Search Results for Jew* or Jewish


Biographies

  1. Fraenkel biography
    • We should note at this point that the family was Jewish and in fact Sigmund, in addition to being a merchant, was a leader of Orthodox Judaism in Bavaria and an economist working for the German government.
    • despite the restricted possibilities for advancement open to Jews ..
    • The naming, though not the preferment, of Jews to positions as full professors remained infrequent with the exception of the new city universities of Frankfurt and Hamburg.
    • that the Hebrew University would be a forum for heretical "scientific" studies of the Bible and Jewish sacred texts.
    • On 1 April 1933 there was the so-called "boycott day" when Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish lecturers were not allowed to enter the university.
    • On 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law was passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired but there were exemptions for those who had fought for Germany in World War I.
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).',3)">3]:- .
    • with satisfaction that during his whole service at Kiel University, he had always declared himself to be a Jew and not a German.
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).',3)">3]:- .
    • I think it would be even from a purely objective point of view, an impossible idea for any Jew to live again in a country whose population - to a large extent actively and for the rest almost entirely passively - has been responsible for the extermination of more than five millions of Jews, the third part of my People, under conditions of cruelty not experienced for thousands of years.
    • On 2 February 1947, Fraenkel wrote to Erich Kamke (1890-1961) who had been dismissed from his professorship in 1937 because his wife was Jewish.
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).',3)">3]:- .
    • In a country being responsible for the cruel murder of five million Jews I could not breath.
    • For example he writes (see the English translation in [The Flatbush Journal of Jewish Law and Thought 12 (2011), 209-231.',29)">29]):- .
    • Fraenkel also published many articles relating to Jewish mathematics and Jewish mathematicians, for example Jewish mathematics and astronomy (1960).
    • As such he was involved in political activity being a member of the Vaad Leumi, the executive committee of the Palestinian Jewish National Assembly at the time of British mandate.
    • This party promoted Jewish religious education, established religious schools and strongly promoted the authority of the chief rabbinate over all Jewish matters such as marriage and divorce.

  2. Stern biography
    • Moritz Abraham Stern's parents both came from old-established, well-off Jewish families in Frankfurt.
    • Moritz's mother, Vogele Eva Reiss, owned a silk shop which, as a young woman, she opened in order to support her parents and siblings after the family had lost all of its possessions in 1796, when a fire destroyed most of the Judengasse, the Jewish ghetto in Frankfurt.
    • The appointment was by no means a matter of course: while Jews were admitted to university studies, they were generally denied any academic positions in the German states of the 19th century.
    • Stern was not the first Jew to become an extraordinary professor, but even making a Jew a Privatdozent would have caused outrage at many other universities.
    • Appointing a Jew to a professorship would have been considered tantamount to sacrilege.
    • As a result, many Jewish academics decided to be baptised into the Christian faith or to take up posts at universities abroad.
    • Up until then there had not been a single ordinary professor in Germany who was Jewish.
    • Interestingly, Stern was by no means a devout Jew, but belonged to Liberal or Reform Judaism.
    • He believed that many traditional Jewish practices could and should be adapted to particular circumstances of everyday life.
    • Nonetheless he saw himself as a protagonist of the Jewish emancipation, and believed that an appointment to a professorship would bring glory not only to himself but to the entire Jewish population [http://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/nordlit/article/view/1859/1730',10)">10].
    • This made him the first non-baptised Jew ever to become a full professor at a German university.
    • The wedding took place in the village of Bockenheim (now part of Frankfurt) instead of his hometown, as the by-laws regulating the lives of Frankfurt's Jewish population permitted a maximum of 15 Jewish weddings per year.
    • Nowadays Stern is primarily remembered for the fact that he was the first non-baptised Jewish university professor in Germany and not for his mathematical work.

  3. Remak biography
    • Robert Remak was the grandson of the first Jew in Prussia to be given an habilitation without giving up the Jewish faith.
    • As he was a Jew, this required a special order from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
    • is the subject of this biography and was given his grandfather's name in the tradition of the Ashkenazic Jews.
    • In fact, he was Jewish.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course removing those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • On that night 91 Jews were murdered, hundreds were seriously injured, and thousands were subjected to horrifying experiences.
    • Thousands of Jewish businesses were burnt down together with over 150 synagogues.
    • The Gestapo arrested 30,000 well-off Jews and a condition of their release was that they emigrate.
    • I am an Aryan, so you cannot interpret my letter as a Jewish impertinence.
    • The Nazis transferred about 100,000 Jews from Westerbork to the Auschwitz concentration camp beginning in July 1942.

  4. Dehn biography
    • The family was racially Jewish but did not think of themselves as Jews, rather they were Germans.
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).',2)">2]:- .
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).',2)">2]:- .
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power in Germany and on 1 April there was the so-called "boycott day" when Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish lecturers were not allowed to enter the university.
    • On 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law was passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired but there were exemptions for those who had fought for Germany in World War I.
    • Many Jews were murdered, hundreds were seriously injured, and thousands were subjected to horrifying experiences.
    • Thousands of Jewish businesses were burnt down together with over 150 synagogues.
    • The Gestapo arrested 30,000 well-off Jews and a condition of their release was that they emigrate.
    • On 11 November 1938 Dehn was arrested but, with so many Jews being held, the prisons were full and he was released later on the same day.
    • After a few weeks the Gestapo became less active in their persecution of Jews and Dehn and his wife risked fleeing to Hamburg where they lived for a while at the home of one of Dehn's elder sisters before escaping, first to Denmark in January 1939 and from there to Norway.
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).',2)">2]):- .
    • I am not afraid that the DMV will once again expel Jews, but perhaps next time it will be so-called communists, anarchists or "coloured people".

  5. Infeld biography
    • Leopold Infeld was born in Kazimierz, the Jewish ghetto of Krakow.
    • His first education was at a Jewish religious school, but as he grew up he rebelled against the religion and against the Yiddish language which his parents spoke at home.
    • Since Europe was, at this time, in the middle of World War I, Infeld was first drafted into the Austrian Army but his Jewish background and academic interests meant that his career as a soldier was never going to go well.
    • However his attempts to find an academic post failed and he was left in little doubt as to the reasons; it was, he felt, certainly because he was a Jew looking for a post in anti-Semitic universities.
    • However, in his own estimation, his troubles went deeper than that for becoming a teacher in a Jewish school seemed equally hard.
    • To the Polish world I was a Jew.
    • To the Polish Jews I was not sufficiently Jewish.
    • At last, in 1922, he was appointed headmaster at a Jewish co-educational high school in Konin.
    • His living conditions there were worse than they had been in the Jewish ghetto of Krakow.
    • After two years spent in Konin, Infeld was appointed as a physics teacher at a Jewish gymnasium for girls in Warsaw.
    • On a summer morning the voices of Jewish boys singing in chorus the words of the Torah reached me through the open window of the school.

  6. Hartogs biography
    • Despite being born in Brussels, Hartogs' family were German Jews and he was brought up in Frankfurt am Main in Germany.
    • Like all Jewish academics, after the Nazi Party came to power in 1933 Hartogs' life became increasingly difficult.
    • Hitler came to power on 30 January 1933 and on 1 April, so-called 'Boycott Day', Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish professors and lecturers were not allowed to enter the university.
    • On 15 September 1935, at a convention in Nurnberg, two measures were approved by the Nazi Party which removed rights from Jews.
    • On 10 November 1938, so called 'Kristallnacht', the Nazi gangs attacked Jews and Jewish property.
    • The police were told not to arrest the attackers but rather to arrest the Jews who were being attacked.
    • Around 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and taken to concentration camps.
    • It became clear after the Nurnberg laws of 1935 that this was not sufficient to protect the house since his wife, through marriage to a Jew, would have been liable to having the home confiscated and being sent to a concentration camp.
    • In 1941 the Nazis introduced the compulsory yellow star badge that identified the wearer as a Jew causing Hartogs further distress.

  7. Amitsur biography
    • His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.
    • A constitution was drawn up by September of that year which allowed the Jews and Arabs to share power in governing the region, but it was not accepted so direct rule by Britain continued.
    • The city had been built to form a European style city for the Jews in a predominantly Arabic area and had a population of around 40,000 when Amitsur's family moved there.
    • The years that Amitsur had been studying at school had seen large increases in the Jewish population as many refugees settled in Palestine, particularly in Tel Aviv.
    • This had led to increasing pressure for a Jewish state with many advocating violence to achieve it.
    • However, with the British attention fully involved in the war against Germany, Jewish offers of help in the war effort were hard to refuse.
    • The danger for the British was, they realised, that a trained Jewish army would almost certainly later support an independent Jewish state.
    • Despite the misgivings, the British army formed a brigade of Jewish volunteers which Amitsur joined.
    • As the British had feared, after the war ended in 1945 the Jewish military organizations in Palestine began to fight for an independent Jewish state.

  8. Bieberbach biography
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 1 April there was the so-called "boycott day" when Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish lecturers were not allowed to enter the university.
    • However, soon after this Bieberbach was converted to the views of the Nazis and energetically persecuted his Jewish colleagues.
    • On 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law was passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • Bieberbach developed the notion of a 'German' synthetic style mathematics as opposed to the abstract 'Jewish' analytic style.
    • By this time Bieberbach was strongly in favour of such actions against Jewish mathematicians.
    • I find it surprising that Jews are still members of academic commissions.
    • He resisted pressure put on him by Bieberbach not to use Jewish referees.
    • Above all, may you finally dismiss the Jews from your staff in the New Year.
    • Both were in their 60s but had very different wartime experiences, Levi having been dismissed from the University of Leipzig in 1935 because he was Jewish, and Bieberbach having been the leading Nazi mathematician.

  9. Bochner biography
    • It was an orthodox Jewish family with Joseph running a small business and both parents being enthusiastic about education, although they themselves were self educated after leaving school.
    • Certainly at this time Birkhoff systematically kept Jews out of his department, and this must be the explanation for the quite ridiculous assessment of Bochner as a "second rate European youngster".
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 1 April there was the so-called "boycott day" when Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish lecturers were not allowed to enter their university.
    • On 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • As an orthodox Jew, Bochner's position was now impossible and he accepted a position at Princeton in 1933.
    • Every summer he made a trip to Europe to visit his family who were steadily becoming in greater danger from the Nazi anti-Jewish policies.
    • On one of his summer trips to Europe Bochner met Naomi Weinberg who was the daughter of the publisher of a New York Jewish newspaper.

  10. Blumenthal biography
    • At the age of eighteen, influenced by a friend who later became a Protestant Minister, he converted from the Jewish faith in which he had been brought up by his parents, to become a Protestant.
    • On 1 April there was the so-called "boycott day" when Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish lecturers were not allowed to enter their university.
    • On 7 April the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • This was valuable in allowing him to obtain the necessary immigration documents for the Netherlands, but he still had many difficulties to overcome which were placed in the way of Jews leaving Germany.
    • On 23 November 1940, all Jewish professors of the Utrecht University were dismissed, among them the Dutch mathematician Julius Wolff.
    • After months of increasing humiliation and harassment imposed on Jews, such as having to wear the star of David, not being allowed to use buses, and not being allowed to visit non-Jewish friends, it was announced in April 1943 that Utrecht would be ethnically cleansed of Jews.

  11. Levi biography
    • Levi was also closely related to Nahmanides (1194-1270) who was a Spanish scholar, a rabbi and Jewish religious leader who is known for his work on philosophy, poetry, and medicine.
    • Levi was a cousin of Judah Delesfils whose grandson was Simon ben Zemah Duran (1361-1444), a Spanish Jewish rabbi who wrote several famous works.
    • He expelled the Jews from France in 1306 seizing their property and confiscating all money owed to them, but Levi was not affected.
    • However, even in Provence Jews had a difficult time and Levi wrote in Preface to Milhamot (1329) that the suffering of the Jews:- .
    • The period 1309-1377 is that of the Roman Catholic papacy in Avignon and these popes had quite good relations with the Jews.
    • Levi certainly had good relations with leading men of the district, both Jewish and Christian.
    • Yet another of his works was written at the request of a group of Jewish and Christian noblemen.
    • Gersonides' philosophical ideas went against the grain of traditional Jewish thought.
    • Whereas his commentaries occupied a central place in Jewish theology, his philosophical work was rejected.

  12. Erdos biography
    • Paul Erdős came from a Jewish family (the original family name being Englander) although neither of his parents observed the Jewish religion.
    • She was dismissed from her post and she was left in fear of her life as Horthy's men roamed the streets killing Jews and Communists.
    • By 1920 Horthy had introduced anti-Jewish laws similar to those Hitler would introduce in Germany thirteen years later.
    • Despite the restrictions on Jews entering universities in Hungary, Erdős, as the winner of a national examination, was allowed to enter in 1930.
    • Awarded a doctorate in 1934, he took up a post-doctoral fellowship at Manchester, essentially being forced to leave Hungary because he was Jewish.
    • The situation in Hungary by the late 1930s clearly made it impossible for someone of Jewish origins to return.
    • The Jews in Hungary had suffered incredible hardship from 1944 with many being murdered, and others deported to Auschwitz.
    • The family had suffered terribly through the Nazi campaign against the Jews, however, and four of Erdős's uncles and aunts had been murdered.
    • Being Jewish he had to leave Hungary, and as it turned out, this saved his live.

  13. Epstein biography
    • It was a Jewish family living in Frankfurt where his father was a professor at the Philanthropin Secondary School, the largest and longest-existing Jewish school in Germany, and an astronomer and Head of the Frankfurt Observatory.
    • With these texts, Epstein joined the ranks of German-Jewish intellectuals who attached great importance to the classical German educational ideal known as "Bildung".
    • On 30 January 1933, however, Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • On the Kristallnacht (so called because of the broken glass in the streets on the following morning), the 9-10 November 1938, 91 Jews were murdered, hundreds were seriously injured, and thousands were subjected to horrifying experiences.
    • Thousands of Jewish businesses were burnt down together with over 150 synagogues.
    • The Gestapo arrested 30,000 well-off Jews and a condition of their release was that they emigrate.
    • Emigration would probably have been impossible in any case with the outbreak of war only a few weeks away, and Hitler's so-called final solution to the Jewish problem following shortly thereafter.

  14. Feynman biography
    • Melville was born into a Jewish family in Minsk, Belarus, and emigrated with his parents to the United States when he was five years old.
    • Lucille Phillips was born in the United States into a Jewish family.
    • There was also the "problem" that he was a Jew, which really was a problem in the United States at this time with universities having quotas on the number of Jews they admitted.
    • Although it can never be proved, there seems no other reason that he would be turned down other than that he was Jewish.
    • He had one other thing going against him - namely that he was Jewish.
    • Is Feynman Jewish? We have no definite rule against Jews but have to keep their proportion in our department reasonably small because of the difficulty of placing them.

  15. Jacobson biography
    • It was a Jewish family, and Nathan was born in the Jewish ghetto of Warsaw.
    • The two boys began their elementary schooling in Warsaw where they encountered discrimination with Jewish children required to sit on special benches separated from Polish children.
    • In fact this was a particularly difficult period due to the depression, which affected everyone, and anti-Semitism which meant that the top research universities were not taking on staff from Jewish backgrounds.
    • This was made possible since discrimination against Jews lessened in the United States after the end of World War II [N Jacobson, Collected Mathematical Papers II (Boston-Basel-Berlin, 1989), 1-16.',6)">6]:- .
    • I accepted and became the first Jew to hold a tenured position in the mathematics department.
    • We have made a number of references to Jacobson's Jewish background in this article and there is one further episode we should mention which illustrates the tensions that resulted.
    • They argued over the Soviet Union's refusal to allow invited Jewish speakers to attend and lecture at conferences in the West.

  16. Wald biography
    • Abraham Wald was born into a Jewish family in Hungary.
    • It was a family of intellectuals but, being Jewish, they were forced to earn their living in trades well below their abilities.
    • At this time both primary and secondary schools in Hungary required pupils to attend on Saturdays and the Wald family could not allow their son to attend school on the Jewish Sabbath.
    • Wald was allowed to attend the University of Cluj but it appears that this was not made easy for him because he was Jewish.
    • Vienna in the 1930s was no place for a young Jewish man to obtain an academic position, no matter how talented.
    • An indication of the problems that Wald had in Vienna at this time because he was Jewish is indicated by the fate of Menger's seminar.
    • However, the seminar was forced to stop work in 1936 after it was criticised for its Jewish contributors, one of whom of course was Wald.
    • If life was difficult for a Jew in Vienna in 1936, they would soon become much worse.
    • For a Jewish person like Wald conditions under the Nazis were at best extremely difficult and at worst very dangerous.

