Search Results for Maxwell


Biographies

  1. Maxwell biography
    • James Clerk Maxwell .
    • James Clerk Maxwell was born at 14 India Street in Edinburgh, a house built by his parents in the 1820s, but shortly afterwards his family moved to their home at Glenlair in Kirkcudbrightshire about 20 km from Dumfries.
    • Tait, who would become a close school friend and friend for life, described Maxwell's school days [',' J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.','41]:- .
    • In early 1846 at the age of 14, Maxwell wrote a paper on ovals.
    • Maxwell also defined curves where there were more than two foci.
    • Maxwell was not dux of the Edinburgh Academy, this honour going to Lewis Campbell who later became the professor of Greek at the University of St Andrews.
    • Lewis Campbell was a close friend of Maxwell's and he wrote the biography [',' L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell (London, 1882).','4] and its second edition [',' L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell with selections from his correspondence and occasional writings (London, 1884).','5].
    • At the age of 16, in November 1847, Maxwell entered the second Mathematics class taught by Kelland, the natural philosophy (physics) class taught by Forbes and the logic class taught by William Hamilton.
    • Tait, also at the University of Edinburgh, later wrote in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1879-80) [',' C W F Everitt, James Clerk Maxwell: Physicist and Natural Philosopher (New York, 1975).','7]:- .
    • The University of Edinburgh still has a record of books that Maxwell borrowed to take home while an undergraduate.
    • Maxwell went to Peterhouse Cambridge in October 1850 but moved to Trinity where he believed that it was easier to obtain a fellowship.
    • Though the tutor was William Hopkins, the pupil to a great extent took his own way, and it may safely be said that no high wrangler of recent years ever entered the Senate-house more imperfectly trained to produce 'paying' work than did Clerk Maxwell.
    • Thomson [',' J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.','41] describes Maxwell's undergraduate days:- .
    • This brought Maxwell into daily contact with the most intellectual set in the College, among whom were many who attained distinction in later life.
    • The impression of power which Maxwell produced on all he met was remarkable; it was often much more due to his personality than to what he said, for many found it difficult to follow him in his quick changes from one subject to another, his lively imagination started so many hares that before he had run one down he was off on another.
    • Maxwell obtained his fellowship and graduated with a degree in mathematics from Trinity College in 1854.
    • Maxwell remained at Cambridge where he took pupils, then was awarded a Fellowship by Trinity to continue work.
    • One of Maxwell's most important achievements was his extension and mathematical formulation of Michael Faraday's theories of electricity and magnetic lines of force.
    • Maxwell showed that a few relatively simple mathematical equations could express the behaviour of electric and magnetic fields and their interrelation.
    • However, in early 1856, Maxwell's father became ill and Maxwell wanted to be able to spend more time with him.
    • Maxwell travelled to Edinburgh for the Easter vacation of 1856 to be with his father and the two went together to Glenlair.
    • On 3 April his father died and, shortly after, Maxwell returned to Cambridge as he had planned.
    • In November 1856 Maxwell took up the appointment in Aberdeen.
    • When the subject announced by St John's College Cambridge for the Adams Prize of 1857 was The Motion of Saturn's Rings Maxwell was immediately interested.
    • Maxwell and Tait had thought about the problem of Saturn's rings in 1847 while still pupils at the Edinburgh Academy.
    • Maxwell decided to compete for the prize and his research at Aberdeen in his first two years was taken up with this topic.
    • In a letter to Lewis Campbell, written on 28 August 1857, while he was at Glenlair, Maxwell wrote:- .
    • Maxwell's essay won him the Adams Prize and Airy wrote:- .
    • Maxwell became engaged to marry Katherine Mary Dewar in February 1858 and they married in June 1859.
    • Despite the fact that he was now married to the daughter of the Principal of Marischal College, in 1860, when Marischal College and King's College combined, Maxwell, as the junior of the department, had to seek another post.
    • When the Chair of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh became vacant in 1859, Forbes having moved to St Andrews, it seemed that fate had smiled on Maxwell to bring him back to his home town.
    • Many of Maxwell's friends were also applicants for this post including Tait and Routh.
    • Maxwell lost out to Tait despite his outstanding scientific achievements.
    • Professor Maxwell is already acknowledged to be one of the most remarkable men known to the scientific world.
    • once been present when [Maxwell] was giving an account of his geometrical researches to the Cambridge Philosophical Society, on which occasion I was struck with the singularly lucid manner of his exposition.
    • Again Fleming, who had attended Maxwell's lectures, expressed similar thoughts [',' A Fleming, Some memories, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 116-124.','21]:- .
    • Maxwell in short had too much learning and too much originality to be at his best in elementary teaching.
    • In 1860 Maxwell was appointed to the vacant chair of Natural Philosophy at King's College in London.
    • The six years that Maxwell spent in this post were the years when he did his most important experimental work.
    • Campbell writes in [',' L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell (London, 1882).','4]:- .
    • In London, around 1862, Maxwell calculated that the speed of propagation of an electromagnetic field is approximately that of the speed of light.
    • Maxwell wrote the truly remarkable words:- .
    • Maxwell also continued work he had begun at Aberdeen, considering the kinetic theory of gases.
    • By treating gases statistically in 1866 he formulated, independently of Ludwig Boltzmann, the Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic theory of gases.
    • Maxwell's approach did not reject the earlier studies of thermodynamics but used a better theory of the basis to explain the observations and experiments.
    • Maxwell left King's College, London in the spring of 1865 and returned to his Scottish estate Glenlair.
    • The four partial differential equations, now known as Maxwell's equations, first appeared in fully developed form in Electricity and Magnetism (1873).
    • Most of this work was done by Maxwell at Glenlair during the period between holding his London post and his taking up the Cavendish chair.
    • One of the tasks which occupied much of Maxwell's time between 1874 and 1879 was his work editing Henry Cavendish's papers.
    • Cavendish, see [',' I Tolstoy, James Clerk Maxwell (1981).','16]:- .
    • Maxwell entered upon this work with the utmost enthusiasm: he saturated his mind with the scientific literature of Cavendish's period; he repeated many of his experiments, and copied out the manuscript with his own hand.
    • Fleming attended Maxwell's last lecture course at Cambridge.
    • He writes [',' D O Forfar, The origins of the Clerk (Maxwell) genius.
    • During the last term in May 1879 Maxwell's health evidently began to fail, but he continued to give his lectures up to the end of the term.
    • To have enjoyed even a brief personal acquaintance with Professor Maxwell and the privilege of his oral instruction was in itself a liberal education, nay more, it was an inspiration, because everything he said or did carried the unmistakable mark of a genius which compelled not only the highest admiration but the greatest reverence as well.
    • Maxwell returned with his wife, who was also ill, to Glenlair for the summer.
    • A Poster of James Clerk Maxwell .
    • James Clerk Maxwell on the nature of Saturn's rings .
    • EMS honours Maxwell and Tait .
    • Poem for Cayley by Maxwell .
    • Honours awarded to James Clerk Maxwell .
    • 4.nLunar featuresnCrater Maxwell .
    • History Topics: A visit to Maxwell's house in Edinburgh.
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .
    • James Maxwell Foundation .
    • Plus Magazine (Maxwell's equations) .
    • Plus Magazine (Maxwell's demon) .
    • Maxwell Year 2006 .
    • IEEE (Exhibition on Maxwell and Faraday) .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Maxwell.html .

  2. Tait biography
    • Lewis Campbell, who later became the professor of Greek at the University of St Andrews, and James Clerk Maxwell were one year above Tait at the Academy.
    • In fact Maxwell was slightly younger than Tait so the difference of one year certainly did not reflect their respective ages.
    • In 1846 he was placed first in the mathematics section of the Edinburgh Academical Club Prize which was no mean achievement given that he beat Lewis Campbell, who was placed second, and Maxwell who was placed third.
    • In 1847, Tait's final year at Edinburgh Academy, Maxwell had his revenge since he was placed first for the Edinburgh Academical Club Prize with Tait second.
    • Maxwell entered Edinburgh University at the same time at Tait and together they attended the second mathematics class taught by Kelland and the natural philosophy (physics) class taught by James David Forbes.
    • Maxwell followed Tait to Peterhouse in 1850 but transferred to Trinity where he believed that it was easier to obtain a fellowship.
    • Tait was a candidate for the chair but so was Maxwell who had been forced to seek another post when Marischal College and King's College in Aberdeen combined.
    • Routh, who had been First Wrangler at Cambridge in Maxwell's year, was also a candidate but the real competition was always going to be between Tait and Maxwell.
    • Tait won despite Maxwell's outstanding scientific achievements.
    • When the Edinburgh paper, the Courant, reported the result it noted that Tait had been chosen in preference to Maxwell since:- .
    • The claim that Tait was the better person to teach poorly qualified pupils was certainly a fair one and, of course, Tait's personality meant that he made a stronger impression on the appointing committee rather than the much more reserved Maxwell.
    • Maxwell was impressed by Tait's many works on physical applications of quaternions and wrote in a letter to William Thomson in 1871:- .
    • The idea led Tait, Thomson and Maxwell to begin to work on knot theory since the basic building blocks, in Thomson's vortex atom theory, would be the rings knotted in three dimensions.
    • Tait, Thomson and Maxwell exchanged letters in which they invented many topological ideas as they looked at knots.
    • In this work he gave what Thomson considered the first proof of the Waterston-Maxwell equipartition theorem.
    • A more bitter dispute between Tait and Clausius began in 1872 when Maxwell published his Theory of Heat.
    • Maxwell, however, had over a number of years fully recognised Clausius's contribution, unlike Tait with his prejudiced approach.
    • EMS honours Maxwell and Tait .
    • History Topics: A visit to Maxwell's house .

  3. Hertz Heinrich biography
    • This asked for experimental evidence for or against the assumptions that underlied Maxwell's theory.
    • One paper was on meteorology, one was on electric and magnetic units, while the third was the most important since it represented his first work on Maxwell's theories.
    • However, it may have been a wise decision to delay beginning the work as S D'Agostino [',' S D’Agostino, Hertz’s researches and their place in nineteenth century theoretical physics, Centaurus 36 (1) (1993), 46-82.','11] suggests that Hertz's derivation of Maxwell's equations in 1884 formed an important part of the structural background to his studies on the propagation of electric waves which he now carried out.
    • Now Hertz saw his discovery as merely a step towards a deeper understanding of Maxwell's theory.
    • D'Agostino in [',' S D’Agostino, Pourquoi Hertz et non pas Maxwell, a-t-il decouvert les ondes electriques?, Centaurus 32 (1) (1989), 66-76.','13] adds more to understanding Hertz's research in electromagnetic theory and his development of Maxwell's experiments.
    • Hertz needed new apparatus to prove Maxwell's theory of the existence of electromagnetic waves and he worked his way towards this which was finally achieved in 1888.
    • He undertook more research into Maxwell's theories, publishing two theoretical papers in 1890.
    • He searched for a mechanical basis for electrodynamics starting from Maxwell's equations.
    • Maxwell's theory is Maxwell's system of equations.
    • Hertz brought an unparalleled clarity to Maxwell's theory, organising its concepts and its formalism so that others were able quickly to go beyond him.

