.
    • Hans's youngest brother Franz was born in Breslau in 1923.
    • Hans Samelson was educated in Breslau but after the Nazis came to power in 1933 not only did his father lose his position in the university but all three boys, being half-Jewish, also began to have restrictions imposed on their education.
    • Although Hans studied at the University of Breslau, advanced studies were restricted and he left Germany in 1936 to study for his doctorate in mathematics at the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule in Zurich.

  32. Ernst Hellinger (1883-1950)
    • Ernst grew up in Breslau where he attended school, graduating from the Gymnasium there in 1902.
    • It was at the Breslau Gymnasium that Hellinger first became fascinated in mathematics, and this was the result of an excellent mathematics teacher at the school.
    • His second university was Breslau, so he returned to the town where he was brought up, and then in 1904 he followed his friend Max Born to Gottingen.
    • In Gottingen Hellinger was a student of Hilbert and, not long after he began his studies there, he was joined by Courant and Toeplitz who had been his fellow students at Breslau.

  33. Ernst Mohr biography
    • Mohr was forced to look for a post elsewhere and was appointed as a scientific fellow to the Technical University of Breslau on 1 November 1934.
    • At Breslau Mohr changed areas and began to undertake work in hydrodynamics under the supervision of Johann Nikuradse.
    • In 1939 he was promoted to lecturer in mechanics and applied mathematics at the University of Breslau, and also at the Technical University of Breslau, after submitting his habilitation dissertation.

  34. Eduard Kummer (1810-1893)
    • In 1842, with strong support from Jacobi and Dirichlet, he was appointed a full professor at the University of Breslau, now Wrocław in Poland.
    • There he quickly established himself as an outstanding university teacher of mathematics and, starting with his move to Breslau, he began to undertake research in number theory.
    • He wanted Weierstrass as a colleague at Berlin, yet he realised that Weierstrass was a strong candidate for the chair he was leaving vacant in Breslau.
    • Hence he recommended to Breslau that they appoint his former student Joachimsthal.

  35. Johann Rosenhain (1816-1887)
    • In 1844 Rosenhain submitted his Habilitation thesis to the University of Breslau and was appointed as a Privatdozent there in that year.
    • Rosenhain's position at Breslau became untenable; he had no future there [',' W Burau, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • His participation in the revolutionary activities of 1848 deprived him any chance to further his career in Breslau.

  36. Wilhelm Kutta biography
    • Tragically Kutta's parents died when he was still young and, together with his brother Karl, he went to Breslau to be brought up by an uncle.
    • It was in Breslau that he attended the Gymnasium.
    • After graduating from the Gymnasium, Kutta studied at the University of Breslau from 1885 to 1890.

  37. Gustav Kirchhoff (1824-1887)
    • He left Berlin for Breslau in 1850 when he was appointed as extraordinary professor there.
    • In the year that he arrived in Breslau, Kirchhoff solved a problem concerning the deformation of elastic plates.
    • While Kirchhoff was in Breslau he met Bunsen who spent the academic year 1851-52 there; the two becoming firm and lasting friends.

  38. Jakob Nielsen biography
    • When Hecke was appointed to Hamburg in 1919, Nielsen went as his assistant, but the following year Nielsen was appointed to a chair at Breslau.
    • Two inaugural lectures which Nielsen gave in Breslau in 1921 are published for the first time in [',' J Nielsen, Jakob Nielsen: collected mathematical papers (2 vols.) (Boston, Mass., 1986).','1].
    • In 1921 Nielsen, who was born in Schleswig, elected to became a Danish citizen and he resigned his chair in Breslau and returned to Denmark to teach in Copenhagen.

  39. Heinrich Scherk biography
    • At this time his family moved to Breslau where Heinrich attended elementary school, then completed his school education at the Magdalenen High School.
    • Scherk completed his school studies in 1818 and entered the University of Breslau.
    • It was H W Brandes who taught him mathematics and astronomy at the University of Breslau, and quickly realised that Scherk had an outstanding pupil.

  40. Hellmuth Kneser biography
    • Hellmuth entered the University of Breslau in 1916 where his father was the Professor of Mathematics.
    • Schmidt's lectures at Breslau were to prove an important influence on Hellmuth Kneser's mathematical development.
    • From Breslau Kneser went to Gottingen to undertake research.

  41. Hildegard Ille biography
    • Rothe had worked at the Institute of Applied Mathematics at the University of Berlin in 1926-27 before being appointed to the Engineering School in Breslau in 1927 and habilitating there in 1928.
    • In addition to his position at the Engineering School, he was appointed as a docent at the University of Breslau in 1931 after a second habilitation there.
    • After Erich and Hildegard Rothe married in 1928, they had a son, Erhard William Rothe, who was born in Breslau on 15 April 1931.