  17. Krein biography
    • The fact that the family were Jewish meant that Krein grew up in an atmosphere of persecution.
    • This was also highly significant for Krein's subsequent career, for discrimination against Jews in the Ukraine was bad and, by misfortune for Krein, was particularly bad in Odessa where he lived from the age of 17.
    • [Krein] was accused of Jewish nationalism, presumably for having had too many Jewish students before the War.
    • He was not allowed to have Jewish students and was deprived of a university base.
    • Potapov, who had been one of Krein's non-Jewish students, tried hard to influence the university authorities to reverse their decisions.
    • Officially the reason given was that he did not live in Kiev, but in reality it seems more likely that the accusation of Jewish nationalism in his classified file was again the reason.
    • For example one of the Jewish student he ahd supervised before World War II was Livsic and he, like Krein, was not welcome back at Odessa University after the War.
    • After the years of discrimination on account of being Jewish it must have been particularly pleasing to receive this Prize from Israel.

  18. Libermann biography
    • Paulette Libermann was born into a Jewish family who were of Russian and Ukrainian origin.
    • It enacted laws to imitate those brought in by the Third Reich in Germany and, in particular, in October 1940 they passed a Statute excluding Jews from many occupations such as the armed forces, entertainment, arts, media, and professional jobs like the teaching profession.
    • This made it impossible for Libermann to take the examinations for her teaching certificate, but Eugenie Cotton was able to obtain scholarships for three Jewish students to study at the Ecole Sevres for a fourth session.
    • Eugenie Cotton was forced to retire in 1941, but Libermann, who was one of the three Jewish students supported by the scholarships, was able to spend session 1941-42 at Ecole Sevres beginning a research career advised by Elie Cartan.
    • By the spring of 1942 the conditions imposed on Jews by the Vichy Regime was becoming increasingly severe.
    • From February 1942 telephones and radios found in the homes of Jewish people had been confiscated and a curfew had been enforced on Jews.
    • Libermann, with her parents and two sisters, fled from Paris in June 1942 after the Vichy Regime required Jews to wear a yellow star.
    • He is thought to have been responsible for the deaths of 4000 Jews in Lyon during the two years he served there and, as a result of this and the fact that he personally tortured those captured, he is known as the "Butcher of Lyon".

  19. Freundlich biography
    • She was Jewish while Freundlich was not a practising Jew (though he had a Jewish grandmother), so the wedding was a civil one taking place in Herder House in Weimar.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • Having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan, so this affected Freundlich.
    • It would have been impossible for him to continue in Germany since his wife was Jewish and in addition his wife's sister had died early in 1933 and Freundlich and his wife had become the guardians of his sister-in-law's two young children Hans and Renate (who of course were also Jewish).

  20. Teichmuller biography
    • As background to this we note that Hitler had come to power on 30 January 1933 and on 7 April of that year the 'Law for the reorganisation of the Civil Service' was passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • My standpoint was, and continues to be, that an anti-Jewish individual action might rather be directed against everyone else than against you.
    • I am not concerned with making difficulties for you as a Jew, but only with protecting - above all - German students of the second semester from being taught differential and integral calculus by a teacher of a race quite foreign to them.
    • But since the latter depends very substantially on the racial composition of the individual, it follows that an Aryan student should not be allowed to be trained by a Jewish teacher.
    • A call for him to come here is in the offing; we cannot approve of it." His views remained the same over the years that he worked in the Gottingen department headed by Hasse, yet Teichmuller chose him as his supervisor and was influenced mathematically by him to work on algebraic problems (considered by some Nazis to be Jewish mathematics).
    • He was publishing papers in Bieberbach's journal Deutsche Mathematik which was set up as a racialist publication intended to promote 'German style mathematics' as opposed to 'Jewish style mathematics'.

  21. Rado Ferenc biography
    • Ferenc Rado was born into a Jewish family in Timişoara.
    • He attended Jewish primary and secondary school in the city, including the Jewish Lyceum.
    • To understand quite how this came about we need to look at the political situation that had been developing in Romania, particularly looking at how the small Jewish minority in Romania were treated.
    • The Jewish community, which formed 4.2 percent of Romania's population in 1930, was subject to discrimination, as anti-Semitism was widespread.
    • Despite the ups and downs of the Iron Guards, acts of violence against Jews were rare until the outbreak of World War II.
    • A Romanian alliance with Nazi Germany strengthened the hand of the anti-Semites and the country turned on its Jewish citizens.
    • He returned to his home city of Timişoara where he was appointed to teach mathematics at the Jewish Lyceum where he himself had been a student.

  22. Toeplitz biography
    • Otto Toeplitz came from a Jewish family which contained several teachers of mathematics.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • As a proud Jew he started working for the Jewish community from that time.
    • On a local level he united Jewish schoolchildren in Bonn and its vicinity bringing them to a Jewish school which he founded.

  23. Loewy biography
    • It was a Jewish family and Alfred was brought up in a strict orthodox manner.
    • Alfred was born two years after the unification of Germany, and with that came full emancipation of Jews.
    • Discrimination against Jewish families, especially those with an orthodox lifestyle, became widespread and Loewy would encountered increasing discrimination throughout his life.
    • Anti-Semites joined forces with nationalists in attempting to blame the Jews for Germany's defeat.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law was passed that provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.

  24. Levy Hyman biography
    • Hyman Levy was the third of eight children in the orthodox Jewish family.
    • reports that Jewish writers, artists and intellectuals had been tortured and killed and Jewish culture suppressed.
    • The persecution of Jewish intellectuals in Russia which he found in the investigation appalled Levy.
    • Rather than resign from the British Communist Party, Levy attacked the leadership of his own Party demanding to know whether they had been aware of the treatment of the Jews in Russia.
    • Later that year he published a book Jews and the National Question.
    • Levy had also suffered family problems because of his Jewish upbringing.

  25. Hellinger biography
    • Ernst Hellinger's parents were Emil and Julie Hellinger and the fact that the family was Jewish meant that he would have major problems after the Nazis came to power.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • On the Kristallnacht (so called because of the broken glass in the streets on the following morning), the 9-10 November 1938, 91 Jews were murdered, hundreds were seriously injured, and thousands were subjected to horrifying experiences.
    • Thousands of Jewish businesses were burnt down together with over 150 synagogues.
    • The Gestapo arrested 30,000 well-off Jews and a condition of their release was that they emigrate.

  26. Brodetsky biography
    • His parents were both Russian Jews and his father, tired of the harassment which the family were suffering in Russia, decided to move to London in 1893.
    • In 1894, when Selig was old enough to begin school, he attended the Jew's Free School in Whitechapel, London.
    • Already at Cambridge Brodetsky had established the pattern of dividing his time between academic work and public service, especially but by no means exclusively for the Jewish community and the Zionist movement.
    • In 1940 he became president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, the lay head of British Jewry.
    • London, and was buried in the Willesden Jewish cemetery, London, on 20 May 1954.

  27. Rogosinski biography
    • Werner was born in Breslau, at that time a German town, although his parents were from Jewish Polish families.
    • Life changed for all German people of Jewish background in 1933 when Hitler came to power.
    • On 1 April there was the so-called "boycott day" when Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish lecturers were not allowed to enter the university.
    • On 7 April 1933 the "Restoration of the Civil Service" Law was passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities and, of course, also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • Richard Brauer, being Jewish, was dismissed from his Konigsberg position.
    • He moved to Berlin and, during the year 1936-37, taught mathematics in Jewish schools there.

  28. Loewner biography
    • Charles was born into a Jewish family who lived in the village of Lany, about 30 km from Prague.
    • Although Jewish, and living near Prague, Sigmund was a lover of German culture and believed strongly in education, particularly German style education.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power in Germany and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law was passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • Of course this did not affect Loewner in Prague, but as he watched the suffering of his Jewish colleagues in Germany he began to become increasingly uneasy.
    • He did all he could to help the Jewish mathematicians who were dismissed from their posts in Germany.
    • Without being religious he strongly felt his Jewish identity.
    • He was a good storyteller, with a sense of humour which was at once Jewish and humanistic.

  29. Mendelsohn biography
    • Nathan was born into a modern Orthodox Jewish family at a time when there was considerable anti-Semitism in the United States.There was an upsurge of anti-Jewish feeling as part of a general wave of resentment of minority groups, especially in New York, around the time he was born.
    • He understood that, as a Jew, he would never get a permanent position.
    • Queen's already had a Jewish professor in the department.
    • he settled in Winnipeg, where the University of Manitoba welcomed any and all to build its fledgling math department, and where Prof Mendelsohn became deeply involved in the city's vibrant Jewish community.
    • He also made jewellery and wine.

  30. Behnke biography
    • There he met his future wife Aenne Albersheim who was the daughter of a Frankfurt-am-Main Jewish family.
    • Behnke was an Aryan so was certainly not affected by the Civil Service Law, passed on 7 April 1933, which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities.
    • However, Behnke's first wife had been Jewish, so his son was half Jewish.
    • Also in the following Nazi years I frequently played with the idea of leaving, until Jewish friends made it clear to me that positions abroad must be kept open for them.
    • In 1939 he became worried about his responsibilities, particularly in regard to Blumenthal who was also an editor and had been supported in this role by Hilbert despite pressure for his dismissal exerted by the National Socialists since Blumenthal was Jewish.
    • You have certainly already heard of the new measures against half-Jews.

  31. Warga biography
    • Jack Warga was born into a Jewish family in Warsaw, Poland.
    • His first language was Polish, not surprising one may say for someone born in Poland, but it is worth commenting that the majority of Jewish families spoke Yiddish at home and their children would have grown up with Yiddish as a first language.
    • He attended a Jewish school that taught Hebrew, Bible, and Jewish history in Hebrew but all the other subjects in Polish.
    • Although Poland, unlike Germany, never introduced anti-Jewish legislation, nevertheless in the 1930s anti-Semitism was rampant.
    • However, a Jewish boy was not particularly safe in Vichy France and, after a while, he escaped to Spain which was neutral but suffering badly under Franco's harsh rule.
    • I also sent him the memoirs of Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, a Polish writer and politician, a former prisoner of both Auschwitz and communist prisons, who was active in "Zegota" - a Polish underground organization helping Jews during the Holocaust.

  32. Rodrigues biography
    • Rather in 1807 Jews living in France were required to modify their family names and in the following year they were required to add a name of French origin.
    • The family were Jewish and wished to obey the directive yet not give Rodrigues the name of a Christian saint.
    • Rodrigues was born into a Jewish family which was almost certainly of Spanish origin (although some claim that the family were of Portuguese origin).
    • The Ecole Polytechnique was the most famous of the Paris universities and most historians suggest that Rodrigues could not attend it as he was a Jew.
    • However in [Mathematics and social utopias in France : Olinde Rodrigues and his times (American Mathematical Society, Providence RI, 2005).',2)">2] doubt is cast on this since there are records of a small number of Jews attending the Ecole.
    • Whatever Jewish mathematicians there were could not obtain teaching positions, and most of them abandoned the subject or used their mathematical abilities in applied work for private enterprises.

  33. Artin biography
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • Artin was not a Jew and was not affected by these laws.
    • However his wife was a Jew so when the 'New Official's Law' was passed in 1937 those related to Jews by marriage were affected.

  34. Hausdorff biography
    • Felix Hausdorff's father was Louis Hausdorff, who was a merchant dealing in textiles, and his mother was Hedwig Tietz; both were Jewish.
    • Charlotte and her sister Edith were from Jewish parents but had converted to Lutheranism.
    • As a Jew his position became more and more difficult.
    • Scarcely was she over the worst than there came the agitation about the intended internment of the Jews.
    • Now all Jews still living in Bonn will be compulsorily interned in this stolen building; they must either auction their things, or place them for preservation in "faithful" hands.
    • And what one hears concerning the accommodation and treatment of Jews there is completely unimaginable.
    • What has been done against the Jews in recent months arouses well-founded anxiety that we will no longer be allowed to experience a bearable situation.

  35. Pollaczek biography
    • It was a well-respected Jewish family with Alfred being a local councillor and an inspector on the Austrian railways.
    • However, when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he immediately announced legal actions against Germany's Jews.
    • This meant that all non-Aryans and Jewish civil servants were dismissed from their positions with the exception of those who either had fought in the Great War or had been in office since August 1914.
    • Pollaczek was one of 12,000 Jews in Brno who heard of the increasing anti-Semitic acts throughout Germany with Jewish businesses smashed in November.
    • Let us note here that the Pollaczeks did well in leaving Brno for less that 1,000 of the 12,000 Jews there survived the war.
    • Pollaczek and his wife, as Jews, were again in great danger and there was no way he could continue working for the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  36. Schiffer biography
    • Menahem Schiffer was born into a Jewish family in Berlin.
    • When Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he immediately announced legal actions against Germany's Jews.
    • This meant that all non-Aryans and Jewish civil servants were dismissed from their positions with the exception of those who either had fought in the Great War or had been in office since August 1914.
    • Nernst was forced to retire, von Laue showed great courage in speaking out against the Nazis and helping Jewish colleagues, while Schrodinger decided that he could not live in a country which persecuted Jews and he had left Germany before the end of 1933.
    • Schiffer was undertaking research advised by Issai Schur but, since both were Jewish, they suffered increasing difficulties.

  37. Ascoli biography
    • Guido Ascoli was born in Livorno into a Jewish family.
    • However, his university career, begun so late in life, was interrupted in July 1938 by the Manifesto della razza (Manifesto of Race) passed by the Fascist Italian Government against those of Jewish background.
    • This stripped Jews of Italian citizenship and banned them from positions in banking, government, and education.
    • Article 4 of the Royal Decree Law of 5 September 1938 was titled 'Measures for the defence of race in fascist schools' and, after Ascoli had been identified as Jewish by the University of Milan, he was expelled from the University.
    • There he scraped a living by giving private lessons and undertaking work from the Jewish community in Milan.
    • As for me, in October I was upset by being given a lot of work that I had never expected, to which was added in November, private tutoring of superior character that was offered to me by the Jewish Community in Milan and for which I went there three times a week, with much loss of time; my occupation for the rest of the time is not unpleasant and so I gave my consent to it from September.

  38. Robinson biography
    • It was a Jewish family and although Abraham Robinson senior was a Zionist he had never been to Palestine but he had accepted the position of head of the Hebrew National Library in Jerusalem just before he died.
    • Clearly the family had always been attracted to Jerusalem but the anti-Jewish legislation introduced into Germany in 1933 indicated very clearly that it was time to leave.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the schools and universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • Hedwig, Abraham and Saul Robinson avoided the problems that Jews would have in Germany from 1933 by starting a new life in Palestine.

  39. Von Neumann biography
    • Although the family were Jewish, Max Neumann did not observe the strict practices of that religion and the household seemed to mix Jewish and Christian traditions.
    • When Kun's government failed, the fact that it had been largely composed of Jews meant that Jewish people were blamed.
    • Hungary was not an easy country for those of Jewish descent for many reasons and there was a strict limit on the number of Jewish students who could enter the University of Budapest.

  40. Ledermann biography
    • Walter Ledermann was born in Berlin into a Jewish family.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • Ledermann was nearing the end of his studies for the Staatsexamen (which would allow him to teach) when Hitler came to power and began passing the anti-Jewish legislation.
    • It was quite clear to Ledermann that he had to leave Germany to escape the Nazi persecution of the Jews.

  41. Goldstein biography
    • Brodetsky, who was a Russian Jew, had two great passions in life, mathematics and working for the Jewish community and the Zionist movement.
    • Sydney had been requested by a friend to go to Waterloo Station to meet an arriving South African girl, Rosa Sass (also from a Jewish family), whom the friend was not himself free to meet on that day.
    • In 1940 the Goldsteins decided that, because of threats from the Nazis towards Jewish children, Rosa would move to the United States with David John and Ruth.
    • However in 1950, Goldstein who, as we have already noted, had strong Jewish beliefs, accepted a professorship in Applied Mathematics and the chairmanship of the department of Aeronautical Engineering at Technion in Haifa, Israel.
    • In the activity of his mind, mathematics and fluid dynamics ceased to play a significant part but his Jewish faith continued to burn brightly to the end.