  4. Niven biography
    • He soon became a firm friend of James Clerk Maxwell but this friendship was tragically cut short when Maxwell died in 1879.
    • After Maxwell's death, Niven looked after Maxwell's affairs and, most importantly, helped to edit the second edition of Maxwell's Electricity and Magnetism and began the task of editing Maxwell's scientific papers.
    • Inspired by Maxwell and his mathematics, Niven's research interests turned increasingly towards the study of spherical and ellipsoidal harmonics [',' A Pears, Sir William Davidson Niven (1842-1917), The Book of Presidents (London Mathematical Society, London, 2005), 64-65.','2]:- .
    • Maxwell's new developments in the theory of electricity excited keen interest; Niven's public lectures on the subject were attended by a great many Cambridge mathematicians of the day.
    • From 1877 he devoted sustained attention to the development of Maxwell's method of defining the general spherical harmonic in terms of its poles.
    • As we mentioned above, he edited The scientific papers of James Clerk Maxwell (2 volumes) (1890) published by Cambridge University Press.
    • The paper On the Calculation of the Trajectories of Shot (1877), already mentioned as illustrating work he did at the Royal Arsenal, was communicated to the Royal Society by Maxwell.

  5. Kelly Max biography
    • Gregory Maxwell Kelly .
    • Gregory Maxwell Kelly's father was a shop keeper.

  6. FitzGerald biography
    • This was Electricity and Magnetism by Maxwell which, for the first time, contained the four partial differential equations, now known as Maxwell's equations.
    • FitzGerald immediately saw Maxwell's work as providing the framework for further development and he began to work on pushing forward the theory.
    • It is worth noting that FitzGerald's reaction to Maxwell's fundamental paper was not that of most scientists.
    • Very few seemed to see the theory as a starting point, rather most saw it only as a means to produce Maxwell's own results.
    • Maxwell's theory was for many years, in the words of Heaviside, "considerably underdeveloped and little understood" but a few others were to see it in the same light as FitzGerald including Heaviside, Hertz and Lorentz.
    • telegraphy owes a great deal to Euclid and other pure geometers, to the Greek and Arabian mathematicians who invented our scale of numeration and algebra, to Galileo and Newton who founded dynamics, to Newton and Leibniz who invented the calculus, to Volta who discovered the galvanic coil, to Oersted who discovered the magnetic actions of currents, to Ampere who found out the laws of their action, to Ohm who discovered the law of resistance of wires, to Wheatstone, to Faraday, to Lord Kelvin, to Clerk Maxwell, to Hertz.
    • He had already begun to contribute to Maxwell's theory and, as well as theoretical contributions, he was conducting experiments in electromagnetic theory.
    • Maxwell, in reviewing the paper, noted that FitzGerald was developing his ideas in much the same general direction as was Lorentz.
    • Maxwell, whose work had proved so fundamental for FitzGerald, had died at the age of 48 while Hertz died at the age of 36.

  7. Sprague biography
    • The year before Sprague, in 1852, the Senior Wrangler and First Smith's Prizeman had been P G Tait (as well as the Professor of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh University and the founder of the mathematical theory of knots, Tait was a director of the Scottish Provident Institution, a life insurance company in Edinburgh) and the year after, in 1854, the world-famous physicist, Clerk Maxwell had been second Wrangler (Routh being the Senior), the two Smith's Prizes of 1854 being shared equally between these two eminent men.
    • Dr Sprague qualified as a barrister prior to becoming an actuary and knew both Tait and Maxwell.
    • Dr Sprague was invited by Clerk Maxwell (the latter being scientific editor, along with T H Huxley, of the 9th Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) to write the article on 'Annuities' [',' T B Sprague, Annuities, article in 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (scientific eds, J Clerk Maxwell and T H Huxley) (A and C Black, Edinburgh, 1875).','11].
    • At the 1874 meeting of the British Association in Belfast (at which occasion Clerk Maxwell wrote his poems entitled 'Notes of the President's Address' and 'Molecular Evolution' [',' L Campbell and W Garnett, Life of James Clerk Maxwell (1882) page 326.

  8. Newman biography
    • Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman .

  9. Heaviside biography
    • While still working as chief operator in Newcastle he began to publish papers on electricity, the first in 1872 and then the second in 1873 was of sufficient interest to Maxwell that he mentioned the results in the second edition of his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.
    • Maxwell's treatise fascinated Heaviside and he gave up his job as a telegrapher and devoted his time to the study of the work.
    • Then I set Maxwell aside and followed my own course.
    • Despite this hatred of rigour, Heaviside was able to greatly simplify Maxwell's 20 equations in 20 variables, replacing them by four equations in two variables.
    • Today we call these 'Maxwell's equations' forgetting that they are in fact 'Heaviside's equations'.
    • Maxwell's treatise is cumbered with the debris of his brilliant lines of assault, of his entrenched camps, of his battles.

  10. Enskog biography
    • Enskog's thesis studied the Maxwell-Boltzmann equations.
    • These had first been formulated by Maxwell in 1867 to describe the flow of molecules, momentum and energy of a gas.
    • Hilbert published a new approach to the Maxwell-Boltzmann equations in 1912.
    • How to extend the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation to include collisions of more than two bodies was not clear.
    • Chapman, who was still working on the Maxwell-Boltzmann equations, immediately saw the importance of Enskog's methods and developed them further.

  11. Faraday biography
    • In particular the remarkable mathematical theories on the topic developed by Maxwell would not have been possible without Faraday's discovery of various laws.
    • This is a point which Maxwell himself stressed on a number of occasions.
    • At around the same time Maxwell was building on the foundations Faraday had created developing a mathematical theory which would always have been out of reach for Faraday.
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .
    • IEEE (Exhibition on Maxwell and Faraday) .

  12. Rayleigh biography
    • His first paper was inspired by reading Maxwell's 1865 paper on electromagnetic theory.
    • The laboratory had been opened five years earlier and Maxwell had been the first Cavendish professor.
    • On the academic side Rayleigh was an obvious choice to succeed to Maxwell's chair, yet in other times he might have been content to work at Terling.
    • Maxwell and Chrystal had carried out experiments in Cambridge earlier and the apparatus was still available for Rayleigh.

  13. Stefan Josef biography
    • He was a great admirer of Maxwell's contributions and was a major player in making his work known on the Continent.
    • It was in Maxwell's papers that he came across the following:- .
    • Of course Maxwell was right about the difficulties but Stefan was one to rise to a challenge, especially when it came to devising experiments thought to be almost impossible.
    • Maxwell, and also Clausius who had also worked on the problem, had deduced that thermal conductivity should be independent of the pressure of the gas, and Stefan was able to verify this experimentally.

  14. Broadbent biography
    • His editorship made [',' E A Maxwell, Obituary: Thomas Arthur Alan Broadbent, The Mathematical Gazette 57 (401) (1973), 195-197.','8]:- .
    • Let us end by quoting Edwin Arthur Maxwell's thought from [',' E A Maxwell, Obituary: Thomas Arthur Alan Broadbent, The Mathematical Gazette 57 (401) (1973), 195-197.','8].
    • We note that E A Maxwell (1907-1987) was president of the Mathematical Association in 1960-61:- .

  15. Thomson biography
    • This work by Thomson in 1856 on electricity and magnetism is important for it was these ideas which led Maxwell to develop his remarkable new theory of electromagnetism.
    • One might think that Thomson would have eagerly supported Maxwell's theory which his own work had helped to create, but this was not so.
    • Thomson had ideas of his own which he hoped would lead to a unifying theory, and his ideas took him further and further from accepting those of Maxwell.
    • W Thomson was the first who tried to treat mathematically Faraday's conception of lines of force, and he introduced J C Maxwell to the problems of the electromagnetic field not only by his works, but also by his personal initiative.

  16. Einstein biography
    • This seemed to contradict classical electromagnetic theory, based on Maxwell's equations and the laws of thermodynamics which assumed that electromagnetic energy consisted of waves which could contain any small amount of energy.
    • As a second fundamental hypothesis, Einstein assumed that the speed of light remained constant in all frames of reference, as required by Maxwell's theory.
    • His contribution is unifying important parts of classical mechanics and Maxwell's electrodynamics.
    • History Topics: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .

  17. Lewis biography
    • Lewis had met Mabel Maxwell Graves (born 19 May 1884, died 18 April 1987) at Haverhill High School.
    • Lewis married Mabel Graves on 1 January 1907; they had four children, one dying while still a child, Irving Maxwell Lewis (1907-1913), Margaret Maxwell Lewis (1912-1931), David Edson Lewis (born 1915), and Andrew Kittredge Lewis (born 1925).

  18. Cremona biography
    • Cremona's work in statics is of great importance and gives, in a clearer form, some theorems due to Maxwell.
    • In a paper of 1872 Cremona took an idea of Maxwell's on forces in frame structures that had appeared in an engineering journal in 1867 and interpreted Maxwell's notion of reciprocal figures as duality in projective 3-space.

  19. Routh biography
    • from London in 1849, he entered Peterhouse on 1 June 1850 at the same time as Maxwell.
    • However, Maxwell transferred to Trinity College (perhaps because he felt Routh was too strong competition!).
    • He was Senior Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos examinations (ranked first among those with First Class degrees) with Maxwell being placed second.

  20. Blackburn biography
    • Isabella Clerk, the sister of James Clerk Maxwell's father, had married James Wedderburn, Solicitor General for Scotland, and they had a daughter Jemima Wedderburn who was an outstanding artist.
    • James Clerk Maxwell was about eight years younger than Hugh, but Jemima Wedderburn was almost exactly the same age.
    • The Blackburn' homes in Glasgow and on Loch Ailort were regularly visited by some of the leading figures of the day including John Ruskin, Sir John Everet Millais, Anthony Trollope, the Duke of Argyll, Benjamin Disraeli, Lord Lister, Hermann von Helmholtz, William Thomson and James Clerk Maxwell.

  21. Kaluza biography
    • He was teaching at Konigsberg in April 1919 when he wrote to Einstein and told him about his ideas to unify Einstein's theory of gravity and Maxwell's theory of light.
    • The unifying feature of this theory was that it unified Einstein's theory of gravitation and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory.
    • this unknown scientist was proposing to combine, in one stroke, the two greatest field theories known to science, Maxwell's and Einstein's, by mixing them in the fifth dimension.

  22. Chrystal biography
    • There he was greatly influenced by Maxwell who had been appointed Cavendish Professor in Experimental Physics in the previous year.
    • Besides teaching he continued working in the Cavendish Laboratory under the supervision of Maxwell on the experimental verification of Ohm's Law.
    • With outstanding references from Maxwell, Thomson, Stokes and others he was appointed.

  23. Helmholtz biography
    • The paper was rightly criticised by Grassmann and Maxwell.
    • It was an argument which neither really won and the 1880s saw Maxwell's theory accepted.
    • Helmholtz attempted to give a mechanical foundation to thermodynamics, and he also tried to derive Maxwell's electromagnetic field equations from the least action principle.

  24. Weber biography
    • This work led to Maxwell's introduction of some aspects of Weber's distant-action theory into his field theory of electricity and magnetism, see [',' S D’Agostino, Absolute systems of units and dimensions of physical quantities: a link between Weber’s electrodynamics and Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of light, Physis Riv.
    • D'Agostino writes [',' S D’Agostino, Absolute systems of units and dimensions of physical quantities: a link between Weber’s electrodynamics and Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory of light, Physis Riv.
    • Their work on the ratio between the electrodynamic and electrostatic units of charge, published in 1856, proved extremely important and was crucial to Maxwell in his electromagnetic theory of light.
    • Although he was perhaps most widely known during his life for his law of force, which was discarded with the triumph of Maxwell's field theory.