  42. Max Dehn biography
    • In 1911 Dehn was appointed as an extraordinary professor at Kiel, and from 1913 until 1921 he was a full professor at the University of Breslau.
    • He married Antonie Landau on 23 August 1912; they had three children Helmut (1914-2007), Maria (1915-2013), Eva Agathe (1919-2008) all born in Breslau.
    • After military service, he returned to his position as professor at Breslau, but in 1921 he was appointed to the chair of Pure and Applied Mathematics at the University of Frankfurt, succeeding Ludwig Bieberbach.

  43. Humphrey Lloyd (1800-1881)
    • Of the rest, one has been established by the French Government at Algiers; one by the Belgium, at Brussels; two by Austria, at Prague and Milan; one by Prussia at Breslau; one by the Bavarian Government at Munich; and one by the Spanish, at Cadiz; there are two in the United States, at Philadelphia and Cambridge; one at Cairo, founded by the Pasha of Egypt; one at Trevandrum, in India, by the Rajah of Travancore; and one by the King of Oude, at Lucknow.
    • The observatories at Brussels, Breslau, Cadiz, Cambridge, Algiers, Cairo, Trevandrum and Lucknow, are provided with instruments similar to those of Dublin.

  44. Emanuel Lasker biography
    • In 1889 he won his first chess tournament in Berlin and, a month later, he won the Hauptturnier in Breslau which earned him the German title of Master of Chess.
    • Young Lasker only confirmed the opinion we expressed about him when we watched him in Breslau.

  45. Fritz Noether biography
    • He did not return to his position at Karlsruhe Technische Hochschule since, in 1922, he was appointed to the second chair of Higher Mathematics and Mechanics at the University of Breslau.
    • He clearly satisfied the exemption clause but, on 26 April 1933, a group of students complained to the Rektor of the University of Breslau that having Noether on the staff "in large measure contradict the Aryan principle." The students suggested that Noether, as a Jew, would never work in the national interest.

  46. Erich Hecke (1887-1947)
    • He graduated from secondary school in 1905 and in that year he entered the University of Breslau.
    • After Breslau he worked under Edmund Landau at Berlin and then from there he went to Gottingen where he worked under Hilbert.

  47. Lejeune Dirichlet biography
    • The problem was nicely solved by the University of Cologne giving Dirichlet an honorary doctorate, thus allowing him to submit his habilitation thesis on polynomials with a special class of prime divisors to the University of Breslau.
    • From 1827 Dirichlet taught at Breslau but Dirichlet encountered the same problem which made him choose Paris for his own education, namely that the standards at the university were low.

  48. Otto Haupt biography
    • After these two semesters in Munich, he spent the winter semester of 1912-13 in Breslau within Adolf Kneser, Erhard Schmidt, Constantin Caratheodory and Ernst Steinitz.
    • Once Breslau heard that Haupt had the invitation from Karlsruhe, they tried to stop him leaving but Haupt decided that he would prefer to take up Krazer's offer at Karlsruhe.

  49. Paul Bachmann biography
    • From Berlin, Bachmann went to Breslau to study for his habilitation.
    • He taught at Breslau after the award of the habilitation, becoming an extraordinary professor there in 1867 after submitting Theorie der komplexen Zahlen Ⓣ.

  50. Karl Weierstrass (1815-1897)
    • In 1855 Weierstrass applied for the chair at the University of Breslau left vacant when Kummer moved to Berlin.
    • Kummer, however, tried to influence things so that Weierstrass would go to Berlin, not Breslau, so Weierstrass was not appointed.

  51. Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941)
    • Alfred grew up in Breslau where he became passionate about music, art and mathematics.

  52. Carl Neumann (1832-1925)
    • Ernst Neumann went on to become a professor at Breslau and Marburg.

  53. Alfred Loewy (1873-1935)
    • Loewy studied at the universities of Breslau, Munich, Berlin and Gottingen between 1891 and 1895.

  54. William Morgan biography
    • (1693), Some further considerations of the Breslau Bills of Mortality, Philosophical Transactions of the ','36] and [',' G Heywood, Edmond Halley, Actuary, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 35, (1994) 151-154.

  55. Abraham Fraenkel (1891-1965)
    • He spent the final year of his studies at the University of Breslau before returning to the University of Marburg where, having been advised by Kurt Hensel, he submitted his doctoral thesis Uber die Teiler der Null und die Zerlegung von Ringen Ⓣ.

  56. Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
    • Another innovative piece of work was the mortality tables for the city of Breslau which he published in 1693.

  57. Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961)
    • He then moved to a chair at Breslau, his third move in eighteen months.

  58. Gotthold Eisenstein (1823-1852)
    • Kummer arranged that the University of Breslau award Eisenstein an honorary doctorate in February 1845.

  59. Stefan Bergman biography
    • He completed his studies at the Gymnasium in 1913 and began his university studies in the School of Engineering at the University of Breslau.

  60. Constantin Carathéodory biography
    • Again it was not long before he moved on and on 1 October 1910 he was appointed to the Chair of Higher Mathematics at the Technical University of Breslau.