  42. Kober biography
    • Hermann was born into a successful Jewish family, his father having made a fine reputation for himself.
    • When Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he immediately announced legal actions against Germany's Jews.
    • This meant that all non-Aryans and Jewish civil servants were dismissed from their positions with the exception of those who either had fought in the Great War or had been in office since August 1914.
    • Breslau had a large Jewish community with around 10,000 living in the city at the time Hitler came to power.
    • Kober should not have been affected by the "Restoration of the civil service" law since he had served in World War I, but the Nazis did not apply the letter of the law and most Jewish teachers were forced from their posts.
    • Kober was forced out of his teaching post in 1934 but he continued with his teaching career, now at a Jewish school in Breslau.

  43. Tarski biography
    • Alfred Tarski's father was Ignacy Teitelbaum, a Jewish shopkeeper and businessman who traded in wood.
    • There were a number of reasons for the name change and for the other major change to his life which he decided to make at the same time, namely to change his religion from the Jewish faith to become a Roman Catholic.
    • There is no doubt that Tarski was strongly influenced by these feelings and wished to be a Pole and not a Jew.
    • There was also the realisation that anti-Semitic views in the country made it almost impossible for a Jew to be appointed to a university post and Tarski, nearing the end of his doctoral studies, certainly wished to follow an academic career.
    • It is certainly reasonable to believe that changing one's name and religion would not allow Jews to escape from the discrimination which was widespread throughout Europe at this time.
    • It was extremely fortunate for him that he was not in Poland when the German armies attacked, for there is no doubt that despite the change of name and religion, he would still have qualified as a Jew as far at the Nazi regime were concerned.

  44. Roth biography
    • Leonard Roth's parents were Morris Roth (1875-1953) and Jane (Jenny) Davis (1876-1940); they were Jewish.
    • He had already become estranged from his sister Queenie, despite their hitherto very close relationship, when she married a non-Jew in 1929: Leonard sided with his mother.
    • At the Pittsburgh University's Memorial Service on 8 December 1968 for the Roths the University Jewish Chaplain gave several the readings from the Psalms and the Old Testament, the tribute was by the Head of the Mathematics Department and several pieces of music by J S Bach and Ernst Bloch were played.
    • This seems to confirm that Leonard had kept alive his feeling for his Jewish roots although those who knew him in the 1950s confirm that he was no longer active or observant in Judaism.
    • Marcella's Will specified bequests of jewellery, valuables and sums of money to relatives and friends in Italy (mostly in Florence), and likewise the residue of her estate to Dr Barnardo's and the Musicians' Benevolent Fund.

  45. Schur biography
    • Hirsch spoke of the events of 1 April 1933 when posters carried the message 'Germans defend yourselves against jewish atrocity propaganda : buy only at German shops':- .
    • That was the so-called 'Boycott Day', the day on which Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish professors and lecturers were not allowed to enter the university.
    • Schur saw himself as a German, not a Jew, and could not comprehend the persecution and humiliation he suffered under the Nazis.
    • I find it surprising that Jews are still members of academic commissions.

  46. Lakatos biography
    • Imre Lakatos was given the name Imre Lipschitz at birth, born into a Jewish family as his name clearly indicated.
    • Jews were compelled to wear a yellow star and their property was taken away.
    • To avoid the Nazi persecution of Jews he changed his name to Imre Molnar, and he survived while others of Jewish descent were deported to the gas chambers of German concentration camps.
    • More than 550,000 of Hungary's 750,000 Jews were killed by the Nazis during the war, including Imre's mother and grandmother who both died in Auschwitz.
    • Hungary was in grave financial trouble and getting a new collection of shirts was harder than changing one's name so he changed his name, not back to the Jewish Lipschitz but rather, in keeping with his political views, to the Hungarian working class name of Lakatos.

  47. Steinfeld biography
    • Otto Steinfeld was born into a Jewish family in Szarvas, a town Bekes county in south eastern Hungary.
    • He was not allowed, however, to continue his studies at university despite his achievement since this was prevented by anti-Jewish laws.
    • Before this event the Hungarian government had discriminated severely against its Jewish citizens, both economically and politically, but they had largely been spared the concentration camps of the Nazis.
    • After the German invasion, however, Dome Sztojay, a Nazi supporter, was installed as Hungarian prime minister and Hungarian Jews began to be deported to the gas chambers in concentration camps in Poland.
    • Steinfeld was called up for military service in 1944 but as a Jew he was considered an "unreliable person" and forced to work as a manual labourer in deplorable conditions.

  48. Schauder biography
    • Julius Schauder was born into a Jewish family.
    • She also came from a Jewish family although her grandfather had been expelled from the Jewish community on the grounds that he was an atheist.
    • In June 1941 the German army entered Lvov and a systematic extermination of Jews began.
    • One version states that he was betrayed to the Gestapo who then arrested him and, like many Jews, he was never seen again.
    • The second version of his death (thought by Forster the author of [Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).',1)">1] to be more likely) is the he was shot by the Gestapo in September 1943 in one of their regular searches for Jews.

  49. Hirsch biography
    • His father, Kurt Hirsch's grandfather, was Aron Simon Hirsch who was a Jew.
    • However, since a Jew was not allowed to hold a university chair, he was baptised a Christian and changed his name to August.
    • This meant that all non-Aryans and Jewish civil servants were dismissed from their positions with the exception of those who either had fought in the Great War or had been in office since August 1914.
    • Kurt's wife was Jewish and he had adopted the faith for her sake.
    • Having lost his job and seeing the way that the Nazis were treating German Jews, he had little choice but to leave for England (where he had distant relatives).

  50. Lukacs biography
    • Eugene Lukacs was born into a Jewish family.
    • All this was bad news for Lukacs, particularly since he was Jewish.
    • Lukacs left school teaching in 1933 and took up a position as an actuary at an insurance company, having E Helly, another of Jewish origin, amongst his colleagues in the insurance company.
    • Many Austrians, especially those of Jewish origin, went into exile and Lukacs and his wife decided that they had to take this route.
    • While at the University of Vienna, Lukacs had met Wald who was also a Hungarian Jew.

  51. Samelson biography
    • The Samelson family were Jewish but Siegfried, who was professor of pediatrics and director of the school health system in Strassburg, married Irmgard Engel who was also a paediatrician.
    • Irmgard was a Christian and not Jewish.
    • Hans Samelson was educated in Breslau but after the Nazis came to power in 1933 not only did his father lose his position in the university but all three boys, being half-Jewish, also began to have restrictions imposed on their education.
    • However, tragedy struck the family in this year of 1938 for on 9 November the Nazis launched attacks on synagogues, Jewish businesses and home of Jews across Germany.

  52. Cohn-Vossen biography
    • Stefan (or Stephan) Cohn-Vossen was born into a Jewish family - his father was Emmanuel Cohn-Vossen.
    • An anti-Semitic campaign led to increased support for the Nazis but Jews like Cohn-Vossen had increasing cause to fear the direction in which the country was moving.
    • This did not prevent the Nazi government taking full control and, on 7 April 1933, the Civil Service Law was passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.

  53. Sylvester biography
    • We should also mention at this point the fact that Sylvester was born into a Jewish family, and brought up in the Jewish faith, which would lead to difficulties later in his life which we describe below.
    • At this time it was necessary for a student to sign up to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England before graduating and Sylvester, being Jewish, naturally refused to take the necessary oath so could not graduate.
    • In fact it was legislation which allowed Roman Catholics to take degrees at Trinity College which also meant that Jews could graduate there.
    • He proposed marriage but she turned him down on the grounds that he was of the Jewish religion.

  54. Tietz biography
    • Willi Tietz had been born into a Jewish family but the family had converted to the Christian Evangelical Church.
    • Horst, like his cousin, attended the Jewish elementary school of Ehepaars Moosengel in Papenstrasse in the Eilbek district of Hamburg.
    • Tensions arose in the family because the Cornils side were Aryan and the Tietz side Jewish.
    • Although he had a Jewish background, he was allowed to enrol since his father had fought for Germany in World War I.
    • When they failed to keep up the high rent payments, the owner denounced the Tietz family as Jews to the Marburg Gestapo.

  55. Jitomirskaya biography
    • Svetlana Jitomirskaya was born into a Jewish family of mathematicians.
    • Moscow State University was notorious for its limiting anti-Jewish quotas.
    • Jewish applicants were subjected to extremely difficult questions during the oral exams to make sure that Jews did not comprise more than 1/2% of the student body.
    • I did not get to show a fraction of my skills at that oral exam since I was not subjected to that "Jewish" treatment (perhaps, due to my parents' connections).

  56. Geiringer biography
    • It was a Jewish family which would later have a significant effect on Hilda's life.
    • In this same year she married Felix Pollaczek who, like Geiringer, had been born in Vienna into a Jewish family but had studied in Berlin.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • For Geiringer who had been so discriminated against in Germany because of her Jewish background, to now be discriminated against because she was a woman must have been a difficult blow.

  57. Lichtenstein biography
    • Leon Lichtenstein was born into a Jewish family.
    • In that year he took on another editorial duty, in addition to that of executive editor of Mathematische Zeitschrift [ Transcending tradition: Jewish Mathematics in German-Speaking Academic Culture (Springer, New York, 2012).',1)">1]:- .
    • We quote the excellent summary of his contributions given in [ Transcending tradition: Jewish Mathematics in German-Speaking Academic Culture (Springer, New York, 2012).',1)">1]:- .
    • The events of 1933 were devastating for the Jewish Lichtenstein.
    • Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish professors and lecturers were not allowed to enter the university.

  58. Schmidt F-K biography
    • Also in 1933, F-K Schmidt succeeded Richard Courant as editor of Springer-Verlag's famous "Yellow Series" of mathematical monographs when Courant was dismissed because he was Jewish.
    • F-K Schmidt was a Roman Catholic, and not Jewish, but he was quickly out of favour with the Nazis when he refused to remove Richard Courant's name from the title page of the Springer series.
    • He also maintained contacts with his Jewish colleagues which displeased the Nazis.
    • Schmidt, he had said, still had close ties to Jewish emigrants, and he suggested that he, Suss himself, should go to the United States instead.
    • Suss explicitly characterised the 'Zentralblatt' as a foundation of "a group of Jewish mathematicians and their friends" and suggested that Schmidt's travel permission should be revoked and immediately because Schmidt intended to leave for the States the following week.
    • He suggested that Springer mention that he had been known to cooperate with Jewish mathematicians as late as the end of 1938, and that his journey to the United States in May 1939 had been heavily opposed.

  59. Brauer Alfred biography
    • The Brauers were a Jewish family and they would live through a period in German history when to be non-Aryan brought great hardships and suffering.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • The situation for those of Jewish background steadily deteriorated.
    • Jewish students lost the right to graduate from the universities in 1937.

  60. Krieger biography
    • Cecilia was born into a large Jewish family with her parents Moses and Sarah having three daughters and two sons.
    • The persecution of Jews made life extremely difficult for the Krieger family, and Cecilia's brother Samuel sponsored his mother and sisters to escape to Canada.
    • During World War II Krieger repaid the debt she felt she owed for her own salvation from persecution of Jews when she looked after a family of Jewish refugees who had fled to Canada from the Nazi horror.
    • She married Zygmund Dunaij, a Jewish survivor of the Nazi holocaust, in 1953.

  61. Selten biography
    • Reinhard Selten's father, Adolf Selten, was racially Jewish but had no religious affiliation.
    • The coming to power of the Nazi party in Germany in 1933 led to the passing of laws which prevented Jews from holding employment connected to the press, so Adolf Selten was forced to sell his business.
    • However given the moves made by the Nazis against the Jews beginning in 1933, they decided that they would have Reinhard baptised as a protestant [The Nobel Prizes 1994 (Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, 1995).',2)">2]:- .
    • Being baptised as a protestant did not save Selten from the severe problems of growing up in Nazi Germany with a Jewish father.
    • Being half-Jewish, Selten was denied an education beyond the age of 14 and had to take employment as an unskilled worker but this situation was short-lived since World War II was drawing to a close.

  62. Loria biography
    • The family was Jewish and well-off financially.
    • Jews were labelled unpatriotic and prevented from holding government positions or teaching posts.
    • Loria, in common with all Italian Jews, had to register with the authorities.
    • In 1939 a law was passed requiring all books by Jewish authors to be removed from shops.
    • Jews were faced with extermination, but the Waldenses saved Loria and his brother.
    • The Waldenses saved many Jews from extermination by the Nazis, hiding them in the valley of Torre Pellice; it was there that Loria and his brother were given a safe refuse.

  63. Trahtman biography
    • The Trahtman family were Jewish and so suffered greatly during this period.
    • Idel was killed in the Jewish genocide that took place during this period and several of his young grandchildren died from hunger and deprivation.
    • The Jewish Vilyatsery family had a tradition to alternate the names Abraham and Aaron.
    • Lev Shevrin was Trahtman's thesis advisor and, despite some deliberate obstacles put in his way due to his being Jewish, Trahtman was awarded his Ph.D.
    • His strong support of the Jewish cause meant that his life as an academic was severely hampered.

  64. Warschawski biography
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 1 April there was the so-called "boycott day" when Jewish shops were boycotted and Jewish lecturers were not allowed to enter their university.
    • On 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.

  65. Heisenberg biography
    • However this was the period when the Nazis wanted "German mathematics" to replace "Jewish mathematics" and "German physics" to replace "Jewish physics".
    • Relativity and quantum theory were classed as "Jewish" and as a consequence Heisenberg's appointment to Munich was blocked.
    • Although he was in no way Jewish, Heisenberg was subjected to frequent attacks in the press describing him to be of "Jewish style".

  66. Schonflies biography
    • The wealthy Jewish Schonflies family had a son Samuel Martin Schonflies who was about ten years older than Arthur.
    • However, Klein had great difficult with making the appointment due to the fact that Schonflies was Jewish.
    • However, Hurwitz was Jewish and Klein realised that he would not be able to get approval for two Jewish appointments.
    • - I must touch on it, as repugnant as the matter is to me, and knowing full well your justified sensitivity to this - the Jewish question.

  67. Birnbaum biography
    • His parents, Izak Birnbaum and Lina Nebenzahl, were Jewish but not particularly religious.
    • However, Birnbaum was Jewish and there was a strict quota which severely limited the number of Jewish students who could enrol.
    • Shortly after taking up the appointment in Seattle, he met Hilde Merzbach who was a German who had studied law but, being Jewish, had been forced to leave Germany and had joined other members of her family in Seattle.
    • They met since both were working to assist Jewish refugees coming from Europe.

  68. Klug biography
    • His parents were Miksa Klug and Hani Neufeld; the family was Jewish.
    • In August 1942, two years before Klug died, the following report appeared in the Hungarian Jewish Journal [Prof Dr Leopold Klug, Hungarian Jewish Journal (13 August 1942).',3)">3]:- .
    • The Council of the University of Kolozsvar (Cluj) accepted with thanks the gesture of patronage from the Jewish scientist.
    • Dr Leopold Klug, the new patron of a university foundation, was born in Gyongyos in 1854, as a child of a Jewish family; in 1891 he became a privatdocent in synthetic geometry at the University of Budapest, and in 1897 he became an extraordinary professor at the University of Kolozsvar (Cluj).

  69. Reichardt biography
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities.
    • The Civil Service Law did not affect Siegel who was an Aryan (to use the terminology of the time which Siegel hated) and, at this stage it did not affect some other teachers at Frankfurt, namely Paul Epstein, Ernst Hellinger or Max Dehn who, although Jewish, fell under a clause which exempted non-Aryans who had fought for Germany in World War I.
    • Schmidt had held a temporary post in Gottingen in 1933 and, in the same year succeeded Richard Courant as editor of Springer-Verlag's famous "Yellow Series" of mathematical monographs when Courant was dismissed because he was Jewish.
    • Schmidt was a Roman Catholic, and not Jewish, but he was quickly out of favour with the Nazis when he refused to remove Richard Courant's name from the title page of the Springer series.
    • He also maintained contacts with his Jewish colleagues which displeased the Nazis.

  70. Mahler biography
    • The Mahler family were Jewish and long established in the Prussian Rhineland.
    • run on strictly orthodox Jewish lines and we were also good German patriots.
    • At Frankfurt, supported financially by his parents and several members of the Krefeld Jewish community, he attended lectures by Max Dehn on topology, Ernst Hellinger on elliptic functions, Carl Siegel on calculus and Otto Szasz [Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society of London 39 (1994), 265-279.',2)">2]:- .
    • Mahler realised at once that, as he was Jewish, he had to leave Germany.
    • He spent 1934-36 in Groningen in the Netherlands supported by a fellowship from a Dutch Jewish group which van der Corput had arranged.