  25. Larmor biography
    • Between 1873 and 1894 British and American physicists were proponents of a theory which they almost all learned directly from J C Maxwell's book Treatise on electricity and magnetism (1873).
    • During these three years (1894-97) the most basic principles of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism were abandoned, and the entire subject was reconstructed on a new foundation - the electron - by Joseph Larmor in consultation with George FitzGerald.
    • He also brought out a new version of Henry Cavendish's works in 1921, Maxwell had been the editor for the original publication.

  26. Uhlenbeck biography
    • In his second year as an undergraduate Uhlenbeck studied Maxwell's theory which he wrote out in great detail.
    • Ehrenfest's graduate lectures consisted of a two-year course: Maxwell theory, ending with the theory of electrons and some relativity, one year; and statistical mechanics, ending with atomic structure and quantum theory the other.
    • With superbly organised and extremely clear lectures, he laid bare for everyone to see the beautiful structure of statistical mechanics, based on the principles of the founding fathers, Maxwell, Boltzmann, and Gibbs.

  27. Lorentz biography
    • Lorentz refined Maxwell's electromagnetic theory in his doctoral thesis The theory of the reflection and refraction of light presented in 1875.
    • His "Theorie Electromagnetique de Maxwell et son application auz Corps Mouvants" Ⓣ and his "Versuch einer Theorie der Elektrischen und Optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Korpern" Ⓣ were published in 1892 and 1895 respectively.
    • He was also the author of a textbook of the differential and integral calculus; "Visible and Invisible Movements", 1901; and "Clerk Maxwell's Electromagnetic Theory", 1924.

  28. Spitzer biography
    • This is joined with Maxwell's equations, and the simple limits of high and low magnetic fields are briefly considered.
    • He was awarded the James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics by the American Physical Society (1975), and the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1978).

  29. Rogers biography
    • E A Maxwell writes [',' E A Maxwell, Review: Packing and Covering, by C A Rogers, The Mathematical Gazette 50 (373) (1966), 343.','3]:- .

  30. Hutton James biography
    • At first he did not seem very happy at Slighhouses but evidence from a letter he wrote to his friend George Clerk Maxwell (the great great grandfather of James Clerk Maxwell) in 1755 suggests that the cause might well have been a love affair which went wrong.

  31. Clausius biography
    • A more bitter dispute between Tait and Clausius began in 1872 when Maxwell published Theory of Heat.
    • One would have to add that Maxwell had, over a number of years, fully recognised Clausius's contribution, so he had little grounds for the complaint.

  32. Feynman biography
    • He replaced the wave model of electromagnetics of Maxwell with a model based on particle interactions mapped into space-time.
    • History Topics: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .

  33. Waterston biography
    • His approach was statistical and in this respect he certainly deserves the credit of coming up with the main approach of Clausius and Maxwell at least 20 years before they did.
    • It was Rayleigh who discovered Waterston's unpublished paper in 1891 and the Royal Society then published it when he pointed out that its importance in light of the later work along the same lines by Clausius and Maxwell.

  34. Macbeath biography
    • E A Maxwell, in a review of the book, writes [',' E A Maxwell, Review: Elementary Vector Algebra, by A M Macbeath, The Mathematical Gazette 48 (366) (1964), 457.','3]:- .

  35. Cowling biography
    • The equations of Boltzmann and Maxwell are then developed, Enskog's generalization of Maxwell's equation of transfer being given.

  36. Cesaro biography
    • He also contributed to the study of divergent series, a topic which interested him early in his career, and we should note that in his work on mathematical physics he was a staunch follower of Maxwell.
    • This helped to spread Maxwell's ideas to the Continent which was important since, although it it hard to realise this now, it took a long time for scientists to realise the importance of his theories.

  37. Gibbs biography
    • The second paper extended the diagrams into three dimensions and this work impressed Maxwell so much that he constructed a three dimensional model of Gibbs's thermodynamic surface and, shortly before his death, sent the model to Gibbs.
    • His work on statistical mechanics was also important, providing a mathematical framework for quantum theory and for Maxwell's theories.

  38. McConnell biography
    • This paper is a modest first step towards establishing a non-linear quantum electrodynamics, that is to say, an attempt at a quantum mechanical description of the electromagnetic field, based on Born's non linear electrodynamics rather than on Maxwell's theory.
    • Very much the same as in the case of Einstein's field-equations of gravitation in empty space, Maxwell's equations likewise admit of a term expressing that the potentials act also as sources of the field-the "cosmical term," as it is usually called.

  39. Bromwich biography
    • Some of this work is described in [',' J D Zund and J M Wilkes, Bromwich’s method for solving the source-free Maxwell equations, Tensor (NS) 55 (2) (1994), 192-196.','6] where its history is explained:- .
    • T J I'A Bromwich's method for solving the source-free Maxwell equations for electromagnetic waves.

  40. Boltzmann biography
    • Boltzmann obtained the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in 1871, namely the average energy of motion of a molecule is the same for each direction.
    • He was one of the first to recognise the importance of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory.

  41. Ampere biography
    • Maxwell, writing about this Memoir in 1879, says:- .
    • Weber also developed Ampere's ideas as did Thomson and Maxwell.

  42. Deans biography
    • They were married on 18 November 1897 in Aberdeen and had two children, Winifred and her brother Maxwell born in 1907.
    • Eleven boxes of personal papers belonging to her and her brother, Maxwell (1907-83), were deposited in the University Archives.

  43. Jeans biography
    • the theory of the equipartition of energy and Maxwell's law, and the chapters in which he ..
    • History Topics: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .

  44. Beltrami biography
    • Some of Beltrami's last work was on a mechanical interpretation of Maxwell's equations.
    • (dated December, 1888) is devoted to the mechanical interpretation of Maxwell's equations.

  45. Pearson biography
    • At Cambridge he was taught by Stokes, Maxwell, Cayley and Burnside.
    • At Cambridge I studied mathematics under Routh, Stokes, Cayley, and Clerk Maxwell, but read papers on Spinoza.

  46. Gregory biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  47. Schrodinger biography
    • In theoretical physics he studied analytical mechanics, applications of partial differential equations to dynamics, eigenvalue problems, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic theory, optics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics.

  48. Green biography
    • Through Thomson, Maxwell, and others, the general mathematical theory of potential developed by an obscure, self-taught miller's son would lead to the mathematical theories of electricity underlying twentieth-century industry.

  49. Euler biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  50. Garnir biography
    • In Sur la theorie de la lumiere de M L de Broglie Ⓣ (1945) he compared the approach by Kemmer to the theory of the meson to de Broglie's modifications of Maxwell's equations.

  51. Birkhoff biography
    • His ergodic theorem transformed the Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic theory of gases into a rigorous principle through the use of Lebesgue measure.

  52. Somerville biography
    • (William survived for 22 further years there.) Most of the rest of Mary's life was spent in Italy where she wrote many works which influenced Maxwell.

  53. Al-Haytham biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  54. Lanczos biography
    • He worked on relativity theory and after writing his dissertation Relation of Maxwell's Aether Equations to Functional Theory he sent a copy to Einstein.

  55. Fresnel biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  56. Chapman biography
    • He developed systematic approximations to the Maxwell - Boltzmann formulation for the velocity distribution function for interacting particles under general force laws.

  57. Fagnano Giulio biography
    • History Topics: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .

  58. Fermat biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  59. Hoyle biography
    • There was another argument which told him to carry on with mathematics which was that the great Cambridge scientists like Newton, Maxwell, Kelvin, Eddington and Dirac had all been mathematicians.

  60. Vandermonde biography
    • Vandermonde considers the intertwining of the curves generated by the moving knight and his work in this area marks the beginning of ideas which would be extended first by Gauss and then by Maxwell in the context of electrical circuits.

  61. Dyson biography
    • The historical account of the breakdown in communications between mathematicians and physicists and of the lack of interest in Maxwell's equations constitutes an indictment of the mathematical community.

  62. Heron biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  63. Weil biography
    • Weil made a major contribution through his books that include Arithmetique et geometrie sur les varietes algebriques Ⓣ (1935), Sur les espaces a structure uniforme et sur la topologie generale Ⓣ (1937), L'integration dans les groupes topologiques et ses applications Ⓣ (1940), Foundations of Algebraic Geometry (1946), Sur les courbes algebriques et les varietes qui s'en deduisent Ⓣ (1948), Varietes abeliennes et courbes algebriques Ⓣ (1948), Introduction a l'etude des varietes kahleriennes Ⓣ (1958), Discontinuous subgroups of classical groups (1958), Adeles and algebraic groups (1961), Basic number theory (1967), Dirichlet Series and Automorphic Forms (1971), Essais historiques sur la theorie des nombres Ⓣ (1975), Elliptic Functions According to Eisenstein and Kronecker (1976), (with Maxwell Rosenlicht) Number Theory for Beginners (1979), Adeles and Algebraic Groups (1982), Number Theory: An Approach Through History From Hammurapi to Legendre (1984), and Correspondance entre Henri Cartan et Andre Weil Ⓣ (1928-1991) (2011).

  64. Huygens biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  65. Bjerknes Vilhelm biography
    • I have always considered him and you as the two real inheritors of Maxwell and I am very glad that I have had the good luck to come into personal contact with these two only ones.

  66. De LHopital biography
    • History Topics: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .

  67. Whitehead biography
    • He presented a dissertation on Maxwell's theory of electricity and magnetism in the competition for a Fellowship in 1884.

  68. Hopkins biography
    • After graduating Hopkins became a private tutor at Cambridge, having Tait, Thomson, Stokes, Maxwell and Todhunter among his pupils.

  69. Planck biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  70. Herzog biography
    • In special, highly popular seminars he introduced his students to more advanced work by Maxwell and Minkowski, amongst others.

  71. Grosseteste biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  72. Terrot biography
    • Tait copied out the paper into a manuscript book which he and Maxwell exchanged as schoolboys on mathematical topics.

  73. Dupre biography
    • The quality of this book was noted by Maxwell in a paper of 20 May 1876, in which he describes Dupre's book as "very ingenious memoirs".

  74. Gregory Duncan biography
    • In October 1824 he entered Edinburgh Academy (where Maxwell and D'Arcy Thompson were to be educated).

  75. Cavalieri biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  76. Poisson biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  77. Klein Oskar biography
    • Kaluza, in 1919, sent a paper to Albert Einstein proposing a unification of gravity with Maxwell's theory of light.

  78. Malus biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  79. Stuart biography
    • He was among the first in Cambridge to lecture on Clerk Maxwell's theory of electricity and magnetism.

  80. Durell biography
    • As secretary to the committee reporting in 1953 on the teaching of geometry in schools, he is described in [',' E A Maxwell, Clement Vavasour Durell, Mathematical Gazette 53 (1969), 312-313.','3] as:- .

  81. Weyl biography
    • He produced the first unified field theory for which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the gravitational field appear as geometrical properties of space-time.

  82. Descartes biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  83. Lamb biography
    • Lamb was taught by Stokes and Maxwell at Cambridge and graduated as Second Wrangler in 1872 (meaning that he was second in the ranked list of those students awarded a First Class degree).