  61. Alexander Weinstein biography
    • From Hamburg Weinstein moved to Breslau and, by 1933, he was being sought by Einstein as a collaborator in Berlin.

  62. Charles Loewner (1893-1968)
    • She came from Breslau and was a trained singer.

  63. Heinrich Scholz biography
    • In 1917 Scholz was appointed to the chair of Philosophy of Religion at the University of Breslau.

  64. Edward Marczewski biography
    • However, near the end of the war he was captured and sent to a labour camp in Breslau, as the Germans called the town, but Wrocław to give it its Polish name.

  65. Wilhelm Ahrens biography
    • Otto Staude was a geometer who had habilitated at the University of Breslau in 1883 and then taught at the University of Dorpat before moving to Rostock.

  66. Wilhelm Lexis biography
    • Lexis left Freiburg in 1884 to take up the chair of economics at the University of Breslau, then in 1887 he made his final career move when he accepted the chair of political science at Gottingen.

  67. Friedrich Bachmann biography
    • Friedrich's paternal grandfather was the mathematician Paul Bachmann (1837-1920), who had studied with Dirichlet and Dedekind, had Kummer as the advisor for his PhD and, after his Habilitation in 1868 in Breslau, had become a full professor in Munster.

  68. Erhard Schmidt (1876-1959)
    • After leaving Bonn, Schmidt held positions in Zurich, Erlangen and Breslau before he was appointed to a professorship at the University of Berlin in 1917.

  69. Ferdinand Minding (1806-1885)
    • Ferdinand Minding's father was Gottlieb Minding (1781-1816) from Breslau who, at the time of Ferdinand's birth, was a lawyer in Kalisz but also a musician who was a librettist.

  70. Bartholomeo Pitiscus (1561-1613)
    • Later Pitiscus was appointed court chaplain at Breslau and court preacher to Frederick IV.

  71. August Gutzmer biography
    • He also worked for the German Mathematical Society producing yearly reports, for example: Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung zu Munchen, 17-23 September 1899 Ⓣ; Jahresversammlung der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung zu Aachen, 16-23 September 1900 Ⓣ; and Bericht uber die Jahresversammlung in Breslau, vom 18 bis 24 September 1904 Ⓣ.

  72. Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754)
    • An innovative piece of work by Halley had been the production of mortality tables, based on five years of data, for the city of Breslau which he published in 1693.


History Topics

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Societies etc

  1. German Academy of Scientists Leopoldina
    • As a consequence the following is the resulting sequence cities in which it was based: Schweinfurt, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Altdorf, Erfurt, Halle, Nuremberg, Erlangen, Bonn, Breslau, Jena, Dresden, and Halle.


Honours

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References

  1. References for William Morgan
    • city of Breslau with an attempt to ascertain the price of annuities upon lives, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal .
    • (1693), Some further considerations of the Breslau Bills of Mortality, Philosophical Transactions of the .

  2. References for Rudolf Lipschitz
    • T Weber, Rudolf Lipschitz as professor at Breslau University in the years 1862-1864 (Polish), Wiadom.

  3. References for Heinrich Schröter
    • T Weber, Rudolf Lipschitz as professor at Breslau University in the years 1862-1864 (Polish), Wiadom.

  4. References for Eduard Kummer
    • W Narkiewicz, Mathematics at Breslau University during the time of Kummer (Polish), Wiadom.


Additional material

  1. Mathematics at Aberdeen 1
    • He worked at universities in Frankfurt, Breslau and Helmstadt where he held chairs in Mathematics and Medicine.

  2. Vailati Reviews
    • As scientist, to use the noble phrase, one can belong "to the masters of those who know," but as teacher, he must be the masters of those who know not." Dr Vailati points out that at the University of Berlin there are courses in the history of chemistry and of medicine; at Breslau, in the history of medicine, of mathematics and of botany; at Konigsberg, in the history of astronomy; at Graz, in the history of ancient Greek scientific literature; at Wittenberg a special course in the history of chemistry, gen, Bonn, Vienna and Turin, courses in the history At Vienna, too, Dr Mach gave a course on the history of the mechanical theory of heat.

  3. Who was who 1852
    • After a short time in Breslau he came to Berlin in 1829 as Privatdozent and became ordinary professor ten years later, the first of the great masters of the Berlin school.

  4. Gottingen chairs
    • He invited me and another student from Breslau ..


Quotations

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Famous Curves

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Chronology

  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • Halley publishes his mortality tables for the city of Breslau (now Wroclaw) in Poland.

  2. Chronology for 1675 to 1700
    • Halley publishes his mortality tables for the city of Breslau (now Wroclaw) in Poland.


EMS Archive

  1. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • Born 1882 at Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland); Died 1970 .

  2. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • Born 1882 at Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland); Died 1970 .


BMC Archive

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Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. References
    • Sixth Edition, Ferdinand Hirt, Breslau, 1943.


Astronomy section

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This search was performed by Kevin Hughes' SWISH and Ben Soares' HistorySearch Perl script

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JOC/BS August 2001