  71. Mises biography
    • On 30 January 1933, however, Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • Von Mises in one sense was not Jewish for he was a Roman Catholic by religion.
    • I have to advise you that the irrevocable prerequisite for any kind of employment or scholarship or suchlike is to make a statement on his word of honour that his four grandparents are Aryan and in particular are of non-Jewish descent.

  72. Heilbronn biography
    • Hans was born into a middle class Jewish-German family.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler had come to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law had been passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • Even when Hasse, the Head of Department in Bristol, wrote saying that he had partial support offered by the Jewish community around Bristol to support Heilbronn, the Academic Assistance Council could not make up the difference needed.

  73. Godel biography
    • It seems that he was thought to be Jewish, but in fact this was entirely wrong, although he did have many Jewish friends.
    • Others also mistook him for a Jew, and he was once attacked by a gang of youths, believing him to be a Jew, while out walking with his wife in Vienna.
    • Of course he was also convinced that he was in far too poor health to serve in the army, but if he could be mistaken for a Jew he might be mistaken for a healthy man.

  74. Estermann biography
    • Leo, who was born in Lithuania, was a Jewish businessman who worked in advertising and management.
    • Leo Estermann was a Zionist, a passionate believer in the formation of a state of Israel, and strongly opposed to the integration of Jews into the societies in which they lived.
    • Theodor's first schooling was in Hamburg where, from 1908, he attended the Talmud-Torah School, the oldest Jewish school in Hamburg founded in 1805.
    • Being a Jew, Estermann's brother Immanuel lost his position at the University of Hamburg in 1933 when the Nazi party came to power.

  75. Schmidt biography
    • With the Nazi rise to power in 1933 life became increasingly difficult for Schmidt's Jewish colleagues and Schur, von Mises and several others were forced out of their posts.
    • Hans Freudenthal, himself a Jew who had survived the Nazi years, spoke of Schmidt's difficulties through the 1930s (see for example [Mathematics in Berlin (Berlin, 1998), 97-104.
    • He had to carry through the resolutions against Jews but one of Bieberbach's assistants reported in 1938:- .
    • I think that Schmidt does not at all understand the Jewish question.

  76. Turan biography
    • The family were Jewish and so had to survive through exceedingly difficult times, suffering discrimination and then violent anti-Semitism.
    • However, this was far from the case since the severe discrimination against him because of his Jewish origins meant that he could not even obtain a post as a school teacher.
    • In March 1944 Hungary fully cooperated with Nazi aims and Jews were forced to wear a yellow star, robbed of their property, and forced into ghettos as in other Nazi-occupied areas.
    • Except for the Jews in the forced-labour camps, like Turan, others were sent to the gas chambers of German concentration camps.
    • It is estimated that 550,000 of Hungary's 750,000 Jews were killed during the war.

  77. Gould biography
    • In her Nueva lista, for example, Gould confirms the Jewish presence on the voyages of discovery.
    • Those of Jewish blood whom Gould assigns to the first voyage are de Torres and Rodrigo Sanchez de Segovia, while she notes that Maese Bernal (a doctor), Marco (a surgeon) and Alfonso de la Calle were on board during the fourth voyage.
    • Gould advises that, although direct evidence may be scarce, there must have been other Jewish and converso [Jews who had converted to Christianity] crew members.

  78. Levi Beppo biography
    • The family was Jewish and Beppo was the fourth of his parents' ten children.
    • Albina, like Levi, was Jewish; they had three children, Giulio, Laura and Emilia.
    • This law was totally anti-Semitic, removing Italian citizenship from Jews and banning them from jobs in education, government and banking.
    • Levi died in Rosario at the age of 86 and was buried in the Jewish cemetery there.

  79. Enriques biography
    • Federigo Enriques's parents were Giacomo Enriques and Matilde Coriat who were Jewish.
    • Since he was Jewish, he was affected by the Manifesto della razza (Manifesto of Race) enacted by Mussolini in July 1938.
    • This stripped Jews of Italian citizenship and banned them from positions in banking, government, and education.
    • He was forced into hiding during the war years but, from 1941, he was able to participate in the illegal school organised by Castelnuovo in Rome to give special courses to instruct Jewish students disadvantaged by anti-Semitic government policies.

  80. Scholz biography
    • In some ways the Nazi laws against the Jews helped Scholz establish Munster as an important centre for logic since the leading researchers in the other centres of Berlin and Gottingen were forced out.
    • He deeply opposed Hilbert's approach which he described as Jewish - the worst possible insult in Germany at this time.
    • This may seem surprising since Bieberbach led the Nazi mathematicians' attack on Jewish mathematics.
    • However, perhaps exactly for this reason he wanted to make sure that Hilbert was not considered "Jewish." Scholz wrote What does formalised study of the foundations of mathematics aim at? for publication in Deutsche Mathematik.

  81. Hasse biography
    • summarily dismissed all those who were Jewish ..
    • On the one hand, his relations with his teacher Hensel, who was unambiguously Jewish by Nazi standards, were extremely close, right up to Hensel's death in 1941 ..
    • One of his most important papers was a collaboration with Emmy Noether and Richard Brauer, both Jewish, published in 1932 in honour of Hensel's 70th birthday.
    • But one of Hasse's antecendents was a Jew and, therefore, membership was not granted.

  82. Landau biography
    • Edmund Landau's father Leopold Landau was a gynaecologist who was both a patriotic German and someone who was politically active in support of the Jewish cause.
    • He was brought up in the Jewish faith and, like his father, came to be a German nationalist with Zionist beliefs.
    • In 1932 he was visited by a friend Fritz Rathenau who told him that if the Nazis gained control they would build concentration camps in which to put Jews.
    • The Civil Service Law was passed on 7 April 1933 which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities.

  83. Noether Max biography
    • The family were Jewish so a little explanation is required as to why they had German names.
    • In 1809 the State of Baden made the Tolerance Edict which required Jews to adopt Germanic names.
    • It is worth noting at this point that the Nother iron-wholesaling business remained a family firm for exactly one hundred years, until the Nazis removed Jewish families from their own businesses in 1937.
    • He married Ida Amalia Kaufmann (born 1852, died 1915), the daughter of a wealthy Jewish merchant family from Cologne, on 28 August 1880.

  84. Rokhlin biography
    • Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin's parents, Abram Beniaminovich Rokhlin and Henrietta Emmanuilovna Levenson, both came from Jewish families.
    • As we noted at the beginning of this biography, Rokhlin was Jewish so in much greater danger from the violent anti-Semitism of the Nazis.
    • However, he was able to hide his Jewish origins but had to endure illness due to typhoid while he was moved from camp to camp in Poland and Belorussia.
    • Rokhlin was cleared in June, despite having to justify how he had hidden the fact that he was a Jew without committing treason.

  85. Freudenthal biography
    • Hans Freudenthal was born into a Jewish family, a fact which would have unfortunate consequences for him during World War II.
    • Being out of Germany had the advantage to Freudenthal that, when the Nazis came to power in 1933 and passed legislation to deprive Jews of their jobs, he could continue with his teaching and research in Amsterdam.
    • Now being of Jewish background became highly significant.
    • Indeed the circumstances were difficult and during this period of German occupation of that city, 70,000 Jewish inhabitants were deported, many going to their deaths in the concentration camps.

  86. Szekeres biography
    • George was born into a Jewish Hungarian family who owned a leather business.
    • These included Paul Erdős and Paul Turan, and also a Jewish student named Esther Klein, the daughter of Ignaz Klein.
    • After graduating with a degree in chemical engineering in 1933, Szekeres worked for six years as an analytical chemist in Budapest but conditions there became more and more difficult due to the persecution of Jews by the Nazis.
    • The family arrived in Australia in June 1948 and for the first three years they shared a flat with Marta Sved, a Jewish school friend of Esther who had trained as a mathematician and was by this time living with her husband and two children in Adelaide.

  87. Cohen Wim biography
    • It was a Jewish family and this meant that when the German armies invaded the Netherlands in May 1940, near the beginning of World War II, he was in severe difficulties.
    • The Netherlands was controlled by a military regime which persecuted Jews and by February 1941 Jews began to be sent to concentration camps.
    • The Dutch organised a strike to protest at this action, but its leaders were executed and a committee set up to identify and deport Jews more efficiently.
    • In order for her not to know that they were hiding a Jew, Wim had to hide in a hole between the floors in complete darkness, laying there motionless.

  88. Castelnuovo biography
    • There was a sudden decision to impose anti-Semitic laws in 1938 which condemned Jews as unpatriotic, excluded them from government posts and from state universities.
    • In 1938, like all Italian Jews, he suffered the humiliation of the racial laws which banned thousands of Jews from Italian society.
    • Castelnuovo, being a Jew, was forced into hiding during the years the Nazis were in power in Italy but he organised special courses to instruct Jewish students disadvantaged by anti-Semitic government policies.

  89. Lanczos biography
    • His family were of Jewish origins, his father being a lawyer.
    • Lanczos attended a Jewish elementary school where he learn several foreign languages, then he entered the local Gymnasium which was a Catholic school run by the Cistercians.
    • Lanczos received his doctorate in 1921 and, because of laws in Hungary against Jews, he went to Germany taking up a post at the University of Freiburg.
    • Returning to Germany he found that the political situation there becoming unacceptable for someone of Jewish origin and he returned to a Professorship at Purdue in 1932.

  90. Bers biography
    • Lipman Bers, always known as Lipa, was born into a Jewish family.
    • In 1938 Czechoslovakia became an impossible country for someone of Jewish background.
    • A devout Muslim must also care about human rights of the Bahai in Iran and of the small Jewish community in Syria, while a Jew devoted to Israel must also worry about the human rights of Palestinian Arabs.

  91. Good biography
    • In London he set up an antique jewellery shop.
    • He wrote the autobiography Visions and Jewels (London, 1952) under the name Moshe Oved and is described by his publisher as an:- .
    • author, actor, jeweller, Zionist [and] also the founder of the Ben Uri Gallery in London.
    • A memorial service was held on 19 April 2009 at the Blacksburg Jewish Community Center in Blacksburg, Virginia.

  92. Bergman biography
    • Stefan Bergman was born into a Jewish family in Czestochowa which, at the time of his birth, was in the Russian Empire.
    • At the end of the nineteenth century, about a quarter of the population of Czestochowa were Jewish.
    • This meant that all non-Aryans and Jewish civil servants were dismissed from their positions with the exception of those who either had fought in the Great War or had been in office since August 1914.
    • He went out of his way to help many young people begin their careers, and he made great efforts on behalf of Polish Jews during the Nazi terror.

  93. Feit biography
    • Feit's family were Jewish and this turn of events proved disasterous for them.
    • Krystalnacht was the night of 9 November 1938 when anti-Jewish violence, organised by the Nazis, broke out across the whole of Germany and Austria.
    • Synagogues were destroyed, and businesses owned by Jews were severely damaged.
    • After this all Jewish families understood the danger that they were in.

  94. Al-Samawal biography
    • Al-Samawal's father was Abul-Abbas Yahya al-Maghribi, a Jewish scholar of religion and literature.
    • He wrote a work Decisive refutation of the Christians and Jews which has survived.
    • Of course al-Samawal's father, being Jewish, would have found his son's conversion to Islam a painful experience and al-Samawal, not wishing to hurt his father, delayed his conversion for four years.
    • After this time al-Samawal wrote to his father setting out his reasons for changing his religion from the Jewish faith to Islam.

  95. Bernstein Felix biography
    • Felix Bernstein came from a Jewish family of academics who strongly influenced the direction which his interests took.
    • Hitler, as Chancellor of Germany, immediately announced legal action against Germany's Jews.
    • This meant that all non-Aryans and Jewish civil servants were dismissed from their positions with the exception of those who either had fought in the Great War or had been in office since August 1914.
    • The exemptions should have meant that Bernstein was unaffected but, like almost all Jewish academics, he was deprived of his chair in 1934.

  96. Kramers biography
    • Attempts were made to continue to run the country despite the German occupation but the University of Leiden was closed by the German occupational authorities in 1941, because students protested against the dismissal of their Jewish professors.
    • In October 1941 the Germans decreed that no Jews could be members of non-profit organisations.
    • Kramers then resigned from the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences in protest against the exclusion of Jews from the Academy.
    • In March 1943 Abraham Pais, who was Jewish, had gone into hiding in Amsterdam.

  97. Mikhlin biography
    • Solomon Grigoryevich Mikhlin was born in Kholmech, a Belorussian village, into a Jewish family of modest means: his real name was Zalman Girshevich Mikhlin, and he was the youngest of five children.
    • Frequently, ethnic Jews could not enter prestigious departments of universities to study for scientific degrees.
    • As a matter of fact, before and during World War II, as well as in the first decade after it, Mikhlin did not experience difficulties on the same scale as younger Jewish Soviet mathematicians did from the mid-1960s.
    • The communist regime did not resort to brutal mass homicide of Jews, but imposed on them a number of restrictions, making their life difficult.

  98. Segal biography
    • Irving Segal's parents, Aaron Segal and Fannie Weinstein, were Jewish.
    • At this time it is believed that Princeton had a quota for Jewish students although the university has always denied this.
    • Whatever the truth about the Jewish quota, it is certain that he faced difficulties because he was Jewish.

  99. Frohlich biography
    • The family were Jewish, and Albrecht was the youngest of three children.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • Albrecht joined a group of Jewish students with left wing views who openly opposed the Nazis.

  100. Potapov biography
    • When the war was over people of Jewish descent were victimised.
    • In particular Jewish lecturers at Odessa such as Krein and Livsic were dismissed from their posts.
    • Potapov was not Jewish but he wrote an article attacking the policy of dismissing Jewish lecturers:- .

  101. Polya biography
    • George Polya's parents were Anna Deutsch and Jakab Polya who were both Jewish.
    • What better way for Jakab Pollak to improve his chances of a university post than to change his name from a Jewish sounding one to one which sounded really Hungarian.
    • In fact although George's parents were Jewish, he was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church shortly after his birth.
    • How did this come about? Well Jakab, Anna, and their three children at the time, converted from the Jewish faith to the Roman Catholic faith in 1886, the year before George's birth.

  102. Courant biography
    • It was a Jewish family but there were tensions in it, particularly between Siegmund and his elder brother Jakob.
    • On 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.

  103. Seifert biography
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.
    • The two professors of mathematics, Heinrich Liebmann and Artur Rosenthal, at Heidelberg University were both Jewish and were dismissed under the Nazi laws.

  104. Landau Lev biography
    • Both Lyubov and David were Jewish and they fell in love [Physics Today 57 (2) (2004), 53-60.',81)">81]:- .
    • After doing war service in 1915-16, she worked as a teacher of natural sciences in the Baku Jewish High School.
    • A Jewish high school opened in Baku in September 1916 and the eight year old Lev began his schooling there.
    • The school was designed to teach Russian, Hebrew, and Biblical Studies to Jewish children but also taught a full range of other subjects.

  105. Golub biography
    • Both Nathan and Bernice were Jewish.
    • His day was somewhat different - he didn't work on Saturday, this was a Jewish bakery.
    • Golub's home was not in the Jewish area of Chicago, but he attended Haugan Elementary School which was in the Jewish area.

  106. Fejer biography
    • Lipot Fejer's mother was Viktoria Goldberger and his father was Samu (or Samuel) Weiss; the family was Jewish.
    • However, as a Jew he suffered after the Nazis came to power.
    • He had a prostate operation in the early 1940s after which he did little research and, as a Jew, was forced to retire in 1944.
    • Other Budapest Jews did meet death from a gunshot there by the riverbank.

  107. Moore Robert biography
    • He was pretty bigoted against women and Jews too, as many anecdotes attest.
    • Moore took quite some time, I am told, to adjust to working with a woman and with a Jew, but after he got used to it he treated them well.
    • (Moise was of mixed background, but as he bore the name of his Jewish grandfather he was a Jew in Moore's eyes.) .

  108. Witt biography
    • Emmy Noether, who was Jewish, was dismissed from her post by the Nazis but continued to give lectures in her home.
    • Emil Artin was not a Jew but his wife was a Jew so when the "New Official's Law" was passed by the Nazis in 1937 affecting those who were related to Jews by marriage he was forced from his post at the University of Hamburg.

  109. Konig Denes biography
    • From July 1941, Hungary handed many Jews over to the German forces.
    • Konig, however, although Jewish, was brought up a Christian and so was not in danger from this particular persecution of Hungarian Jews.
    • This government moved immediately against all Hungarian Jews, and suddenly Konig's protection through his Christianity vanished overnight.
    • A reign of terror was launched against the Jews of Budapest and, rather than suffer the horrors that faced him, Konig took his own life.