  84. Neumann Carl biography
    • One important reason, in general, that Neumann opposed Helmholtz's approach was that Helmholtz's states of energy and their interaction made the explanation of many electrodynamic phenomena more complicated than explanations based upon Weber's or Maxwell's theories.

  85. Dantzig biography
    • In three previous papers we have given a short account of a new physical theory, the "general field theory" which intends to give a unification of general relativity not only with Maxwell's electromagnetical theory but also with Schrodinger's and Dirac's theory of material waves.

  86. Stewart Dugald biography
    • In fact Stewart's influence on physics is especially interesting and it form the main topic of [',' R Olson, Scottish philosophy and British Physics 1750-1880 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1975).','4] where Olson argues that Stewart's view of mathematics put geometry at its foundations rather than algebra, and that his views on this influenced the physical thinking of Maxwell and Rankine.

  87. Ricci-Curbastro biography
    • The first was a series of articles on Maxwell's theory of electrodynamics and the work of Clausius which Betti asked him to write.

  88. Bateman biography
    • He wrote a number of texts that have been reprinted as classics: The mathematical analysis of electrical and optical wave-motion on the basis of Maxwell's equations (1915, reprinted 1955); Partial differential equations of mathematical physics (1932, reprinted 1944 and 1959); (written with H L Dryden and F D Murnaghan), Hydrodynamics, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

  89. MacCullagh biography
    • His work on light was of course of less importance after Maxwell published his electro-magnetic theory of light in 1865.

  90. Kruskal Martin biography

  91. Arago biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  92. Abraham Max biography
    • Abraham's work is almost all related to Maxwell's theory and he wrote a text which was the standard work on electrodynamics in Germany for a long time.

  93. Harriot biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  94. Snell biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  95. Duhem biography
    • He disliked British science, in particular the work of Maxwell, and he described it as broad and shallow while he said that French science was narrow and deep.

  96. Coulson biography
    • In many aspects the field covered is similar to that of Maxwell's classical Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.

  97. Ptolemy biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  98. Kepler biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  99. Bell biography
    • The Greek prize was Clerk Maxwell's classic on electricity and magnetism, the other, Homer's Odyssey.

  100. Maclaurin biography
    • History Topics: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .

  101. Pairman biography
    • Eleanor, called Nora by her family, was the youngest of her parents' four children, having three older sisters, Maxwell, Margaret and Adeline.

  102. Clifford biography
    • In 1867 he was awarded a BA in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy after being Second Wrangler and Smith's Prizemen in his final examinations (in common with many other famous mathematicians who were second at Cambridge like Thomson and Maxwell).

  103. Ladyzhenskaya biography
    • She then studied the equations of elasticity, the Schrodinger equation, the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, and Maxwell's equations.

  104. Gassendi biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  105. James biography
    • In the late 1950s Henry Whitehead approached Robert Maxwell, the chairman of Pergamon Press, to start a new journal Topology although Whitehead never lived to see the first part appear.

  106. Whittaker biography
    • He also worked on electromagnetic theory giving a general solution of Maxwell's equation, and it was through this topic that his interest in relativity arose.

  107. Herschel biography
    • History Topics: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .

  108. Aristotle biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  109. Kirchhoff biography
    • However, they both dismissed this as a coincidence rather than making the step which Maxwell made five years later of inferring that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon.

  110. Ayrton biography
    • During the time that Glazebrook was tutoring Hertha, he was studying with James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Rayleigh.

  111. Christoffel biography
    • If mathematical physicists are also taken into account then Butzer and Feher believe that Christoffel would have to be compared with Green, Hamilton, Sylvester, Helmholtz, Cayley, Kirchhoff, Maxwell, Beltrami, Lie, Boltzmann, Poincare and Fredholm.

  112. Bjerknes Carl biography
    • He worked constantly towards the goal of developing a theory of hydrodynamic phenomena which included Maxwell's electrodynamic theory.

  113. Biot biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  114. Newton biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  115. Burnside biography
    • Among his teachers at Cambridge were Stokes, Adams and Maxwell in applied mathematics and Cayley in pure mathematics.

  116. Carmeli biography
    • During his time in this post he published papers such as Group analysis of Maxwell's equations (1969), Infinite-dimensional representations of the Lorentz group (1970), and SL(2, C) symmetry of the gravitational field dynamical variables (1970).

  117. Airy biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  118. Young Thomas biography
    • On 14 June 1804 Young married Eliza Maxwell; they had no children.

  119. Weber Heinrich F biography
    • Polytechnikum vor der Jahrhundertwende, Schweizerische Bauzeitung 76 (52), 1958, 787-788','4] he did not teach Maxwell's theories, nor 'the foundations of physics, as he did not teach theoretical or mathematical physics' [',' D Cahan, The Young Einstein’s Physics Education: H.F.

  120. Hooke biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  121. Bacon biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  122. Schlapp biography
    • Thus, he does not include, for example, Wedderburn, Kelvin, or Maxwell.

  123. Galileo biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  124. Plancherel biography
    • The papers by Rosenthal and Plancherel marked a watershed in the development of the foundations of statistical mechanics, for they brought to a close the classical age of Maxwell, Boltzmann and Ehrenfest and stimulated the development of ergodic theory as a new branch of mathematics.

  125. Empedocles biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  126. Morgan William biography
    • Because of his renown, he was consulted by the life office, the Scottish Widows' Fund and Life Assurance Society at the time of its formation in 1815 [',' Sir H Maxwell, Annals of the Scottish Widows Fund, 1815-1914, R.

  127. Watson Henry biography
    • After this book appeared Watson corresponded with Maxwell and the results of this correspondence is contained in the second edition of the book which appeared in 1893.

  128. Ehrenfest biography
    • Ehrenfest's graduate lectures consisted of a two-year course: Maxwell theory, ending with the theory of electrons and some relativity, one year; and statistical mechanics, ending with atomic structure and quantum theory the other.

  129. Laplace biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  130. Euclid biography
    • History Topics: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  131. Krejci biography
    • In this thesis he investigated the existence of periodic solutions of Maxwell's equations in nonlinear media in the Sobolev spaces of divergence-free vector functions in three dimensions.

  132. Crofton biography
    • Among his contributions was an extension of the theory of Maxwell on frameworks (see [',' T M Charlton, An extension of Maxwell’s theory of pin-jointed frameworks by M W Crofton, F.

  133. Kline biography
    • His research publications during his first years as director of the Division of Electromagnetic Research, now in applied areas, included: Some Bessel equations and their application to guide and cavity theory (1948); A Bessel function expansion (1950); An asymptotic solution of Maxwell's equations (1950); and An asymptotic solution of linear second-order hyperbolic differential equations (1952).

  134. Hopkinson biography
    • Hopkinson's application of Maxwell's electromagnetic theories to the analysis of residual charge and displacement in electrostatic capacity led to his election as a fellow of the Royal Society in 1877.

  135. Greenhill biography
    • There, with his books around him, his tables covered in neat disorder with innumerable scraps of material and apparatus to be used as dynamical models, his walls festooned with every variety of pendulum, simple or compound, contrived from articles purchased below a prescribed limit of cost at the local stores, upon his floor the treasured roll of Turkish carpet from his room of long ago at St John's, and above the mantelpiece the portrait of his beloved teacher, Clerk Maxwell, smiling approval - with all these and the precious memories they recalled, the scholar was content.

  136. Rankine biography
    • Rankine's work was extended by Maxwell.

  137. Cayley biography
    • Poem for Cayley by Maxwell .

  138. Stokes biography
    • Stokes was a very important formative influence on subsequent generations of Cambridge men, including Maxwell.

  139. Kerr Roy biography
    • In the third paper the method is applied to the combined Einstein-Maxwell equations.


History Topics

  1. Maxwell's House
    • A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .
    • You can see a full biography of James Clerk Maxwell.
    • On a grey November day we [JOC and EFR] made the 50 mile train journey from St Andrews to Edinburgh to visit James Clerk Maxwell's house.
    • The house where James Clerk Maxwell was born is at 14 India Street, Edinburgh about a fifteen minute walk from the railway station which is in the centre of Edinburgh.
    • The house is now owned by the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation who have restored it almost to its original state by removing partitions which had been erected by previous owners.
    • The Director of Development of the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation, Professor David S Ritchie, showed us the house and the historical documents and other items owned by the Foundation.
    • You can see a map of the area at the time Maxwell was there and a picture of the house as it is now and the sign outside marking it as Maxwell's birthplace.
    • On the wall facing you as you enter are two large portraits, the rightmost one of James Clerk Maxwell, the left most one being a portrait of his school friend P G Tait.
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    • You can see a picture of the hall, a picture of the dining room and the portrait of Maxwell and the portrait of Tait.
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    • James Clerk Maxwell was born on 13th June 1831 in Edinburgh at 14 India Street, a house built for his father in that part of Edinburgh's elegant Georgian New Town which was built after the Napoleonic Wars.
    • The room is surrounded by portraits of James Clerk Maxwell's family and a Display Cabinet near the windows contains a fine collection of items associated with Maxwell.
    • In this article we describe Maxwell's early life in Edinburgh and Glenlair and illustrate it with references to items in the house.
    • James Clerk Maxwell's father, John Clerk Maxwell, had one brother and one sister.
    • You can see the family tree of James Clerk Maxwell.
    • His brother Sir George Clerk inherited one part of the families property at Penicuik, south of Edinburgh, while John Clerk Maxwell inherited the Maxwell estate at Middlebie near Dumfries.
    • John Clerk Maxwell's sister Isabella married James Wedderburn and they were living at 31 Heriot Row in Edinburgh.
    • When George Clerk moved to the Penicuik estate, John Clerk Maxwell was left at home with his mother in Edinburgh.
    • After John Clerk Maxwell's mother died, he married Frances Cay.
    • John Clerk Maxwell and Frances now chose to move to their estate at Middlebie and they had a house built for them at Glenlair on the estate.
    • Their son James Clerk Maxwell was born in the house at 14 India Street and he would eventually inherit the house on the death of his father, retaining the house throughout his life.
    • You can see a picture of Glenlair as it was when Maxwell finally left it in 1884.
    • James Clerk Maxwell's mother, Frances, had a sister Jane Cay who lived at 6 Great Stuart Street, Edinburgh.
    • John Clerk Maxwell's sister Isabella and her husband James Wedderburn had a daughter Jemima Wedderburn who was an outstanding artist.
    • She was eight years older than James Clerk Maxwell and she painted pictures of the family almost every day, some of which are now displayed in 14 India Street.
    • This pictorial diary records many of the events in James Clerk Maxwell's childhood and some of the pictures and events will be described later.
    • By a remarkable coincidence, the family now living in the house above the former stables is descended from Maxwell's friend P G Tait.
    • James Clerk Maxwell's mother died when he was 9 years old and a 16 year old boy was employed as a tutor to James.
    • Tait [',' P G Tait, James Clerk Maxwell, Proc.
    • Edinburgh 10 (1880), 331-339.','5] relates James Clerk Maxwell's early days at the Edinburgh Academy:- .
    • James Clerk Maxwell's father had prepared his son well for education in many ways but, to send him to the Academy dressed in the country clothes he would have worn at Glenlair, shows a lack of understanding of how James's fellow pupils would react.
    • The way they reacted on his first day at school was clear from the state in which he arrived back at 31 Heriot Row [',' L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell with selections from his correspondence and occasional writings (London, 1884).','1]:- .
    • This toy, and others he was given as a child, must have had a profound effect on Maxwell.
    • The chair in which James sat to study while at 31 Heriot Row is now in the former dining room at 14 India Street, recovered with a material with a pattern depicting the digital nature of light waves, to honour one of Maxwell's great pieces of work.
    • Maxwell began to comment on mathematical topics in his letters.
    • By July 1845 Maxwell had won the Mathematics Medal.
    • Tait writes [',' P G Tait, James Clerk Maxwell, Proc.
    • If Maxwell's progress in mathematics had been outstanding, better was to come.
    • John Clerk Maxwell writes in his diary for Thursday 26 February 1846:- .
    • It appears that two accounts of this work on ovals by James Clerk Maxwell were written.
    • Tait writes [',' P G Tait, James Clerk Maxwell, Proc.
    • Those by Maxwell are on 'The Conical Pendulum', Descartes' Ovals', 'Meloid and Apioid', and 'Trifocal curves'.
    • Some, in particular the ones that Tait refers to above, are by Maxwell and signed and dated by him.
    • For example the manuscript on the Conical Pendulum is signed by Maxwell and dated 25 May 47.
    • Other than the topics of Maxwell's described above by Tait, there are also manuscripts by Tait on Vanishing Fractions which is l'Hopital's rule, a manuscript on Maclaurin's Theorem and On the imaginary roots of negative quantities by the Rt Rev Terrot.
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    • This last manuscript is signed and dated by Tait - 27 May 47, this being two days after Maxwell's Conical Pendulum manuscript.
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    • This last manuscript is particularly interesting given that Maxwell would produce his prize winning Adams prize essay on Saturn's rings ten years later.
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    • You can see a model of Saturn's rings that Maxwell made.
    • There is a fine collection of biographies of Maxwell.
    • Portrait of Maxwell as a child .
    • There is also a copy of one of Maxwell's most famous papers with the remarkable words highlighted:- .
    • Maxwell had his lighter side too.
    • For example [',' L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell with selections from his correspondence and occasional writings (London, 1884).','1] he wrote The Song of the Edinburgh Academy in 1848:- .
    • Maxwell also wrote mathematical poetry.
    • While in his final year of study for the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge he wrote a poem A Problem in Dynamics [',' L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell with selections from his correspondence and occasional writings (London, 1884).','1] which begins:- .
    • In the Display Cabinet one book of poems is open at the following poem which has been written in a style similar to many poems written by Maxwell himself:- .
    • Oh Maxwell! How can I declaim .
    • We end this article with some quotes concerning the importance of James Clerk Maxwell's work.
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    • The first, by Richard P Feynman, is displayed between the portraits of Tait and Maxwell in the former dining room of Maxwell's house:- .
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    • From a long view of the history of mankind - seen from, say, ten thousand years from now - there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics.
    • One scientific epoch ended and another began with James Clerk Maxwell.
    • Another quote, this time by Sir J J Thomson, concerns one of Maxwell's discoveries [',' J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.','6]:- .
    • Sir James Jeans wrote [',' J Jeans, James Clerk Maxwell’s method, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 91-108.','3], also in 1931 on the centenary of Maxwell's birth:- .
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    • many think that Maxwell's study of the particles of Saturn's rings led him directly and inevitably into the realm of the kinetic theory of gases, in which so much of his life was spent.
    • Further references on Maxwell and his work.
    • You can see a full biography of James Clerk Maxwell and a biography of P G Tait.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Maxwell_House.html .

  2. Tait's scrapbook
    • I gave the lecture at 14 India Street, Edinburgh, the birthplace in 1831 of James Clerk Maxwell, and now owned by the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation.
    • The house where James Clerk Maxwell was born is at 14 India Street, Edinburgh about a fifteen-minute walk from the railway station which is in the centre of Edinburgh.
    • On the wall facing you as you enter are two large portraits, the rightmost one of James Clerk Maxwell, the left most one being a portrait of his school friend P G Tait.
    • Portraits of James Clerk Maxwell's family are on the walls and a Display Cabinet near the windows contains a fine collection of items associated with Maxwell.
    • James Clerk Maxwell was born in the first floor room overlooking the stables.
    • By a remarkable coincidence, the family now living in the house above the former stables is descended from Maxwell's friend P G Tait.
    • Mr Murray Tait, the great-grandson of P G Tait, presented it to the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation in 2003.
    • The Scrapbook contains obituaries of Tait (these are the first items), newspaper cuttings which contain anything about him, letters he sent to the newspapers, copies of examinations he set, syllabuses for courses he gave, letters sent to him by Maxwell, Thomson and many others, articles about golf which mention his work in that area, poems by Tait, Maxwell and others etc.
    • The other aspect was that he became friendly with Maxwell around the middle of his time at the Academy.
    • Maxwell, although the same age as Tait, was one year ahead.
    • There is a notebook in which Tait and Maxwell recorded the "schoolboy problems" he referred to in the above quote.
    • Tait was top of his class in each one of his six years at Edinburgh Academy but, of course, Maxwell was not in the same class.
    • There were school prizes open to all pupils and in 1846 Tait came third overall but first in mathematics, while in the following year Maxwell came first in mathematics with Tait second.
    • Lewis Campbell (sixth class) came top, Tait (fifth class) came third, Maxwell (sixth class) came sixth equal.
    • In Mathematics Tait (fifth class) came top, Lewis Campbell (sixth class) came second, Maxwell (sixth class) came third.
    • Tait also gained distinction in Latin (Maxwell didn't), Lewis Campbell came second in Greek despite going on to have a distinguished career as a professor of Greek, Tait and Maxwell both achieved distinctions in English and French and in Geography, History and Scripture.
    • Maxwell entered Edinburgh University at the same time at Tait and together they attended the second mathematics class taught by Kelland and the natural philosophy (physics) class taught by James David Forbes.
    • Tait was a candidate for the chair but so was Maxwell who had been forced to seek another post when Marischal College and King's College in Aberdeen combined.
    • Routh, who had been First Wrangler at Cambridge in Maxwell's year, was also a candidate but the real competition was always going to be between Tait and Maxwell.
    • Tait won despite Maxwell's outstanding scientific achievements.
    • When the Edinburgh paper, the Courant, reported the result it noted that Tait had been chosen in preference to Maxwell since:- .
    • Thomson, Tait and Maxwell .
    • Maxwell, Tait and Thomson were friends who worked together, yet must rank as the three most important Scottish mathematical physicists.
    • Maxwell, who we now rate as the most important of the three, was the most modest and least forceful.
    • We note Maxwell's admiration for the work of Tait expressed in a letter of 1871 to Thomson:- .
    • Here is an example of a letter from Maxwell to Tait:- .
    • Maxwell became dp/dt since there is an equation in the Treatise on Natural Philosophy which reads .
    • Of course James Clerk Maxwell was jcm ( and therefore became dp/dt).

  3. Maxwell's House references
    • References for: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .
    • L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell with selections from his correspondence and occasional writings (London, 1884).
    • D O Forfar, The origins of the Clerk (Maxwell) genius.
    • J Jeans, James Clerk Maxwell's method, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 91-108.
    • P G Tait, James Clerk Maxwell, Proc.
    • J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/References/Maxwell_House.html .

  4. Maxwell's House references
    • References for: A visit to James Clerk Maxwell's house .
    • L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell with selections from his correspondence and occasional writings (London, 1884).
    • D O Forfar, The origins of the Clerk (Maxwell) genius.
    • J Jeans, James Clerk Maxwell's method, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 91-108.
    • P G Tait, James Clerk Maxwell, Proc.
    • J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.
    • [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/References/Maxwell_House.html] .

  5. Knots and physics
    • The Scottish mathematical physicists referred to in the title are Thomson, Maxwell and Tait.
    • Long before this, however, Maxwell had entered the discussions which went on in letters exchanged by the three Scottish mathematical physicists.
    • Maxwell also gave equations in three dimensions which represented knotted curves.
    • Maxwell was already intrigued by the problems and was not convinced that Bertrand's objections dealt a serious blow to Helmholtz's paper.
    • In September 1868 Maxwell wrote several manuscripts which study knots and links.
    • Maxwell considered two-dimensional projections of links and devised a way of coding the diagrams to indicate which curve was above and which below at crossings on the projections.
    • For a region bounded by one arc Maxwell noted that the region could be eliminated by uncoiling the curve.
    • For regions bounded by three arcs Maxwell noted that again there were two cases:- .
    • Although his approach contained no mathematical rigour, still it is interesting to note that at this early stage Maxwell had defined the "Reidemeister moves" which would be shown to be the fundamental moves in modifying knots in the 1920s.
    • In a a second manuscript Maxwell considered a region of space bounded by one external surface of genus n and m internal surfaces of genus n1, n, ..
    • Now in modern terminology Maxwell was claiming that the first Betti number of the region was N.
    • Again we should note that Maxwell did not give precise mathematical definitions of the concepts he was dealing with so no rigorous proof was possible.
    • The reason was that Maxwell, and for that matter Thomson too, reached their correct results using correct physical understanding, rather than mathematical intuition.
    • These manuscripts by Maxwell were not published at the time they were written despite Tait asking him to submit his ideas on knot theory to the Royal Society of Edinburgh for publication.
    • However, more than 100 years after they were written these manuscripts were published in [',' P M Harman (ed.), James Clerk Maxwell, The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell 1862-1873 II (Cambridge, 1995).','2].
    • There are three manuscripts on knots and some time between the second, which Maxwell wrote in October 1868, and the third, which he wrote on 29 December 1868, he had read Listing's 1847 paper Vorstudien zur Topologie for in the third manuscript he lists Listing's main results.
    • In February 1869 Maxwell presented an account of Listing's topological ideas to the London Mathematical Society.

  6. Classical light
    • Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .
    • The next major advances were due to Faraday and Maxwell and in some sense these completed the 'classical' understanding of light.
    • Before we move on to look at Faraday and Maxwell's major contributions let us look briefly at some other contributions from the middle of the 19th century.
    • Faraday did not himself have the necessary mathematical skills but his work was crucial in allowing Maxwell to develop a sophisticated mathematical theory based on the understanding which Faraday had brought to the study of electricity, magnetism, gravity and light.
    • Faraday's ideas provided the basis on which Maxwell built his mathematical electromagnetic theory.
    • One of Maxwell's first contributions to light was the creation of the first colour photograph in 1861.
    • Maxwell took three black and white photographs of a tartan ribbon, one through a red filter, one through a green filter and one through a blue filter.
    • At a meeting of the Royal Institution, with Faraday in the audience, Maxwell projected the three images, the image made with the red filter being projected with red light and similarly the others.
    • In 1862 Maxwell realised that electromagnetic phenomena are related to light when he discovered that they travelled at the same speed.
    • In 1864 Maxwell wrote a paper in which he stated (see [',' R Baierlein, Newton to Einstein (Cambridge, 1992).','1]):- .
    • The four partial differential equations, now known as Maxwell's equations, which completely describe the classical electromagnetic theory appeared in fully developed form in Maxwell's paper Electricity and Magnetism (1873).
    • Planck, who made one of the next major breakthoughts described in Light through the ages: Relativity and quantum era, said on the occasion of the centenary of Maxwell's birth in 1931, that this theory:- .