  110. Volterra biography
    • The family were of Jewish origins.
    • For refusing to sign another oath to Fascism he was removed from the Accademia dei Lincei in 1934 and removed from the Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere in 1938 because he was Jewish.
    • The Manifesto della razza (Manifesto of Race) enacted by Mussolini in July 1938 stripped Jews of Italian citizenship and banned them from positions in banking, government, and education.

  111. Levi-Civita biography
    • Tullio, born into a Jewish family, attended secondary school in Padua where he showed his outstanding abilities.
    • On 5 September 1938 the Racial Laws were passed which excluded all those of Jewish background from universities, schools, academies and other institutions.
    • As you maybe know, Jews have been completely expelled from Italian cultural life; in particular, I will not participate in the "Volta Congress" and will not be in Rome in September.

  112. Mandelbrojt biography
    • He was born into a Jewish family, with the two sides coming from Lithuania.
    • Under German occupation he was in great danger due to his Jewish background, for quickly French laws against the Jews were put in place.

  113. Weil biography
    • Andre Weil was born in Paris, the son of Jewish parents.
    • His mother Selma came from a family of Austrian Jews, while his father, Bernard Weil, was a medical doctor.
    • Weil was certainly in great danger at this time, partly because he was Jewish, partly because he had a sister Simone Weil who was a mystic philosopher and a leading figure in the French Resistance.

  114. Hay biography
    • The reader may well ask at this point - who is Louise Szmir? Is this not a biography of Louise Schmir Hay? Szmir is not a misprint, rather Szmir was the Polish-Jewish family name which she got through her father who had emigrated to France from Poland between the wars.
    • Louise's mother was also a Polish Jew who had left Poland to live in France.
    • Being Jewish, they had to avoid being captured by the Nazis who would have sent them to a concentration camp, and almost certain death.

  115. Perelman biography
    • They were Jewish, which would present their son with some problems in a country where it was feared that those of Jewish descent had divided loyalty.
    • However, under Ivan Vinogradov's leadership the Steklov Mathematics Institute had accepted no Jews and, although it now had a new director, the old policies persisted.

  116. Lowenheim biography
    • When Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he immediately announced legal actions against Germany's Jews.
    • This meant that all non-Aryans and Jewish civil servants were dismissed from their positions with the exception of those who either had fought in the Great War or had been in office since August 1914.
    • The definition of non-Aryan included those with one grandparent of the Jewish religion and this was precisely the position that Lowenheim was in.

  117. Reinher biography
    • An innovation for this period was his introduction to the Jewish calendar knowledge, based on this knowledge he analyzed the mistakes of the previous calculation of the lunar year and he described in detail the steps for a correct approach.
    • By comparing the tables of Reinher with his own New Tables for the Reduction of Jewish Dates, Van Wijk found a deviation of 6 hours, but he said approvingly [12]:- .
    • It not only possesses irresistible charm, which is for all time the nature of a well-planned and well written scientific treatise, rather it is the first work about calendar knowledge that uses modern figures and it is the first Western source, which gives information about the modern computus of the Jews.

  118. Walfisz biography
    • Arnold Walfisz's father was Zelman Walfisz; the family were of Jewish origins.
    • As a Jew he was discriminated against within his own country of Poland, and as a Pole, he was discriminated against in Germany.
    • Border disputes with Germany and the USSR increased the instability and the Nazis looked ever more threatening to their neighbours and to all those of Jewish descent.

  119. Helly biography
    • Eduard Helly came from a Jewish family in Vienna.
    • partly because Helly was Jewish and also because Hahn thought a younger person should be preferred.
    • Helly was dismissed from his post because he was a Jew.

  120. Levin biography
    • Krein was accused of favouring Jews, and it was claimed that he had too many Jewish students before the War.
    • Vladimir Petrovich Potapov, who had been one of the non-Jewish students in the functional analysis group and had become a Ph.D.

  121. Guldin biography
    • Although of Jewish descent, his parents were Protestants and they brought Guldin up in that faith.
    • At this point he changed his name from Habakkuk (a Jewish name coming from one of the twelve minor Prophets) to Paul since he saw Paul as the Jew who took Christianity to the Gentiles.

  122. Lax Peter biography
    • Peter Lax was born into a Jewish family in Budapest.
    • Anti-Semitism was already widespread in Hungary but closer ties with the extreme anti-Semitic Nazis made the situation much worse for Hungarian Jews like the Lax family.
    • Jewish Laws were passed, partly to please Hitler, and Hungary seemed to be achieving its territorial objectives with the Vienna Awards of 1938 and 1940 which returned some of its lands.

  123. Aronhold biography
    • The Aronhold family were Jewish, and when Siegfried Aronhold matriculated at university he gave his religion as Jewish.
    • This was not his only problem, however, for he was well aware that as a Jew his prospects of a normal academic career were limited.

  124. Zariski biography
    • Oscar, born into this Jewish family, was named Ascher Zaritsky by his parents.
    • The Fascist hatred of Jews made life for Zariski, because of his Jewish background, particularly difficult.

  125. Borok biography
    • His genealogy can be traced back to Vilna Gaon (the leading scholar and sage of Lithuanian Jews in the eighteenth century).
    • Yet, a Jewish woman at such a high position in the government, Bella could not possibly have been spared of the repressions of late 1930s.
    • However, this was not so for several of her students, including some of the very best ones, who were denied entrance to the graduate school because of their Jewish nationality.

  126. Lefschetz biography
    • Solomon Lefschetz was a Russian born, Jewish mathematician who was the main source of the algebraic aspects of topology.
    • He was one of the first Jews on the faculty, loud, rude, and badly dressed to boot.
    • He was sometimes accused of caving in to anti-Semitism for refusing to admit many Jewish students (his rationale being that nobody would hire them when they completed their degrees), but no one denies that he had brilliant snap judgement.

  127. Rudin Walter biography
    • The family was Jewish, but they were not religious people.
    • The 1930s were difficult times for those of Jewish descent in Vienna with anti-Semitic attacks becoming more frequent.
    • By the following day Jews were being harassed in Vienna, their homes and shops being attacked.

  128. Bauer Mihaly biography
    • Mihaly Bauer was from a Jewish Hungarian family and, as we shall see below, he suffered from anti-Semitism throughout most of his life.
    • He started being insulted because of his [Jewish] origin, which for the moment meant the aggressive disturbance of his lectures by some of his students at the Technical University.
    • Immediately he moved his forces against the Hungarian Jews and Bauer was sent to Tattersaal camp.

  129. Ratner biography
    • The family was Jewish.
    • Those were dreadful years for Soviet Jews.
    • This produced a short period when Moscow State University accepted Jewish students on an equal basis and Ratner was invited to take an oral entrance examination [Mathematicians: An outer view of an inner world (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2009).',1)">1]:- .

  130. Siegel biography
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities.
    • This did not affect Siegel who was an Aryan (to use the terminology of the time which Siegel hated) and, at this stage it did not affect Epstein, Hellinger or Dehn who, although Jewish, fell under a clause which exempted non-Aryans who had fought for Germany in World War I.
    • He returned to Frankfurt to find that the problems of his Jewish colleagues had become much worse.

  131. Peierls biography
    • The family were ethnically Jewish but did not practice the Jewish religion.
    • When Rudolf was fourteen years old his mother died of Hodgkin's disease, and his father married Else Hermann (who was not Jewish) soon after.

  132. Levinson biography
    • Norman Levinson's family were very poor Russian Jewish immigrants to the United States.
    • As Levinson undertook his research at Princeton he felt that he had little prospects of gaining a university job, partly because of the high unemployment, but also because anti-Semitism in the United States at this time meant that Jewish mathematicians found it much harder than others to get posts.
    • There was no shortage of high quality Jewish mathematicians, too, since by 1937 many such people were fleeing from Germany and surrounding countries and emigrating to the United States.

  133. Schneider biography
    • Schneider was not Jewish but he was closely associated with his teachers Dehn, Epstein, Hellinger and Szasz who were all Jewish.
    • His closest association was with Carl Siegel who, although not Jewish, made no secret of his anti-Nazi views and this was perhaps the most damaging of all Schneider's difficulties with the Nazis.

  134. Severi biography
    • Although the Fascists had not been anti-Semitic at the beginning of the movement, they enacted the Manifesto della razza (Manifesto of Race) in July 1938 which forced those of Jewish origins out of the universities.
    • Although Severi would later say that he was appalled to see his Jewish colleagues dismissed, there is considerable evidence that he was leading the call for their dismissal.
    • From this period until Rome was liberated by the Allies in 1944, Severi was the leading Italian mathematician filling leading positions left vacant as his Jewish colleagues were dismissed.

  135. Davis biography
    • Both were Jewish and had known each other in Łodź before emigrating to the United States.
    • 55 (5) (2008), 560-571.',7)">7] about a "very heavy culture clash" which made Princeton a difficult environment for a boy from a working class Jewish family brought up in the Bronx.
    • He then spent the year 1959-60 as a Research Scientist and Associate Professor of Mathematics at New York University, following which he spent the years 1960-65 at Yeshiva University, a Jewish university in New York.

  136. Rado Richard biography
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • Rado's family were Jewish so the Civil Service Law made it impossible for him to become a university lecturer in Germany.

  137. Dynkin biography
    • Evgenii Dynkin was born into a family of Jewish origins at a time when Russia was suffering extreme unrest and repression.
    • Being of Jewish origin and the son of a 'people's enemy' should have prevented Dynkin from succeeding in the system.
    • Every step in my professional career was difficult because the fate of my father, in combination with my Jewish origin, made me permanently undesirable for the party authorities at the university.

  138. Hadamard biography
    • Amedee Hadamard, who was of a Jewish background, was a teacher who taught several subjects such as classics, grammar, history and geography while Jacques' mother taught piano giving private lessons in their home.
    • In June of that year he married Louise-Anna Trenel who was, like Hadamard, of a Jewish background.
    • Born into a Jewish family, Dreyfus embarked on a military career.

  139. Padoa biography
    • The family was Jewish and Alessandro was brought up in the Jewish faith.
    • He was active in the Jewish community of Genoa and followed closely the events of the Zionist movement.

  140. Gompertz biography
    • He was one of three sons born in England to a Dutch family which, although from Holland, was Jewish.
    • He had to take this route because he was denied admission to universities since he was Jewish.
    • On 10 October 1810 Gompertz married Abigail Montefiore, who came from a wealthy Jewish family with strong links with the stock exchange, at the Hambro Synagogue, London.

  141. Kubilius biography
    • At the beginning of the Nazi occupation, all Jewish professors and students were dismissed from the University by order of the occupiers.
    • Jewish professors and the majority of the Jewish students were shot dead or tortured to death in concentration camps.

  142. Segre Beniamino biography
    • The Fascist Italian Government passed laws against those of Jewish background.
    • Article 4 of the Royal Decree Law of 5 September 1938 was titled 'Measures for the defence of race in fascist schools' and, after Segre had been identified as Jewish by the University of Bologna, he was expelled from the University on 16 October 1938.
    • By this time he, along with Tullio Levi-Civita, were managing the journal Annali di Matematica and, also in October 1938, both were relieved of their positions (Levi-Civita was also Jewish).

  143. John biography
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler had come to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law had been passed which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.

  144. Hurewicz biography
    • The family was Jewish.
    • To me he was an idol, a Jew from Poland who became a prominent world mathematician in a field I was in love with: an ideal to admire and to follow.
    • This route via the Philippines was a common one for Jews fleeing Nazi persecution.

  145. Schwartz biography
    • Laurent Schwartz came from a Jewish background.
    • Although Anselme was brought up in the Jewish faith, he became an atheist and brought his children up as atheists.
    • During the war his political activities, Trotskyist beliefs and Jewish background put him in all manner of delicate situations.

  146. Gruenberg biography
    • Karl Gruenberg was born into a Jewish family in Vienna.
    • While he was still a young child his parents separated and the young boy was brought up in a country which became increasingly hostile to those of Jewish origin.
    • Many Austrians of Jewish origin, seeing what was happening, tried to leave the country.

  147. Weyl biography
    • Helene, who came from a Jewish background, was a philosopher who was working as a translator of Spanish.
    • His wife, Helene Joseph, from a Jewish background, was a philosopher and literateuse.
    • One also has to understand that Weyl's wife was Jewish, and this must have played a major role in their decision to leave Germany in 1933.

  148. Reichenbach biography
    • Both Bruno and Selma Reichenbach were members of the Reformed Church but Bruno's parents were Jewish.
    • Although this Jewish connection would seem a small point to bring out, nevertheless for someone living in Germany through the first half of the 20th century it would be highly significant.
    • Not only did he have Jewish grandparents, but he had a high profile through his radio broadcasts and his views were completely at odds with those of National Socialism.

  149. Wilf biography
    • Herbert Wilf's parents, Alexander and Bertha Wilf, were Jewish.
    • Alexander Wilf, known as Alex, had right-wing Zionist views and was a passionate supporter of the idea of creating a Jewish state in the middle east.
    • He founded the local branch of the Committee for a Jewish Army in 1941.

  150. Divinsky biography
    • Nathan Divinsky, who was widely known as 'Tuzie', was the son of Jewish Russian immigrants to Canada.
    • Further chess books followed: The Batsford Chess Encyclopedia (1990); Lifemaps of the Great Chess Masters (1994); (with Felix Berkovich) Jewish Chess Masters on Stamps (2000); and (with Raymond Keene and Jeff Sonas) Who Was The Strongest - Warriors of The Mind II (2002).
    • He was proud of his Jewish heritage and was a "life master" in all aspects of his existence: as a mathematics professor at UCB, a bridge and chess master, elected official on Vancouver City Council, host of mathematics quizzes on the Discovery Channel, and as a pianist.

  151. Jacobi biography
    • Carl Jacobi came from a Jewish family but he was given the French style name Jacques Simon at birth.
    • Of course, one might have expected him to have problems obtaining a teaching position since, as we noted at the beginning of this article, he was Jewish.
    • Around 1825 Jacobi changed from the Jewish faith to become a Christian which now made university teaching possible for him.

  152. Gohberg biography
    • Israel Gohberg came from a Jewish family.
    • In [The Gohberg anniversary collection I (Basel-Boston, MA, 1989), 17-57.',2)">2] Gohberg describes some of the difficulties encountered by Jews in the Soviet academic world, particularly those he suffered from 1968.
    • In [The Gohberg anniversary collection I (Basel-Boston, MA, 1989), 17-57.',2)">2] he points out that there were no Jews in the Mathematics section of the USSR Academy of Sciences between 1968 and 1984.

  153. Pick biography
    • Georg Pick was born into a Jewish family.
    • The Nazis set up a camp at Theresienstadt in Nordboehmen on 24 November 1941 to house elderly, privileged, and famous Jews.
    • Of around 144,000 Jews sent to Theresienstadt about a quarter died there and around 60% were sent on to Auschwitz or other death camps.

  154. Rothblum biography
    • His parents were Austrian Jews who were living in Vienna in the 1930s.
    • The Zionists continued to exist after the creation of the state of Israel, however, and the Rothblum family were involved with them, by that time working to assist Jews who were persecuted in their own countries to emigrate to Israel.
    • He was advised by Robert John Aumann who was born into a Jewish family in Germany that had fled to the United States after the Nazis came to power.

  155. Bernstein Sergi biography
    • The family was Jewish, and Natan Bernstein had been an editor of the Odessa magazine Zion: Organ of Russian Jews which had only been published for a year around 1861 before being closed down.
    • It is worth noting that the magazine championed emancipation and assimilation of Jews into Russian society.

  156. Drinfeld biography
    • Vladimir Drinfeld was born into a Jewish mathematical family.
    • Certainly his Jewish origins meant that he suffered from anti-Semitism, but officially the Soviet Union operated a policy that people had their addresses in their passports and were only allowed to work in the town which appeared in this address.

  157. Ehrenfest biography
    • Paul Ehrenfest's father, Sigmund Ehrenfest, came from a poor Jewish family.
    • He was working in a weaving mill in the Jewish village of Loschwitz in Moravia when he married Johanna Jellinek.

  158. Renyi biography
    • Both of Alfred's parents were Jewish, a fact which, sadly, was highly significant for those living in Hungary through this period of anti-Semitic fervour.
    • He graduated from the Gymnasium in 1939 as the best student in his year but, because of his Jewish parents, he was unable to study at Budapest University due to the racial laws imposed by the Hungarian state.

  159. Hayman biography
    • In 1933, Kurt Martin Hahn, Gertrud's niece, was forced to leave Germany because he was Jewish and he went to Scotland where in the following year he founded the internationally famous Gordonstoun School near Elgin in the north east of Scotland.
    • However, being Jewish, he was forced to retire from his chair in September 1935 by the Nazi government.