  7. Modern light
    • Light from Ancient Greece to Maxwell .
    • The study of light from ancient Greek times up to the revolutionary breakthrough by Maxwell is studied in the article Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell.
    • Maxwell can be thought of as the person who completed the classical description of light, and also as the person who began the modern developments.
    • He gave his famous four partial differential equations, now known as Maxwell's equations, which completely describe classical electromagnetic theory.
    • In the article Maxwell, despite Faraday's introduction of field theory, states clearly that he believes in an aether:- .
    • There certainly were extreme difficulties with the idea, as Maxwell was well aware, for to carry such high frequency vibrations as light the substance needed to be incredibly rigid, yet the earth, moon and other planets passed through this rigid material as if it were not there.
    • However, in his 1878 Encyclopaedia Britannica article Maxwell proposed an experiment to determine the velocity of the earth through the aether using light in the following way.
    • Split a ray of light, suggested Maxwell, and send the two resulting rays at right angles to each other.
    • Maxwell made the 'obvious' assumption that each beam would travel at the same speed through the aether so, due to the earth's motion, one should return slightly before the other and measuring the interference fringes would let the earth's speed through the aether be measured.
    • Maxwell did not believe that this experiment was practical when he proposed it.
    • Albert Michelson, however, who was spending study leave in Helmholtz's laboratory in Berlin in 1881, tried to carry out Maxwell's experiment.
    • In 1887 they carried out a much more accurate version of Maxwell's experiment.
    • The clearest example of how this works is to look again at Thomas Young's experiment of passing rays of light through two parallel slits and observing the interference patterns on a screen behind (see the article Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell).
    • Light from Ancient Greece to Maxwell .

  8. Classical light references
    • References for: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .
    • S D'Agostino, Maxwell's dimensional approach to the velocity of light, Centaurus 29 (3) (1986), 178-204.
    • S D'Agostino, Absolute systems of units and dimensions of physical quantities : a link between Weber's electrodynamics and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light, Aspects of mid to late nineteenth century electromagnetism, Physis Riv.
    • S D'Agostino, Experiment and theory in Maxwell's work.
    • S D'Agostino, Maxwell's dimensional approach to the velocity of light : rise and fall of a paradigma, in Proceedings of the fifth national congress on the history of physics (Italian), Rome, 1984, Rend.

  9. Classical light references
    • References for: Light through the ages: Ancient Greece to Maxwell .
    • S D'Agostino, Maxwell's dimensional approach to the velocity of light, Centaurus 29 (3) (1986), 178-204.
    • S D'Agostino, Absolute systems of units and dimensions of physical quantities : a link between Weber's electrodynamics and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light, Aspects of mid to late nineteenth century electromagnetism, Physis Riv.
    • S D'Agostino, Experiment and theory in Maxwell's work.
    • S D'Agostino, Maxwell's dimensional approach to the velocity of light : rise and fall of a paradigma, in Proceedings of the fifth national congress on the history of physics (Italian), Rome, 1984, Rend.

  10. Special relativity
    • A knowledge that the electromagnetic field was spread with a velocity essentially the same as the speed of light caused Maxwell to postulate that light itself was an electromagnetic phenomenon.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Maxwell wrote an article on Ether for the 1878 edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • He proposed the existence of a single ether and the article tells of a failed attempt by Maxwell to measure the effect of the ether drag on the earth's motion.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • Prompted by Maxwell's ideas, Michelson began his own terrestrial experiments and in 1881 he reported .
    • Also in 1908 Minkowski published an important paper on relativity, presenting the Maxwell-Lorentz equations in tensor form.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  11. General relativity
    • Some profound remarks about gravitation were made by Maxwell in 1864.
      Go directly to this paragraph
    • At the end of the work Maxwell comments on gravitation.
    • However Maxwell notes that there is a paradox caused by the attraction of like bodies.
    • The energy of the medium must be decreased by the presence of the bodies and Maxwell said .

  12. Hirst's diary
    • Maxwell .
    • James Clerk Maxwell: .
    • (24 March 1861) [Maxwell is] talkative with a Scotch brogue.

  13. Knots and physics references
    • P M Harman (ed.), James Clerk Maxwell, The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell 1862-1873 II (Cambridge, 1995).

  14. History overview

  15. Knots and physics references
    • P M Harman (ed.), James Clerk Maxwell, The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell 1862-1873 II (Cambridge, 1995).

  16. EMS History
    • After being an assistant to James Clerk Maxwell at the Cavendish Laboratory he was Regius Professor of Mathematics at St Andrews 1877-1879, then Professor at Edinburgh.

  17. Quantum mechanics history
    • The same conclusion was reached in 1884 by Ludwig Boltzmann for blackbody radiation, this time from theoretical considerations using thermodynamics and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory.
      Go directly to this paragraph

  18. Orbits references
    • A B Kozhevnikov, The views of Faraday and Maxwell on gravitation (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences XXXI (Moscow, 1985), 129-134.

  19. Orbits references
    • A B Kozhevnikov, The views of Faraday and Maxwell on gravitation (Russian), History and methodology of the natural sciences XXXI (Moscow, 1985), 129-134.


Societies etc

  1. London Mathematical Society
    • Cayley, Clifford, De Morgan, Hirst, Maxwell, Salmon, Smith, Spottiswoode and Sylvester had all joined by the end of 1865.


Honours

  1. Maxwell Prize
    • ICIAM Maxwell Prize .
    • This prize, funded jointly by the IMA and the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation, is designed to provide international recognition to a mathematician who has demonstrated originality in applied mathematics.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/Societies/Maxwell.html .

  2. Maxwell
    • James Clerk Maxwell of Glenlair .

  3. Fellow of the Royal Society
    • James C Maxwell 1861 .
    • Maxwell H A Newman 1939 .

  4. Bakerian Lecturer
    • 1866 James Clerk Maxwell .

  5. AMS Cole Prize in Algebra
    • 1960 Maxwell A Rosenlicht .

  6. Lunar features
    • (W) (L) Maxwell .

  7. Fellows of the RSE
    • James Clerk Maxwell of Glenlair1856More infoMacTutor biography .

  8. Fellows of the RSE
    • James Clerk Maxwell of Glenlair1856More infoMacTutor biography .

  9. International Congress Speaker
    • Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, Geometrical Topology.

  10. Lunar features
    • Maxwell .


References

  1. References for Maxwell
    • References for James Clerk Maxwell .
    • http://www.britannica.com/biography/James-Clerk-Maxwell .
    • L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell (London, 1882).
    • (http://www.hrshowcase.com/maxwell/directory.html) .
    • L Campbell and W Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell with selections from his correspondence and occasional writings (London, 1884).
    • C W F Everitt, James Clerk Maxwell: Physicist and Natural Philosopher (New York, 1975).
    • E G Forbes, James Clerk Maxwell (Edinburgh, 1982).
    • R T Glazebrook, James Clerk Maxwell: Physicist and Modern Physics (London, 1896).
    • P M Harman (ed.), The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell Vol.
    • P M Harman (ed.), The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell Vol.
    • J Hendry, James Clerk Maxwell and the theory of the electromagnetic field (Bristol, 1986).
    • W D Niven (ed.), The scientific papers of James Clerk Maxwell (New York, 1952).
    • R L Smith-Rose, James Clerk Maxwell : A physicist of the nineteenth century (London-New York-Toronto, 1948).
    • I Tolstoy, James Clerk Maxwell (1981).
    • C Domb, James Clerk-Maxwell: 100 Years Later, Nature 282 (1979), 235-239.
    • C Domb, James Clerk Maxwell in London: 1860-1865, Notes and Records Roy.
    • A Einstein, Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 66-73.
    • A Ferguson, The Clerk Maxwell centenary celebrations, Nature 128 (1931), 604.
    • A Fleming, Some memories, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 116-124.
    • D O Forfar, The origins of the Clerk (Maxwell) genius.
    • A T Fuller, James Clerk Maxwell's Cambridge manuscripts : extracts relating to control and stability, V.
    • W Garnett, Maxwell's laboratory, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 109-115.
    • W Garnett, Obituary notice of James Clerk Maxwell, Nature 21 (1879), 43.
    • R T Glazebrook, Early days at the Cavendish laboratory, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 130-141.
    • P M Harman, Edinburgh philosophy and Cambridge physics : the natural philosophy of James Clerk Maxwell, in Wranglers and physicists (Manchester, 1985), 202-224.
    • P M Harman, Maxwell and Saturn's rings : problems of stability and calculability, in The investigation of difficult things (Cambridge, 1992), 477-502.
    • B R Hunt and J A Yorke, Maxwell on chaos, Nonlinear Sci.
    • J Jeans, James Clerk Maxwell's method, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 91-108.
    • H Lamb, Clerk Maxwell as lecturer, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 142-146.
    • J Larmor, The scientific environment of Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 74-90.
    • O Lodge, Clerk Maxwell and wireless telegraphy, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 125-129.
    • James Clerk Maxwell, Proc.
    • A Lichnerowicz, Maxwell and geometrical dynamics, in J C Maxwell, the sesquicentennial symposium (Amsterdam, 1984), 195-209.
    • J C Maxwell, Quotations from Maxwell, in J C Maxwell, the sesquicentennial symposium (Amsterdam, 1984), 1-9.
    • M Planck, Maxwell's influence on theoretical physics in Germany, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 45-65.
    • J Polak, On the 100th anniversary of the death of James Clerk Maxwell (Czech), Pokroky Mat.
    • R A Sardaryan, James Clerk Maxwell (on the one hundred fiftieth anniversary of his birth) (Russian), Izv.
    • P Theerman, James Clerk Maxwell and religion, Amer.
    • J J Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge, 1931), 1-44.
    • M Wilkes, Reflections on Maxwell, in J C Maxwell, the sesquicentennial symposium (Amsterdam, 1984), 191-192.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/References/Maxwell.html .

  2. References for Kelly Max
    • References for Gregory Maxwell Kelly .

  3. References for Chrystal
    • Letter from George Chrystal to Professor Maxwell, 7 July 1874, Tubingen, Cambridge University Library Add MSS.
    • Letter from Professor G Chrystal to Professor J C Maxwell, 6 March 1879, Cambridge University Library Add.
    • Letter from Professor J C Maxwell to George Chrystal, 17 July 1877, Cambridge University Library Add MSS8375.
    • Letter from Professor J C Maxwell to Professor G Chrystal, 3 June 1879, Cambridge University Library Add.

  4. References for Einstein
    • N Maxwell, Induction and scientific realism : Einstein versus van Fraassen.
    • N Maxwell, Induction and scientific realism : Einstein versus van Fraassen.
    • N Maxwell, Induction and scientific realism : Einstein versus van Fraassen.

  5. References for Heaviside
    • J Z Buchwald, From Maxwell to microphysics (Chicago, 1985).
    • J Z Buchwald, Oliver Heaviside, Maxwell's apostle and Maxwellian apostate, Centaurus 28 (1985), 288-330.

  6. References for Sprague
    • T B Sprague, Annuities, article in 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (scientific eds, J Clerk Maxwell and T H Huxley) (A and C Black, Edinburgh, 1875).
    • L Campbell and W Garnett, Life of James Clerk Maxwell (1882) page 326.