  160. Faedo biography
    • Federigo Enriques was Jewish, so he was forced to resign from teaching later that year.
    • The fact that he was covering for Jewish mathematicians who had been dismissed was an embarrassment to Tonelli.

  161. Schwarzschild biography
    • The family was Jewish, with Karl's father being a well-off member of the business community in Frankfurt.
    • He attended a Jewish primary school in Frankfurt up to the age of eleven, then he entered the Gymnasium there.

  162. Furstenberg biography
    • He was born into a Jewish family living in Germany shortly after Hitler had come to power and his Nazi party had passed anti-Semitic legislation.
    • Problems for Jewish people became increasingly difficult over the first few years of Hillel's life and, in 1939, shortly before the start of World War II in the autumn of that year, the Furstenberg family emigrated to the United States.

  163. Browder William biography
    • Since she was Jewish, being admitted to university had not proved easy and it was difficult for anyone Jewish to practice law in Russia.

  164. Al-Tusi Sharaf biography
    • Al-Tusi must have taught in Aleppo for at least three years, and it is interesting that there he taught an important member of the Jewish community of that city.
    • Aleppo contained both a Jewish and Muslim community and around 50 years earlier it had played a major part in the Muslim resistance to the crusaders, who had unsuccessfully besieged the city.

  165. Brauer biography
    • Brauer was from a Jewish family so was dismissed from his post under the Nazi legislation which removed all Jewish university teachers from their posts.

  166. Bloch biography
    • Andre Bloch's parents were of Alsatian and Jewish origin.
    • Since Bloch was Jewish, he realised that he was in danger when France was occupied by Germany during World War II.

  167. Doetsch biography
    • Doetsch had collaborated with a number of Jewish mathematicians; his doctoral supervisor was Edmund Landau and his collaborator on the Laplace transform was Felix Bernstein, both Jewish mathematicians.

  168. Stark biography
    • About 30% of the inhabitants of Warsaw were Jewish and, after the Germans took control of the city, they constructed a ghetto in the Jewish district where this 30% were forced to live in an area of less than 3% of the city.

  169. Black biography
    • They were Jewish and as a consequence suffered from the anti-Semitism which was widespread at this time in Azerbaijan.
    • This meant that despite his Jewish-Russian background he grew up assimilating English culture, something which showed through in his later philosophical writings.

  170. Naimark biography
    • Mark Aronovich was brought up by his Jewish parents Aron Iakovlevich and Zefir Moiseevna in Odessa where he showed an outstanding talent for mathematics while at school.
    • During these years he was the only Jewish mathematician employed at the Institute out of a staff of around 140.

  171. Pless biography
    • Her parents were Jewish Russians who had emigrated to the United States and were keen to make sure that their daughter had all the educational benefits that the United States had to offer.
    • She was brought up in a Jewish area on the west side of Chicago and her parents pushed her to gain educational qualifications as rapidly as possible.

  172. Shatunovsky biography
    • Samuil Osipovich Shatunovsky was born into a large Jewish family in Velyka Znamianka, a town on the south bank of the Dnieper River about 50 km south west of Zaporozhye.
    • He completed his secondary education at a school in Kherson, a city with a large Jewish community on the Dnieper River near where it empties into the Black Sea.

  173. Lasker biography
    • Emanuel Lasker was born in the Prussian province of Brandenburg into a Jewish family.
    • In 1933, being Jewish, Lasker was forced to emigrate and went to England where he lived until 1935.

  174. Lusztig biography
    • He was born into a Jewish family and brought up in Timişoara, a city in Romania where Hungarian and Romanian are both spoken.
    • I'm not religious but being Jewish played a role in my choice of mathematics, which seemed beyond the reach of politics, as well as the fact that it was an area where I had the best possible chance to be judged objectively.

  175. Salem biography
    • Raphael Salem was born in Saloniki, (now in Greece) to Jewish parents of Spanish origin.
    • Raphael was brought up in a truly international atmosphere for he lived in the Ottoman Empire, in a Jewish family who followed the Spanish traditions of their ancestors but spoke Italian and French at home.

  176. Petersson biography
    • Petersson was an Aryan so was not affected by the Civil Service Law, passed on 7 April 1933, which provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities.
    • However Petersson married Margarete Ehlers on 30 September 1933 and his wife had a Jewish grandparent on her mother's side.

  177. Straus biography
    • It was a Jewish family with Elias being a major figure in the Zionist movement in Germany at the time.
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power in Germany and it was immediately clear that those of Jewish origin would suffer.

  178. Noether Emmy biography
    • Both Emmy's parents were of Jewish origin and Emmy was the eldest of their four children, the three younger children being boys.
    • In 1933 her mathematical achievements counted for nothing when the Nazis caused her dismissal from the University of Gottingen because she was Jewish.

  179. Bellman biography
    • Both sides of the family came from Jewish descent, with both John Bellman's father having emigrated from Russia and Pearl Saffian's father having emigrated from Poland.
    • Despite the Jewish descent, the family that Richard was born into were agnostics.

  180. Neumann Hanna biography
    • She had started a special friendship with Bernhard Neumann in January 1933, but in April, after Hitler came to power, he realised that since he was Jewish he had to leave the country which he did in August 1933.
    • Hanna was strongly opposed to the Nazis and was a member of a group of students who tried to protect their Jewish lecturers.

  181. Hopf biography
    • Wilhelm Hopf was from a Jewish family.
    • After the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, Hopf's father, being Jewish, came under increasing pressure.

  182. Bondi biography
    • I grew up in Vienna in a non-believing Jewish family.
    • But whereas my father liked the forms of the Jewish religion as a social cement (and indeed we kept the household such that we could entertain our numerous Orthodox relatives), I acquired from my mother an intense dislike of the narrowness and exclusivity of the religion.

  183. Kronecker biography
    • The families were Jewish, the religion that Kronecker kept until a year before his death when he became a convert to Christianity.
    • Despite his Jewish upbringing, Kronecker was given Evangelical religious instruction at the Gymnasium which certainly shows that his parents were openminded on religious matters.

  184. Piatetski-Shapiro biography
    • Both were Jewish, from cities which had originally been Polish, and had been well-off until the 1917 Revolution.
    • Clearly this was a decision based on the fact that he was Jewish rather than on any academic grounds.

  185. Lavanha biography
    • Joao Baptista Lavanha was born into a Jewish family.
    • In 1609, Lavanha joined the Order of Christ which, given his Jewish origins, caused some criticism.

  186. Bohr Niels biography
    • Late in the same year he married Ellen, who was the daughter of David Adler, a Jewish politician with a high standing in Danish political and commercial life.
    • Bohr, although he had been christened in the Christian Church, had Jewish origins on his mother's side and so, when the Nazis occupied Denmark in 1940, his life became exceeding difficult.

  187. Kac biography
    • Mark Kac was born into a Jewish family in a Russian part of Poland.
    • This was a difficult period, however, since there was a large number of refugees from Germany, particularly people of Jewish descent, who wanted to make a new life in Britain or the United States.

  188. Janovskaja biography
    • She was born into a Jewish family living in Pruzhany, a village near Grodno, which at that time was in Poland but is now named Kobrin in Belarus.
    • The census of 1897, taken shortly after her birth, shows Pruzhany with a population of 7,634, of whom about 60 per cent were Jewish.

  189. Browder Felix biography
    • Since she was Jewish, being admitted to university had not proved easy and it was difficult for anyone Jewish to practice law in Russia.

  190. Povzner biography
    • Aleksandr Yakovlevich Povzner was born into a Jewish family in Poltava, in central Ukraine.
    • At this time Poltava had a large Jewish community of which the Povzner family were a part.

  191. Savage biography
    • Leonard Jimmie Savage's parents, Louis Ogashevitz and Mae Rugawitz, were Jewish; Jimmie was the first of their four children.
    • Central High was a very academic-oriented public high school with mostly Jewish students.

  192. Blum biography
    • Lenore's parents were Irving and Rose and, in addition to a sister Harriet who was two years younger than Lenore, she was part of an extended Jewish family with several aunts and uncles.
    • While in Caracas, she met Manuel Blum, who was also from a Jewish family.

  193. Zippin biography
    • Bella and Max were Jewish and they had lived in the city of Chernigov, situated in northern Ukraine around 140 km north of Kiev.
    • Once settled in New York, Max wrote plays for the Yiddish theatre (not successfully since none was ever performed) and he wrote for the Jewish Daily Forward:- .

  194. Ehresmann biography
    • Having left the leading centre of Gottingen, he had gone to the place which in many ways would replace it as the leading mathematical centre as the Jewish mathematicians left Germany after the Nazis passed their anti-Jewish legislation in 1933.

  195. Sperner biography
    • He was a member of the board which, in 1938, wrote to Jewish members asking them to resign.
    • He write to the other three members of the board (Helmut Hasse, Conrad Muller and Wilhelm Suss) on 28 March 1939 listing all remaining Jewish mathematicians who were still being sent reports of meetings of the DMV.

  196. Fubini biography
    • All had seemed well and, despite the problems suffered by Jewish people in Germany from 1933, it seemed as though Italy would not follow that route.
    • A series of decrees removed Jews from positions of influence in government, banking and education.

  197. Saks biography
    • Stanislaw Saks was born into a Jewish family, his parents being Philip Saks and Ann Labedz Saks.
    • In June 1941 the German army entered Lvov and a systematic extermination of Jews began.

  198. Raphson biography
    • The Cabala was a Jewish mysticism which was influential from the 12th century on.
    • The doctrines included the withdrawal of the divine light, thereby creating primordial space, the sinking of luminous particles into matter and a "cosmic restoration" that is achieved by Jews through living a mystical life.

  199. Wiener Norbert biography
    • Norbert Wiener's father was Leo Wiener who was a Russian Jew.
    • Bertha, from a German Jewish family, was [Bull.

  200. Born biography
    • Max Born was born into a Jewish family.
    • However, as a Jew, Born was forced to flee Germany in 1933 and, after a short while in the north of Italy, he accepted an offer to became Stokes lecturer at Cambridge [3]:- .

  201. Berwald biography
    • The family were Jewish with Max coming from East Prussia and his wife being a native of Prague.
    • The Berwalds were deported to the Ghetto in Łodź, Poland, by order of the German Secret Police as part of the third transportation of Jews [Scripta Math.

  202. Einstein biography
    • In 1920 Einstein's lectures in Berlin were disrupted by demonstrations which, although officially denied, were almost certainly anti-Jewish.
    • a German national with or without swastika instead of a Jew with liberal international convictions..

  203. Alexiewicz biography
    • For example, Auerbach was Jewish and murdered by the Nazis in 1942.
    • Many people worked there, including many academics, Jews, and people in the Polish underground.

  204. Joachimsthal biography
    • The family was Jewish.
    • Joachimsthal also habilitated at the University of Berlin on 13 August 1845, becoming the first Jew to habilitate there.

  205. Pincherle biography
    • Salvatore Pincherle was born in Trieste (part of Austria at the time) into a Jewish family.
    • Pincherle was one of the signatories of the Manifesto but he died before the Fascist regime published its "Manifesto of Race" in 1938 which dismissed Jews from university positions.

  206. Hoeffding biography
    • Hitler, as Chancellor of Germany, immediately announced legal action against Germany's Jews.
    • On 7 April 1933 the Nazis introduced a law for the "Restoration of the civil service" which dismissed all non-Aryans and Jewish civil servants from their positions with the exception of those who either had fought in the Great War or had been in office since August 1914.

  207. Schrodinger biography
    • Although he was a Catholic, Schrodinger decided in 1933 that he could not live in a country in which persecution of Jews had become a national policy.
    • Alexander Lindemann, the head of physics at Oxford University, visited Germany in the spring of 1933 to try to arrange positions in England for some young Jewish scientists from Germany.

  208. Seidenberg biography
    • She was born in Ancona, Italy, on 23 February 1915 into a family of Jewish origins.
    • Ebe was the author of novels on the exile of the Jews during Fascism.

  209. Friedrichs biography
    • Just days after this Friedrichs met Nellie Bruell, a young Jewish girl, as a ball in Braunschweig.
    • It became increasingly clear that, although Friedrichs was not directly affected by the Nazis laws against Jews, many of his friends and colleagues were directly affected in a very serious way.

  210. Goldberg biography
    • As the name Goldberg suggests, the family was Jewish.
    • When Stalin died in 1953 Goldberg thought that the position of Jews might improve so he applied to study for his candidate's Degree at Lviv University.

  211. Birkhoff biography
    • He systematically kept Jews out of his department, but apparently relented late in life and favoured appointing ONE by the 1940s.
    • He also helped some Jewish refugees find jobs NOT at Harvard in the 1930s, while acting generally to hinder their entry.

  212. Grosswald biography
    • Emil Grosswald was born into a Jewish family in Bucharest.
    • The rise of anti-Semitism in Romania and the horror of the Nazi policies in Germany towards the Jews made Grosswald decide to France to further his education.

  213. Fermi biography
    • In the summer of 1938 Mussolini suddenly followed Hitler in Germany in starting a campaign against Jews.
    • Fermi was not Jewish but his wife was and, although his two children were Roman Catholics, the family's situation became uncomfortable.

  214. Mohr Ernst biography
    • This had become vacant due to Landau being forced to resign after Teichmuller, as leader of the students, organised a boycott of his lectures since he was Jewish.
    • of having received a foreign broadcasting station, of having made a parody of Hitler, of having described the war situation as hopeless and the extermination of the Jews as a great mistake, of having considered the representation of Stalin by the German press to be incorrect, of having drawn parallels between national socialism and Bolshevism on the basis of their dictatorial forms, and of having described a soldier at the front, the informer's husband, as "yet another idiot".

  215. Flato biography
    • He had been born into a leading Polish Jewish family and after graduation he had gone to Palestine to escape the anti-Semitic policies of the Nazi regime having foreseen the tragedy which was about the befall Poland.

  216. Bethe biography
    • With Hitler's rise to power in 1933 and the enactment of the racial laws, Hans lost his job due to his mother's Jewish heritage.

  217. Carlitz biography
    • They were a Jewish family who emigrated with Leonard's four grandparents to the United States around 1890.

  218. Romberg biography
    • Both Liebmann and Rosenthal were Jewish and both lost their positions when the Nazis came to power.

  219. Eisenstein biography
    • The family was Jewish but before Gotthold, who was their first child, was born they had converted from Judaism to become Protestants.

  220. Zorn biography
    • He was not, however, Jewish.

  221. Wigner biography
    • Both Antal and Erzsebet were from a Jewish background but they did not practice Judaism.

  222. Stein biography
    • Elias Stein's parents, Elkan Stein and Chana Goldman, were Jewish which meant that the family were in severe difficulties as the Nazi influence spread across Europe.

  223. Ehrenfest-Afanassjewa biography
    • After this Tatiana left Gottingen to join Ehrenfest in Vienna and they married after overcoming the severe problem of having different religions (Paul was Jewish and Tatiana was Russian Orthodox).

  224. Weinstein biography
    • However 1933 was the year that the Nazis came to power and Weinstein, being of Jewish background, could not remain in Germany.

  225. Orszag biography
    • The family were Jewish and originally from Hungary with Steven's paternal grandparents Alex and Regina Orszag both being born in Hungary.

  226. Shields biography
    • With his rustic appearance and Anglo-Saxon name he seemed rather exotic in that population of typically urban, predominantly Jewish students.

  227. Carmeli biography
    • He passed away several days later, in the first day of another Jewish holiday: Sukkot.

  228. Konigsberger biography
    • Leo Konigsberger came from a rich Jewish family, his father Jakob Lob Konigsberger (1800-1882) being a wealthy merchant.

  229. Livsic biography
    • The family were Jewish and Livsic brought up in a very religious household.

  230. Seidel Jaap biography
    • Attempts were made to continue to run the country despite the German occupation but the University of Leiden was closed by the German occupational authorities in 1941, because students protested against the dismissal of their Jewish professors.

  231. Rosenhain biography
    • Johann Rosenhain was born into a Jewish family.

  232. Ozanam biography
    • Jacques Ozanam's family had originally been Jewish but several generations earlier had become Christian converts and joined the Roman Catholic Church.

  233. Blaschke biography
    • Those wishing to enforce the Nazi policies, particularly dismissing Jewish professors, wanted to make Bieberbach Chairman for life.

  234. Kagan biography
    • However this was not his only post during this period for he taught higher education classes for women and also taught at the local Jewish school.

  235. Tietze biography
    • Litten describes the arguments which involved considering the political reliability and the number of Jewish friends of the candidates.

  236. Smullyan biography
    • In 1961 Smullyan was appointed to the Jewish Yeshiva University in New York where he taught until 1968 when he moved to Lehman College, formerly Hunter College's Bronx campus, which joined the City University of New York in that year.

  237. Behrend biography
    • We have not mentioned earlier that the Behrend family were Jewish since it had not seemed particularly significant prior to 1933.

  238. Schmid biography
    • We have not mentioned the political situation in Germany through these years but we note that after the Nazis came to power in 1933 their policy to dismiss Jewish academics caused major problems.

  239. Cooper biography
    • There were many German-Jewish refugees in Cape Town then, and through his friendship with one of them he became fluent in German.

  240. McShane biography
    • McShane and his wife spent the session 1932-33 at Gottingen, but if 1932 was a bad year in the United States, 1933 was certainly a bad year in Germany with Hitler coming to power and bringing in his first anti-Jewish legislation.

  241. Luke biography
    • Yudell Luke was born into a Jewish family, his father, David Luke, being the sexton in a synagogue.

  242. Sinai biography
    • It is also worth recording that the family was Jewish, and Kagan had a long struggle against anti-Semitism.

  243. Hensel biography
    • Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn were children of Abraham Mendelssohn who was the son of the Jewish-German philosopher Moses Mendelssohn.

  244. Yushkevich biography
    • Born into a Jewish family containing scholars in philosophy and literature, he attended the high school in St Petersburg, then continued his education in Odessa.

  245. Hertz Gustav biography
    • He had a grandfather was was Jewish and so when the Nazi Party came to power in 1933 his position became difficult.

  246. Ezra biography
    • In fact to ibn Ezra there was no conflict between science and religion for he considered that science and astrology were at the basis of Jewish learning [Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy 4 (London-New York, 1998), 647-654.',7)">7]:- .

  247. Taussky-Todd biography
    • Olga Taussky-Todd's name before she married was Olga Taussky and she was born into a Jewish family.

  248. James biography
    • celebrates the extraordinary contribution made by Jewish people in mathematics and physics, from the mathematician Norbert Wiener, the founder of cybernetics, to distinguished nuclear physicist and Nobel Prize-winner Niels Bohr.

  249. Orshansky biography
    • The family were Jewish and Mollie was the third of her parents' six daughters.

  250. Baer biography
    • Sadly, it is relevant to the events of Baer's life to say at this point that both his parents and his four grandparents were Jewish.

  251. Chernoff biography
    • They were both Jewish, had been born and brought up in Russia, and had emigrated to New York.

  252. Kreisel biography
    • Georg Kreisel came from a Jewish background so growing up in Graz in the 1930s was very difficult.

  253. Witten biography
    • Edward Witten was born into a Jewish family.

  254. Bessel-Hagen biography
    • After the great German and Jewish (but unreligious) mathematician Felix Hausdorff was retired ..

  255. Cohen biography
    • Paul Cohen's parents, Abraham and Minnie Cohen, were Jewish immigrants to the United States from their native land of Poland.

  256. Cramer Harald biography
    • However he gave shelter to W Feller who was forced out of Germany by Hitler's anti-Jewish policies in 1934.

  257. Appell biography
    • Born into a Jewish family, Dreyfus embarked on a military career.

  258. Nunes biography
    • Nothing is known of his parents but it is certain that they were of the Jewish religion.

  259. Brouwer biography
    • Brouwer was active in helping the Dutch resistance, and in particular he supported Jewish students during this difficult period.

  260. Gluskin biography
    • Lazar Matveevich was born into a Jewish family.

  261. Steinhaus biography
    • Hugo Steinhaus was born in Galicia into a family of Jewish intellectuals.

  262. Abraham Max biography
    • Max Abraham was born into a Jewish family who had made considerable amounts of money as merchants.

  263. Harary biography
    • Frank Harary's parents, Joseph Harary and Mary Laby, were Jewish immigrants who were born in Greece around 1895 and Russia around 1898 respectively.

  264. MacLane biography
    • They began to remove the top mathematicians from Gottingen, and other universities, who had Jewish connections.

  265. Birman biography
    • The family was Jewish.

  266. Zassenhaus biography
    • One day, quite by accident, I learned that my mother was helping Jewish friends.

  267. Le Cam biography
    • His attempts to sit the entrance examinations for the Ecole Polytechnique failed since he was unable to get all the necessary documents to prove that he was racially French back to his grandparents (the German occupiers had introduced mechanisms to bar those with a Jewish grandparent).

  268. Reeb biography
    • The first of Ehresmann's doctoral students, Jacques Feldbau, had been born in Strasbourg but was Jewish.

  269. Artin Michael biography
    • Because Natascha's father, the agronomist Naum Jasny, was Jewish, Emil Artin was in difficulties with the Nazi anti-Semitic legislation brought in in 1933.

  270. Abraham biography
    • Abraham bar Hiyya was a Spanish Jewish mathematician and astronomer.

  271. Levi Eugenio biography
    • The family was Jewish and Eugenio was the ninth of his parents' ten children.

  272. Dvoretzky biography
    • Aryeh Dvoretzky's family were Jewish.

  273. Stampacchia biography
    • Guido's mother came from a Jewish family who owned a factory which produced hand-made embroidered linen goods.

  274. Carlson biography
    • He died of pancreatic cancer at Barnes Jewish Hospital, St Louis.

  275. Cartan Henri biography
    • Thullen (although he was not Jewish) left Germany after the Nazis came to power in 1933 so the collaboration came to an end.

  276. Klein Oskar biography
    • During the 1930s, Klein helped many refugee physicists who were expelled from Germany and other nations largely due to their Jewish heritage.

  277. Hurwitz biography
    • Adolf Hurwitz was born into a Jewish family.

  278. Wittgenstein biography
    • Ludwig Wittgenstein's father was Karl Wittgenstein who was Jewish while his mother was a Roman Catholic.

  279. Motzkin biography
    • Born in Russia into a Jewish family, Leo Motzkin went to Berlin when he was thirteen years old to study mathematics.

  280. Kramer biography
    • She was the eldest child of Joseph and Sabine Kramer who were both Jewish immigrants from Europe.

  281. Pringsheim biography
    • It was a Jewish family.

  282. Threlfall biography
    • Frankfurt had been severely affected by the anti-Jewish legislation brought in by the Nazis (this was one of the reasons that Siegel left) and when Threlfall arrived there were several leading mathematicians, such as Paul Epstein, Ernst Hellinger and Max Dehn, who were still in Frankfurt but not allowed to teach.

  283. Steinitz biography
    • The family were Jewish and Ernst was the eldest of his parents three sons: Kurt (born in 1872) was only a year younger than Ernst but Walter (born in 1882) was eleven years younger.

  284. Andreotti biography
    • His father, like mine, was Jewish, and he had to suffer in Mussolini's Italy, like me in Hitler's Germany.

  285. Tauber biography
    • Just after Tauber arrived the entire non-Jewish population of 3,700 of Theresienstadt was evacuated and he was one of 53,000 inhabitants of the camp.

  286. Koksma biography
    • Also appointed in the same year was David van Dantzig who, being Jewish, had been dismissed from his chair at Delft in 1940 when the Germans occupied Holland.

  287. Cauer biography
    • In 1933 the Nazis came to power and, almost immediately, passed their racial laws which saw academics with one Jewish grandparent dismissed from their posts.

  288. Van der Waerden biography
    • This was a difficult time to take on such a role since he came under pressure from the Nazis not to publish papers by Jewish authors.

  289. Gerbert biography
    • What particular skills had Gerbert acquired while in Spain? Richer of Saint-Remi gives more information, as Marco Zuccato explains in [ Gerbert of Aurillac and a Tenth-Century Jewish Channel for the Transmission of Arabic Science to the West, Speculum 80 (3) (2005), 742-763.',29)">29]:- .

  290. Ostrowski biography
    • Life is often not that simple, however, since there was a quota on the number of Jewish students allowed into the university and entrance was decided by a lottery rather than on merit.

  291. Brashman biography
    • Nikolai Dmetrievich Brashman was born into a Jewish merchant family that was rather poor.

  292. Whitehead Henry biography
    • The Nazi moves against Jewish mathematicians gave Whitehead great distress, and he actively helped many to escape to safety.

  293. Eilenberg biography
    • Samuel Eilenberg's father was educated at a Jewish school but became a brewer as he married into a family of brewers.

  294. Mordell biography
    • Both Phineas and Annie were Jewish and had been born in Lithuania.

  295. Al-Khwarizmi biography
    • A number of minor works were written by al-Khwarizmi on topics such as the astrolabe, on which he wrote two works, on the sundial, and on the Jewish calendar.

  296. Borchardt biography
    • Carl Borchardt was born into a Jewish family.

  297. Neumann Bernhard biography
    • When Hitler came to power in 1933, only a couple of months after Bernhard and Hanna first met, life in Germany became very hard for those of Jewish origin.

  298. Bohr Harald biography
    • Harald and Niels Bohr's mother, Ellen Adler Bohr, came from a wealthy Jewish family with family members who were important in banking and in politics in Denmark.

  299. Kemeny biography
    • He came from a Jewish family and, in 1940, his father had the good sense to take his family to the United States.

  300. Jabir ibn Aflah biography
    • Moses Maimonides, whose Arabic name was Abu 'Imran Musa ibn Maymun ibn 'Ubayd Allah, was a Jewish philosopher, jurist, and physician who was born in Cordoba in 1135.

  301. Bott biography
    • Raoul Bott's father was a Roman Catholic of Austrian descent, while his mother was Jewish of Hungarian descent.

  302. Mathisson biography
    • He confided in a letter [The Albert Einstein Archives (The Jewish & National University Library, Jerusalem), N.

  303. Wexler-Kreindler biography
    • The family was Jewish.

  304. Fekete biography
    • He was born into a Jewish-Hungarian family in Zenta which was in Hungary, but it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time of his birth.

  305. Graffe biography
    • Karl Graffe's father was Dietrich Heinrich Graffe, a highly-skilled jeweller originally from Bremen, and his mother was Johanna Frederike Graffe-Moritz.
    • His parents were of modest means, and could not provide much of an education for their son, but they was always intended that Karl would follow in his father's footsteps and become a jeweller.
    • Dietrich Graffe emigrated to America, leaving Karl to run the family jewellery business.
    • However he was determined to find a way into education so, while working all day as a jeweller to bring in enough money for the family to live on, he spent his evenings reading and studying.

  306. Durer biography
    • Albrecht Durer senior was a jeweller who had served his apprenticeship with Hieronymus Holfer, and then married Holfer's daughter.
    • As a young boy Durer was educated at the Lateinschule in St Lorenz and he also worked in his father's workshop learning the trade of a goldsmith and jeweller.
    • Before setting out for Italy, however, Durer married Agnes Frey, the daughter of a learned man Hans Frey who had made quite a lot of money through making jewellery, musical instruments, and mechanical devices.

  307. Tibbon biography
    • There was a thriving community of Jews in this part of Spain from around the year 1000, many of whom made major contributions to the study of languages.
    • The Almohads expelled the Jews from Muslim Spain in 1148, and Judah ben Saul ibn Tibbon together with many other learned refugees, went to the south of France.
    • He also translated Arabic-language works by Jews and Arabs dealing with philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.

  308. Bartel biography
    • For example, he tried to improve the position of Polish Jews by removing various laws, dating back to the days when Poland was part of the Russian Empire, which had been specifically directed against Jews.
    • He was mocked for having treated Jews and Communists kindly when he was in government but his wife Maria was still allowed to deliver food to him.

  309. Besicovitch biography
    • Samuel Besicovitch had been a jeweller but his jeweller's shop had hit hard times through theft and he gave up the business and became a cashier.

  310. Erdelyi biography
    • As a Jew it was difficult for him to receive a university education in Hungary so he went to Brno, Czechoslovakia, to study electrical engineering.
    • You know, perhaps, what it means today if a Jew is to be put on the German or Hungarian frontier.

  311. Zorawski biography
    • Zorawski married Leokadia Jewniewicz, the daughter of Maria Moszczynska and Hipolit Jewniewicz.

  312. Price biography
    • He ministered from time to time to various congregations, one of these posts having him assist Samuel Chandler at the Presbyterian Chapel at Old Jewry.
    • On the forenoon of the 4th of November [1789], Doctor Richard Price, a non-conforming minister of eminence, preached at the dissenting meeting-house of the Old Jewry, to his club or society, a very extraordinary miscellaneous sermon, in which there are some good moral and religious sentiments, and not ill expressed, mixed up in a sort of porridge of various political opinions and reflections; but the Revolution in France is the grand ingredient in the cauldron.

  313. Zeckendorf biography
    • The family were Dutch and Abraham Zeckendorf was a practicing Jew.
    • Zeckendorf escaped from a camp, and afterwards, his status as a nonpracticing Jew was ignored by the Germans.

  314. Suss biography
    • In 1934 Alfred Loewy, Suss's former teacher, was dismissed from his chair at the University of Freiburg under the Nazi legislation dismissing Jews.
    • Suss certainly initiated the expulsion of Jews from editorial boards, specifically asking that Issai Schur be removed from the board of Mathematische Zeitschrift in 1938.

  315. Cardan biography
    • Unable to practise medicine, Cardan reverted, in 1533, to gambling to pay his way, but things went so badly that he was forced to pawn his wife's jewellery and even some of his furniture.
    • In an attempt to get money Aldo broke into his father's house and stole a large amount of cash and jewellery.

  316. Catalan biography
    • Joseph was a jeweller but, in reality, he made money with various schemes such as selling pictures and perfume.
    • At this time, in 1824, he became an apprentice jeweller.

  317. Wilkins biography
    • On 11 April 1662 the King made him vicar of St Lawrence Jewry in London.
    • By 1672, however, he was suffering ill health and after his death in November he was burried at St Lawrence Jewry on 12 December.

  318. Caratheodory biography
    • kept silent in the face of crimes that violated any idea of human decency, accepted the authority of an illegal state, made his compromises and submitted to the expulsion of Jews from scientific institutions ..

  319. Domninus biography
    • Domninus was a Syrian, and by religion a Jew, who was born in the town of Larissa (often identified with Laodicea but probably a separate town) on the Orontes River.

  320. Delamain biography
    • commanded Mr Herbert so give his son, the Duke of York (afterwards James II), his large ring calculating-dial, of silver, a jewel his Majesty much valued; it was invented and made by Mr Richard Delamain, a very able mathematician, who projected it, and in a little printed book did show its excellent use in resolving many questions in arithmetic, and other rare operations to be wrought by it in the mathematics.

  321. Wazewski biography
    • Some 55,000 Jews from the city were sent to the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

  322. Bernays biography
    • When the Nazi regime made its directive against Jews in 1933, Bernays lost his post at Gottingen.

  323. Gowers biography
    • Using principles similar to those employed in open source programming projects, [Gowers] used blogs and a wiki to organize an open mathematical collaboration attempting to find a new proof of an important mathematical theorem known as the density Hales-Jewett theorem.

  324. Wren biography
    • For example in 1670 he was architect for the following London buildings: The Custom House, St Christopher-le-Stocks, Threadneedle Street, St Dunstan in the East, St Benet Fink, Threadneedle Street, St Vedast, Foster Lane, St Dionis Backchurch, Fenchurch Street, St Michael, Wood Street, St Mildred, Poultry, St Olave, Old Jewry, St Mary-at-Hill, Thames Street, St Mary, Aldermanbury, and St Edmund King and Martyr, Lombard Street.

  325. Marinus biography
    • Marinus of Neapolis was probably a Samaritan, but just possibly a Jew.

  326. Black Fischer biography
    • The greatest jewel in Black's crown is undoubtedly the celebrated Black-Scholes formula.

  327. Post biography
    • Arnold and Pearl were Polish Jews and their son Emil was born in Russian controlled Poland and spent the first seven years of his life there.

  328. Rosanes biography
    • Jakob Rosanes was a Galician-born Jew from an old Sephardic family.

  329. Bryant biography
    • A report that her handbag containing money and some jewellery was missing deepens the mystery of the death of Dr Sophie Bryant ..

  330. Boyle biography
    • In the summer of 1644 he sold some jewellery and used the money that he was paid to finance his return trip to England.

  331. Golab biography
    • Many Jews sent to these concentration camps went straight to the gas chambers but the academics were spared that fate.