  7. References for Tait
    • P M Harman (ed.), James Clerk Maxwell, The scientific letters and papers of James Clerk Maxwell 1862-1873 II (Cambridge, 1995).

  8. References for Hertz Heinrich
    • S D'Agostino, On the difficulties of the transition from Maxwell's and Hertz's pure-field theories to Lorentz's electron, Phys.
    • S D'Agostino, Pourquoi Hertz et non pas Maxwell, a-t-il decouvert les ondes electriques?, Centaurus 32 (1) (1989), 66-76.

  9. References for Newton
    • P M Harman, Newton to Maxwell : the 'Principia' and British physics.

  10. References for Morgan William
    • Sir H Maxwell, Annals of the Scottish Widows Fund, 1815-1914, R.

  11. References for Hodge
    • E A Maxwell, Obituary: William Vallance Douglas Hodge, The Mathematical Gazette 60 (411) (1976), 61-62.

  12. References for Crofton
    • T M Charlton, An extension of Maxwell's theory of pin-jointed frameworks by M W Crofton, F.

  13. References for Broadbent
    • E A Maxwell, Obituary: Thomas Arthur Alan Broadbent, The Mathematical Gazette 57 (401) (1973), 195-197.

  14. References for Weber
    • S D'Agostino, Absolute systems of units and dimensions of physical quantities: a link between Weber's electrodynamics and Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light, Physis Riv.

  15. References for Pedoe
    • A E Maxwell, Review: A Geometric Introduction to Linear Algebra, by Daniel Pedoe, The Mathematical Gazette 48 (366) ( 1964), 456.

  16. References for Durell
    • E A Maxwell, Clement Vavasour Durell, Mathematical Gazette 53 (1969), 312-313.

  17. References for Thomson
    • D F Moyer, Continuum mechanics and field theory : Thomson and Maxwell, Studies in Hist.

  18. References for Grassmann
    • R S Turner, The origins of colorimetry: what did Helmholtz and Maxwell learn from Grassmann?, in Hermann Gunther Grassmann (1809-1877) : visionary mathematician, scientist and neohumanist scholar (Dordrecht, 1996), 71-85.

  19. References for Pauli
    • M A Szalek, Pauli versus the Maxwell equations and the Biot-Savart law, Phys.

  20. References for Bromwich
    • J D Zund and J M Wilkes, Bromwich's method for solving the source-free Maxwell equations, Tensor (NS) 55 (2) (1994), 192-196.

  21. References for Godement
    • E A Maxwell, Review: Cours d'Algebre, by Roger Godement, The Mathematical Gazette 47 (362) (1963), 364-365.

  22. References for Gateaux
    • James Clerk Maxwell, Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases, Phil.

  23. References for Helmholtz
    • R S Turner, The origins of colorimetry: what did Helmholtz and Maxwell learn from Grassmann?, in Hermann Gunther Grassmann (1809-1877) : visionary mathematician, scientist and neohumanist scholar, Lieschow, 1994 (Dordrecht, 1996), 71-85.

  24. References for Macbeath
    • E A Maxwell, Review: Elementary Vector Algebra, by A M Macbeath, The Mathematical Gazette 48 (366) (1964), 457.

  25. References for Hilbert
    • E A Maxwell, Review: Geometry and the Imagination, by D Hilbert, S Cohn-Vossen and P Nemenyi, The Mathematical Gazette 37 (322) (1953), 295.

  26. References for Quetelet
    • T Toyoda, Essay on Quetelet and Maxwell: from la physique sociale to statistical physics, Rev.

  27. References for Rogers
    • E A Maxwell, Review: Packing and Covering, by C A Rogers, The Mathematical Gazette 50 (373) (1966), 343.


Additional material

  1. James Clerk Maxwell on the nature of Saturn's rings
    • James Clerk Maxwell on the nature of Saturn's rings .
    • In 1859 James Clerk Maxwell published On the Stability of the Motion of Saturn's Rings.
    • Maxwell was awarded the Adams Prize for his essay which contained many pages of detailed mathematical calculations.
    • At this point Maxwell begins his difficult mathematical calculations which go on for 60 pages.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Extras/Maxwell_Saturn.html .

  2. EMS Maxwell Tait.html
    • EMS_Maxwell_Tait.html .
    • /EMS_Maxwell_Tait.html.

  3. EMS Maxwell Tait.html
    • EMS_Maxwell_Tait.html .
    • /ems/EMS_Maxwell_Tait.

  4. Einstein: 'Ether and Relativity
    • The development of the theory of electricity along the path opened up by Maxwell and Lorentz gave the development of our ideas concerning the ether quite a peculiar and unexpected turn.
    • For Maxwell himself the ether indeed still had properties which were purely mechanical, although of a much more complicated kind than the mechanical properties of tangible solid bodies.
    • But neither Maxwell nor his followers succeeded in elaborating a mechanical model for the ether which might furnish a satisfactory mechanical interpretation of Maxwell's laws of the electro-magnetic field.
    • He achieved this, the most important advance in the theory of electricity since Maxwell, by taking from ether its mechanical, and from matter its electromagnetic qualities.
    • Thus Lorentz succeeded in reducing all electromagnetic happenings to Maxwell's equations for free space.
    • The space-time theory and the kinematics of the special theory of relativity were modelled on the Maxwell-Lorentz theory of the electromagnetic field.
    • For if K be a system of coordinates relatively to which the Lorentzian ether is at rest, the Maxwell-Lorentz equations are valid primarily with reference to K.
    • Then for the first time the epoch of theoretical physics founded by Faraday and Maxwell would reach a satisfactory conclusion.

  5. H M Macdonald addresses the British Association in 1934
    • Almost twenty years later, in 1865, Maxwell propounded a theory of light in his memoir, A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field.
    • [What might be termed an electric theory of light was propounded by Oersted; in this theory light was regarded as a succession of electric sparks.] In the introduction Maxwell states: 'We have therefore some reason to believe, from the phenomena of light and heat, that there is an aethereal medium filling space and permeating bodies, capable of being set in motion and of transmitting that motion from one part to another and of communicating that motion to gross matter so as to heat it and affect it in various ways.
    • Maxwell postulates further that the all-pervading medium possesses physical characteristics of the same kind as a homogeneous isotropic dielectric, that the effect of the action of an electric force on it is the production of what he terms 'electric displacement,' which is 'a kind of elastic yielding to the action of the force similar to that which takes place in structures and machines owing to the want of perfect rigidity of the connexions.' .
    • The all-pervading medium which Maxwell postulates is a medium which possesses to some extent the physical characteristics of an elastic solid, and it is probable that his replacement of the expression for the electrokinetic energy which is obtained from Faraday's laws by an expression which gives the energy in terms of the magnetic force, was effected to make it similar to the expression for the kinetic energy function of an elastic solid.
    • This does not affect Maxwell's investigation of the propagation of a magnetic disturbance, as this expression for the electrokinetic energy is not used in that investigation.
    • Faraday, like Fresnel, appears to be thinking in terms of geometrical relations, while Maxwell is seeking to construct a mechanical model whose motions will resemble those which constitute light.
    • In this connection it is of interest to observe that a result of Faraday's laws is that, when there are electric currents in a system of circuits which are in motion, the kinetic energy function does not contain terms which involve the product of an electric current and a velocity, a result which Maxwell verified experimentally.

  6. Poem for Cayley
    • Poem for Cayley by Maxwell .
    • James Clerk Maxwell addressed the following poem to the Committee in charge of the Arthur Cayley Portrait Fund in 1874: .

  7. George Temple's Inaugural Lecture II
    • As a final and instructive case study in the distinction of the classic and romantic, let me quote from Henri Poincare's lectures on 'electricite et Optique', [Paris, Carre et Naud, 1901] in which the great French mathematician gives us his full, free, and frank opinion of the writings of Clerk Maxwell, whom we in Great Britain regard as the creator of electromagnetic theory.
    • 'The first time that a French reader opens Maxwell's book, a feeling of uneasiness, and often even of mistrust mingles at first with his admiration.
    • 'Maxwell does not give a mechanical explanation of electricity and magnetism; he limits himself to showing that such an explanation is possible..
    • .; Maxwell himself did not attempt this reconciliation, he contents himself with saying: "I have not been able to make the next step, namely, to account by mechanical considerations for these stresses in the dielectric." .
    • In fact, if we do not mix them up, and if we do not seek to get to the bottom of things, two contradictory theories can both be useful instruments of research, and perhaps Maxwell's book would be less suggestive if it had not opened to us so many divergent paths.' .
    • This little-known criticism of Maxwell's great treatise most admirably expresses the difference between the classic and romantic in theoretical physics.
    • To do Maxwell justice I add one more quotation, attributed by Gertrude Stein to Picasso.

  8. Coulson: 'Electricity
    • In many respects the field covered is similar to that of Maxwell's Classical Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.
    • We shall see in Chapter XIII how Maxwell was able to use its known value to show that light waves were essentially an electromagnetic phenomenon.
    • It was the peculiar genius of Maxwell that he recognised a previous omission.
    • This is one part of Maxwell's Displacement Current, and we shall see in Chapter XIII that although for quasi-steady or steady systems this new term is not effective, for sufficiently rapidly varying currents it often becomes dominant.
    • Men it is included we are led to formulate' the general equations of the electromagnetic field, usually known as Maxwell's Equations.

  9. Sommerfeld: 'Atomic Structure
    • Opposed to this there arose in the second half of the nineteenth century a view which followed the course of the continuously extended electromagnetic field from point to point and moment to moment; it was called the "Field Theory" in contradistinction to the "Theory of Action at a Distance." It was propounded by Faraday, worked out by Maxwell, and completed by Heinrich Hertz.
    • Maxwell's equations teach us how electric and magnetic lines of force are linked with one another, how magnetic changes at any point of the field call up electrical forces, and how electric currents are surrounded by magnetic forces.
    • After Maxwell had already surmised that light was an alternating electromagnetic field (he succeeded in calculating the velocity of light from purely electrical measurements made by Kohlrausch), Hertz produced his "rays of electric force," which, just like light, are reflected, refracted, and brought to a focus by appropriate mirrors, and which are propagated in space with the velocity of light.
    • The original theory of Maxwell which had been perfected by Hertz retained its significance for phenomena on a large scale, such as those of electrotechnics and wireless telegraphy, and gave an easy means of determining the mean values of the electrical phase quantities (i.e.
    • Maxwell's Electrodynamics had to give way to Lorentz's Dynamics of the Electron; the theory of the continuous field became replaced by the discontinuous theory, that of the atomicity of electricity.

  10. James Jeans addresses the British Association in 1934
    • My own thoughts, I need hardly say, turn to James Clerk Maxwell.
    • Now Clerk Maxwell showed that electromagnetic activity of all kinds could be depicted perfectly as travelling in space and time - this was the essential content of his electromagnetic theory of light.
    • Except for travelling at a different speed, they are very like the waves by which Maxwell described the flow of radiation through space, so that matter and radiation are much more like one another in the new physics than they were in the old.
    • Yet, if the particles really existed as points, and the waves depicted the chances of their existing at different points of space - as Maxwell's law does for the molecules of a gas - then the gas would emit a continuous spectrum instead of the line-spectrum that is actually observed.