  332. Pogorelov biography
    • Pogorelov's solution to Hilbert's Fourth Problem, which he presented to a meeting of the Kharkov Mathematical Society held at the Kharkov University, was described by I Kra as a "mathematical jewel" [Ukrainian Math.

  333. Szego biography
    • He stayed there until 1934 when the pressure on him as a Jew forced him to move to the USA where he found a post at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri.

  334. Lovelace biography
    • Gambling on horses was another passion in these years and she pawned some of her jewels to finance it.

  335. Lexell biography
    • His father, Jonas Lexell, was a jeweller by trade but was also involved in politics as a local councillor.

  336. Schwarz Stefan biography
    • Schwarz knew that as a Jew his life would be in danger if he remained in Prague until the Nazis arrived so, immediately after Bohemia and Moravia were occupied, Schwarz left Prague and returned to Slovakia where he felt more safe.

  337. Al-Tusi Nasir biography
    • He wrote a famous work on minerals which contains an interesting theory of colour based on mixtures of black and white, and included chapters on jewels and perfumes.

  338. Graham biography
    • To quote the late T S Motzkin: "Complete disorder is impossible." Consequently, it is not surprising that results from Ramsey theory occur throughout a large part of mathematics - Ramsey theory is a jewel of pure mathematics.

  339. Hertz Heinrich biography
    • Gustav Hertz was a Jew who converted to become a Lutheran.

  340. Kushyar biography
    • There are various different claims, one of which suggests that he was a Jew, but none are substantiated.

  341. Lhuilier biography
    • Simon Lhuilier (sometimes written Simon L'Huilier) was the son of Laurent Lhuilier, a jeweller and goldsmith.

  342. Frege biography
    • He seemed to lash out at a wide variety of people and his diary shows a deep hatred of the French, of Catholics, and of Jews.

  343. Doeblin biography
    • He was on the black list of the Nazis: a Jew, controversial for his political views.


History Topics

  1. Ledermann interview
    • When Hitler came, so many German Jews very stupidly went to France because that was the cultural centre of Europe.
    • She was Jewish but did not go to the Synagogue because she was an orthodox Jew and in the Synagogue men and women had to sit separately, and she said she would not do this, she protested about this.
    • Even her father, a well to do business man in Berlin - quite a wealthy man - remained Jewish but completely assimilated and when my mother was sent to school, a girls school of course, the Jewish girls there had special instruction with a Hebrew teacher to teach them Hebrew prayers.
    • He said the Jews should all be locked up in their synagogues and the synagogues set alight.
    • And then Richard Wagner who wrote this notorious pamphlet about the Jews where he tears Mendelssohn's music to pieces saying that it has no value, it is for insects.
    • When Hitler finally came to power, all the Jewish faculty were dismissed instantly, including Schur who was not allowed to come even to the library any more.
    • It was nice to meet with him, he lived in a suburb of Berlin, to see him and his wife and talk not only about mathematics but also about the Jews.
    • There were two scholarships, one for a Jewish student from Germany and the other one for a political refugee.
    • These were scholarships for any subject at St Andrews University and Walter won the scholarship for a Jewish student from Germany.
    • They did not know that one of the main parts was sung by a Jewish singer! .
    • He was not allowed to practice medicine anymore, except for Jewish patients, but soon there weren't any, and then one day he had an accident and he was knocked down in the street by a car.
    • There were a lot of German Jews in the Hampstead area, there still are, and in some parts German was spoken more often than English, so he had a few people who consulted him, until his health broke down, and he died in 1949.

  2. Weil family
    • Salomea Reinherz, or Selma as she called herself, was the daughter of a successful Jewish businessman who dealt in imports and exports.
    • She was born in Russia, but life there became hard after Russian Jews were attacked after the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881.
    • The fact that the assassination was not by a Jew was not relevant as rumours circulated.
    • Bernard came from a family of Jewish merchants and several generations of his family had lived in Strasbourg.
    • Although Jewish by race, he was not Jewish by religion.
    • In fact he was against all religion and disliked speaking of his Jewish background.
    • Bernard's father, however, was Abraham Weil, a prominent member of the Jewish community in Alsace while his mother was a deeply religious woman who was horrified at her son's lack of religion.
    • In 1919 Andre and Simone learnt for the first time that they were Jewish.
    • That their parents had been able to keep it from them until this time is an indication of how well integrated the Jewish community was in French society.

  3. Fractal Geometry
    • ',3)">3] Sadly, by this time, Hausdorff was experiencing difficulties living as a Jew in Nazi Germany.
    • Benoit Mandelbrot was born in 1924 in Warsaw, Poland and, like Hausdorff, he was also Jewish, though his family managed to escape life under the Third Reich in 1936 by leaving Poland for France, where family and friends helped them set up their new lives.

  4. Coffee houses
    • Jacob, a Jew, opened a Coffee house at the Angel, in the Parish of St Peter in the East, Oxon, and there it was by some, who delighted in the novelty, drank.

  5. Arabic mathematics
    • However, certainly not all the mathematicians we wish to include were Muslims; some were Jews, some Christians, some of other faiths.

  6. Burt Thompson
    • There is a certain castle among the famous castles of Touraine, and in it a great artist fashioned a staircase - a marvel, a very jewel of a stair.


Famous Curves

No matches from this section


Societies etc

  1. German Society for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics
    • The Civil Service Law, passed on 7 April 1933, provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities.
    • Now von Mises and Reissner were Jewish and they indicated to Prandtl that they wished to resign their offices in the German Society for Applied Mathematics and Mechanics.
    • It was clear that Prandtl did not wish his Jewish colleagues to resign and it is also clear that their offer to resign did not come about from pressure within the Society, rather it was through a wish that the Society did not have to face difficulties.
    • If we must exclude Jewish members, I would consider dissolution the worthiest action.
    • we ought allow no political moods to influence us, and therefore even if the exclusion of Jewish members should be requested, must further preserve the GAMM.
    • In the following years Prandtl fought against the exclusion of Jewish members but of course he failed to convince the Nazis.

  2. German Mathematical Society
    • On 30 January 1933 Hitler came to power and on 7 April 1933 the Civil Service Law provided the means of removing Jewish teachers from the universities, and of course also to remove those of Jewish descent from other roles.
    • All civil servants who were not of Aryan descent (having one grandparent of the Jewish religion made someone non-Aryan) were to be retired.

  3. Academy of Scientists Leopoldina
    • He fought against the interference by the National Socialists in the affairs of the Academy and, although it was impossible to protect Jewish Academy members completely from the Nazi policies, the Academy gained in reputation by its attempts.

  4. SIAM George Pólya Prize
    • 1971 R L Graham, K Leeb, B L Rothschild, A W Hales, and R I Jewett .


References

  1. References for Levi
    • R Eisen, Gersonides on Providence, Covenant, and the Chosen People: A Study in Medieval Jewish Philosophy and Biblical Commentary (State University of New York, 1995).
    • G Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides : A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (E J Brill, Leiden, 1992).
    • K Chemla and S Pahaut, Remarques sur les ouvrages mathematiques de Gersonide, in G Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides : A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (E J Brill, Leiden, 1992), 97-112.
    • Jewish Research (1967), 113-37.
    • S Feldman, Levi ben Gershom, in D H Frank and O Leaman (eds.), History of Jewish Philosophy (Routledge Univ Press, 2003), 379-398.
    • R Glasner, The Early Stages in the Evolution of Gersonides' The Wars of the Lord, The Jewish Quarterly Review (1996), 1-46.
    • R Glasner, Levi ben Gershom and the study of Ibn Rushd in the fourteenth century, The Jewish Quarterly Review 86 (1-2) (1995), 51-90.
    • B R Goldstein, Levi ben Gerson's contributions to astronomy, in G Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides : A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (E J Brill, Leiden, 1992), 3-19.
    • I Husik, Studies in Gersonides, Jewish Quarterly Review 7 (1916-1917), 553-594.
    • I Husik, Studies in Gersonides, Jewish Quarterly Review 8 (1917-1918), 113-156.
    • I Husik, Studies in Gersonides, Jewish Quarterly Review 8 (1917-1918), 231-268.
    • M Kellner, An annotated list of writings by and about R Levi ben Gershom, in G Freudenthal (ed.), Studies on Gersonides : A Fourteenth-Century Jewish Philosopher-Scientist (E J Brill, Leiden, 1992), 367-414.
    • S Klein-Braslavy, Gersonides and Astrology, in S Feldman (ed.), Levi Ben Gershom : The Wars of the Lord (Jewish Publication Society, New York, 1999), 506-519.
    • C H Manekin, Conservative Tendencies in Gersonides' Religious Philosophy, in D H Frank and O Leaman (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 304-344.
    • http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/111901/jewish/Rabbi-Levi-Ben-Gershon.htm .
    • M Seligsohn, K Kohler and I Broyde, Levi ben Gershon (JewishEncyclopedia.com, 2002).
    • http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=247&letter=L .

  2. References for Fraenkel
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).
    • Prof Abraham Halevi Fraenkel, JTA Global Jewish News Source (3 November 1938).
    • M Zelcer, A A Fraenkel's Philosophy of Religion: A Translation of 'Beliefs and Opinions in Light of the Natural Sciences', The Flatbush Journal of Jewish Law and Thought 12 (2011), 209-231.

  3. References for Stern
    • Jewish Mathematicians in the German-speaking Academic Culture (in Russian), Notes on Jewish History 10 (2008).

  4. References for Wilf
    • Herbert S Wilf, 80, Mathematics Professor, Jewish Exponent (18 January, 2012).
    • http://www.jewishexponent.com/article/25135/Herbert_S_Wilf_80_Mathematics/ .

  5. References for Behrend
    • H Lausch, Felix Adalbert Behrend and Mathematics in Camp 7, Hay, 1940-41, Australian Jewish Historical Society Journal 14 (1) (1997), 110-119.

  6. References for Raphson
    • B Copenhaver, Jewish Theologies of Space in the Scientific Revolution: Henry More, Joseph Raphson, Isaac Newton and their Predecessors, Annals of Science 37 (1980).

  7. References for Newton
    • B P Copenhaver, Jewish theologies of space in the scientific revolution : Henry More, Joseph Raphson, Isaac Newton and their predecessors, Ann.

  8. References for Al-Khwarizmi
    • E S Kennedy, Al-Khwarizmi on the Jewish calendar, Scripta Math.

  9. References for Mathisson
    • M Mathisson, Letter to Albert Einstein, dated 23 February 1930, The Albert Einstein Archives (The Jewish & National University Library, Jerusalem), N.

  10. References for Epstein
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).

  11. References for Dehn
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).

  12. References for Baer
    • Jewish mathematicians in German-speaking academic culture (Springer, London-New York, 2012).

  13. References for Lichtenstein
    • B Bergmann, M Epple, and R Ungar, Transcending tradition: Jewish Mathematics in German-Speaking Academic Culture (Springer, New York, 2012).

  14. References for Klug
    • Prof Dr Leopold Klug, Hungarian Jewish Journal (13 August 1942).

  15. References for Ezra
    • I Twersky and J Harris (eds.), Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra : Studies in the writings of a twelfth century Jewish polymath (Cambridge MA, 1993).

  16. References for Klein
    • D E Rowe, 'Jewish mathematics' at Gottingen in the era of Felix Klein, Isis 77 (288) (1986), 422-449.

  17. References for More Henry
    • B P Copenhauer, Jewish Theologies of Space in the Scientific Revolution: Henry More, Joseph Raphson, Isaac Newton and their Predecessors, Annals of Science 37 (1980).

  18. References for Schonflies
    • D E Rowe, 'Jewish Mathematics' at Gottingen in the Era of Felix Klein, Isis 77 (3) (1986), 422-449.

  19. References for Gerbert
    • M Zuccato, Gerbert of Aurillac and a Tenth-Century Jewish Channel for the Transmission of Arabic Science to the West, Speculum 80 (3) (2005), 742-763.

  20. References for Naimark
    • V Bilovitsky, Naimark, Mark Aronovich, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe.


Additional material

  1. Gottingen chairs
    • We quote below from letters which were part of the exhibition Transcending tradition: Jewish Mathematics in German-Speaking Academic Culture.
    • English translations appeared in Transcending tradition: Jewish Mathematics in German-Speaking Academic Culture (Springer, New York, 2012).
    • There is thirdly - I must touch on it, as repugnant as the matter is to me, and knowing full well your justified sensitivity to this - the Jewish question.
    • The Jewish problem that Klein is referring to is that Arthur Schonflies and Adolf Hurwitz were both Jewish and, although he fancied his chances of persuading both the department and the ministry to appoint one Jew, he thought that he wouldn't be able to persuade that to appoint two Jews.
    • One must remember when reading what Gordan wrote, that he himself was Jewish: .
    • What good would Hurwitz have done you in Gottingen? You would have taken on the complete responsibility for this Jew; every real or apparent mistake by Hurwitz would have fallen on your head, and all his utterances in the faculty and senate would have been regarded as influenced by you.

  2. Hardy's cricket teams, poets etc
    • Jewish religious teacher on who the Christian religion is based.
    • Dutch-Jewish philosopher who was the leading exponent of Rationalism in the 17th century.
    • British politician and novelist of Italian-Jewish descent who was twice served as Prime Minister of Britain.
    • Jew who after conversion to Christianity became instrumental in making it a world-wide religion.
    • Team 3 (An all Jewish Team) .

  3. Blumenthal on Annalen
    • In 1933 Otto Blumenthal was dismissed from his position at Aachen because he was Jewish.
    • And now, since it has become the name of a dismissed Jewish professor, I doubt even more that it can attract authors.

  4. Roth Family
    • There were very few if any Jewish children at the Latymer School and relations between the Roth family and the school were often strained.
    • Queenie married a non-Jew in 1929 and Leonard Roth, siding with his mother, broke off relations with his sister.

  5. Phillip Griffiths Looks at 'Two Cultures' Today
    • It shunned formalistic or abstract concepts, which were seen as the hallmarks of so-called "Jewish physics." In making even the most technical decisions, scientists were expected to welcome the opinions of the "volk," or common people.

  6. F A Behrend's LMS Obituary by B H Neumann
    • Felix Behrend senior was a mathematics and physics master at the Herderschule, a noted "Reform-Realgymnasium" in one of the western suburbs of Berlin (where he also taught this writer); he was a widely known educationalist, and later headmaster of an important school elsewhere in Berlin, until demoted and finally dismissed by the Nazis, partly because of some Jewish ancestry, partly because of his liberal political views.

  7. Van der Waerden (print-only)
    • This was a difficult time to take on such a role since he came under pressure from the Nazis not to publish papers by Jewish authors.

  8. Van der Waerden biography
    • This was a difficult time to take on such a role since he came under pressure from the Nazis not to publish papers by Jewish authors.

  9. Paul Halmos: the Moore method
    • He spoke Texan, he was politically rigid, he had strong prejudices, he stood up when a lady entered the room, and (the story goes) he wouldn't accept students who were black, or female, or foreign, or Jewish.

  10. A conversation about Finlay Freundlich
    • After he died he was cremated and his ashes were brought back to Glasgow by Renate and scattered in the Jewish cemetery there.

  11. Mandelbrojt becomes a French citizen
    • There isn't one Jewish professor there." After that, Zaremba, who was a good Polish mathematician, quite a lot more liberal than the others, and a Professor at Krakow, came to Paris.

  12. De Montmort: 'Essai d'Analyse
    • The Author tries in the main to prove, against the Jews, the story of Jesus Christ and to demonstrate to libertines that the choice they have made in preferring the pleasures of this world ..
    • For myself I find the design of M Craig pious and worthy of praise, and the execution of it as good as it can be, but I believe this work much more suitable as an exercise for mathematicians than as a means to convert the Jews or the incredulous.

  13. Andrew Forsyth addresses the British Association in 1905
    • Bears yet a precious jewel in his head, .

  14. Rota's lecture on 'Mathematical Snapshots
    • The natural laws discovered by scientists will be refined like a metal, polished like a jewel and finally stored as theorems in the archives of mathematics.

  15. D'Arcy Thompson by David Burt
    • There is a certain castle among the famous castles of Touraine, and in it a great artist fashioned a staircase - a marvel, a very jewel of a stair.

  16. Mathematics and London Coffee Houses
    • Jacob, a Jew, opened a Coffee house at the Angel, in the Parish of St Peter in the East, Oxon, and there it was by some, who delighted in the novelty, drank.


Quotations

  1. Quotations by Einstein
    • Should my theory prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew.

  2. Quotations by Gauss
    • The total number of Dirichlet's publications is not large: jewels are not weighed on a grocery scale.


Chronology

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