  11. Max Planck: 'The Nature of Light
    • At this stage, in the middle of the last century, came James Clerk Maxwell, with his bold hypothesis that light was electro-magnetic.
    • What Maxwell could only prophecy, Heinrich Hertz was able to verify a generation later, when he showed how to produce the electro-magnetic waves calculated by Maxwell, and thereby ensured the final acceptance of the electro-magnetic theory of light, according to which electric waves only differ from heat and light rays in that they have very much greater wave-length.

  12. A D Aleksandrov's view of Mathematics
    • The Scottish physicist Maxwell, by generalizing the laws of electromagnetic phenomena as established by experiment, was able to express these laws in the form of equations.
    • Moreover, Maxwell's results led to the search for electromagnetic waves of purely electrical origin, arising for example from an oscillating charge.

  13. Max Planck: 'Quantum Theory
    • But perhaps this theory is not so far distant as the introduction of Maxwell's light theory was from the discovery of the velocity of light by Olaf Romer.
    • A question, from the complete answer to which we may expect far-reaching explanations, is what becomes of the energy of a light quantum after perfect emission? Does it spread out, as it progresses, in all directions, as in Huygens's wave theory, and while covering an ever-larger amount of space, diminish without limit? Or does it travel along as in Newton's emanation theory like a projectile in one direction? In the first case the quantum could never concentrate its energy in a particular spot to enable it to liberate an electron from the atomic influences; in the second case we would have the complete triumph of Maxwell's theory, and the continuity between static and dynamic fields must be sacrificed, and with it the present complete explanation of interference phenomena, which have been investigated in all details.

  14. Andrew Forsyth addresses the British Association in 1905, Part 2
    • Much has been done towards the old duty, ever insistent, of explaining new phenomena; and the names of Maxwell, Weber, Franz Neumann, and Hertz need only to be mentioned in order to suggest the progress that has been made in one subject alone.
    • When the wonderful school of French physicists, composed of Monge, Sadi Carnot, Fourier, Poisson, Poinsot, Ampere, and Fresnel (to mention only some names), together with Gauss, Kirchhoff, and von Helmholtz in Germany, and Ivory, Green, Stokes, Maxwell, and others in England, applied their mathematics to various branches of physics, for the most part its development was that of an ancillary subject.

  15. Truesdell's books
    • (with R G Muncaster) Fundamentals of Maxwell's kinetic theory of a simple monatomic gas.
    • The authors reach back to the papers of the founders of the kinetic theory: Maxwell and Boltzmann.

  16. Charles Tweedie's subscribers
    • Sir John Maxwell Stirling- Maxwell, Bart., of Pollok.

  17. Horace Lamb addresses the British Association in 1904, Part 2
    • This statement must not be taken too literally; at all events, a fuller, and I think a clearer, account of the province and the method of Abstract Dynamics is given in a review of the second edition of Thomson and Tait, which was one of the last things penned by Maxwell, in 1879.
    • By a frank process of idealisation a logical system of Abstract Dynamics can doubtless be built up, on the lines sketched by Maxwell in the passage referred to.

  18. Herivel's French Theoretical Physics
    • Again, the French may have felt that after the important contributions of French scientists such as Coulomb, Poisson, Biot and, above all, Ampere, the theory of electricity and magnetism which is today principally associated with the names of Faraday and Maxwell should have been created by a Frenchman.
    • When we recall the achievements of theoretical physicists like Thomson, Clausius and Maxwell in the second half of the nineteenth century, let us therefore also remember not only that these achievements were largely built on the earlier achievements of the French mathematicians and theoretical physicists of the turn of the century, but also that the history of theoretical physics in the second half of the century might itself have been very different from what it actually was if it had not been for the tragic deaths of Carnot and Fresnel.

  19. 21st Century mathematics
    • The basic mathematics of this problem, as with so many others, was first considered by the 19th century mathematician and physicist James Clerk Maxwell, whose unifying theory for electromagnetic and light waves led to the invention of radio.
    • Its organisation, led by Sir Michael Atiyah, is supported by the mathematical community in the UK, involving chiefly Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt universities, the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications, and the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences in Edinburgh, Maxwell's birthplace.

  20. Science at St Andrews
    • A Cambridge friend of James Stuart (afterwards Rector, 1898) describes an episode of the Dundee meeting of the British Association in 1867: "On Saturday I went with an excursion to St Andrews where I slunk away from a geological walk which I would hardly tell you if I had not the excuse of the company of Maxwell and two Scotch Professors and Thomson the electrician.
    • Maxwell, Thomson and Tait, all mathematicians, lunched at Professor Fischer's ..

  21. Hardy on the Tripos
    • Yet I do remember Mr Bertrand Russell telling me that he studied electricity at Trinity for three years, and that at the end of them he had never heard of Maxwell's equations; and I have also been told by friends whom I believe to be competent that Maxwell's equations are really rather important in physics.

  22. Schr÷dinger: 'Statistical Thermodynamics
    • Maxwell's law of velocity distribution is the best-known example.
    • This original point of view is associated with the names of Maxwell, Boltzmann and others.

  23. Horace Lamb addresses the British Association in 1904
    • One of the most striking examples of this was the identification by Maxwell of the laws of Electromagnetism with the dynamical equations of Lagrange.
    • A zealous, or overzealous, mathematician might indeed make out something of a case if he were to contend that, after all, the greatest work of such men as Stokes, Kirchhoff, and Maxwell was mathematical rather than experimental in its complexion.

  24. Solve Applied Problems
    • Next we turn to tensor analysis, which enables us to express Maxwell's electromagnetic equations in a relativistically invariant form, and to develop the special theory and general theory of relativity.

  25. Royaumont seminar
    • Maxwell, Edwin Arthur (UK) .

  26. Studies presented to Richard von Mises' Introduction
    • In contrast to the procedure of the physicist, applied mathematics concentrates its efforts on the problem: how can "values of length" be computed from sets of different readings? And, in a general way, it has become the business of applied mathematics to investigate the connection between "direct pointer readings" and the abstract conceptions (as length, or electromagnetic field) that occur in all laws of science - in Newton's mechanics as well as in Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field.

  27. Hiebert's doctoral students
    • Thesis title: Maxwell's Concept of Electric Displacement.

  28. T M MacRobert: 'Spherical Harmonics' Contents
    • Clerk Maxwell's theory of spherical harmonics.

  29. James Jeans addresses the British Association in 1934, Part 2
    • Let us remember Faraday's electromagnetic induction, Maxwell's Hertzian waves, and the Otto cycle - each of which has provided employment for millions of men.

  30. A I Khinchin: 'Statistical Mechanics' Introduction
    • In the first investigations (Maxwell, Boltzmann) these applications of statistical methods were not of a systematical character.

  31. Godement's reviews
    • Review by: E A Maxwell.

  32. Art Mathematics Music.html
    • This led to the mathematical development of the subject of Thermodynamics and eventually to Statistical Mechanics with the work of James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in the 1870s who introduced the fundamental formula for the entropy S = k log W where W is the number of distinct accessible states of an enclosed dynamical system in equilibrium and k is Boltzmann's constant.

  33. Mathematics in St Andrews
    • Clerk Maxwell's Theory of Heat.

  34. Herstein: Preface to 'Topics in algebra
    • To mention just a few of these: Charles Curtis, Marshall Hall, Nathan Jacobson, Arthur Mattuck, and Maxwell Rosenlicht.

  35. Pˇlya's favourite quotes
    • Maxwell: It is of great advantage to the student of any subject to read the original memoirs on that subject, for science is always most completely assimilated when it is in the nascent state.

  36. Comments by Charlotte Angas Scott
    • "There is no time of reading a book better than when you need it, and when you are on the point of finding it out yourself if you were able," says J Clerk Maxwell; why then should we thrust upon the student "the consoling hope that, after all, this other [view of space] may be the true state of things," until he is able to appreciate the relief thus offered, through having, with Clifford, suffered from " the dreary infinities of homaloidal space"? But given this preliminary study of geometry, then comes the time for a concise systematic treatment of the subject with direct reference to modern ideas.

  37. George Chrystal's Third Promoter's Address
    • I made the acquaintance of a large number of the ablest young men of my generation, and it was no small matter to come even within view of such men as Cayley, Adams, Stokes, and Maxwell; and to have lived for a time within the college walls which had sheltered Tait and Kelvin.

  38. Ahrens book of quotes
    • James Clerk Maxwell.

  39. Krejci's book
    • The results of Chapters II and III can however be interpreted also in the framework of Maxwell's equations in ferromagnetic media of Preisach or Della Torre type.

  40. Pedoe's books
    • Review by: Edwin Arthur Maxwell.

  41. James Jeans: 'Physics and Philosophy' II
    • This was supplemented in due course by various mechanical representations of the electromagnetic theories of Maxwell and Faraday.

  42. Percy MacMahon addresses the British Association in 1901
    • It was not indeed till about 1845 or a little later that we could point to the great names of William Rowan Hamilton, MacCullagh, Adams, Boole, Salmon, Stokes, Sylvester, Cayley, William Thomson, H J S Smith and Clerk Maxwell as adequate representatives of mathematical science.

  43. W H Young addresses ICM 1928 Part 2
    • We have, for instance, been told by the enquirer himself, of the frigid reception accorded to his question: What is the physical analogue of the most general group of conformal transformations of four-dimensional space that leaves unaltered the equations of Maxwell-Lorentz? .

  44. Craig books
    • There are, however, notable exceptions to this general rule, as witness: Maxwell's treatise on Electricity and Magnetism; Rayleigh on Sound; Cayley's Elliptic Functions, and a few others.

  45. Hilbert reviews
    • Review by: Edwin Arthur Maxwell.

  46. Leonard J Savage: 'Foundations of Statistics
    • The Vice-Chairman of the Executive Committee was A C Aitken and the Scientific Programme Committee was M H A Newman (Chairman), A C Aitken, M S Bartlett, M L Cartwright, J L B Cooper, H Davenport, P Hall, N Kemmer, M J Lighthill, E A Maxwell, D G Northcott, W W Rogosinski, A G Walker, J H C Whitehead, M V Wilkes and J A Green.

  47. Serre reviews
    • This is mainly an exposition of the theory of generalized Jacobian varieties by Maxwell Rosenlicht and the class field theory over function fields by Lang.

  48. Tscherning on Thomas Young
    • For if you take Young as the first man in the question of the theory of light, the name of the second man is Fresnel; in the question of the anomalies of refraction of the human eye, the name of the second man is Donders; in the question of colour senses, you can call the second man Clerk Maxwell, or Helmholtz; in the question of hieroglyphics the name of the second man is Champollion; in the question of terrestrial radiant heat the name of the second man in Wells, and I have not yet finished the list.

  49. Who was who 1852
    • To the same tradition belongs the work of the famous physicists James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) and William Thomson, Lord Kelvin (1824-1907).

  50. George Temple's Inaugural Lecture I
    • According to his biographer, Silvanus P Thompson, 'Maxwell used to declare that when Thomson read his lecture its delivery took less than an hour, and that the lecturer was greatly downhearted at its conclusion.' However, the manuscript of the lecture shows signs of revisions made in later years, and at different times, so that Kelvin clearly made good use of his inaugural on later occasions.

  51. MacRobert: 'Spherical Harmonics' Preface
    • A short account of Clerk Maxwell's theory of the Spherical Harmonics will be found in Chapter XIII.

  52. Tait graduates address.html
    • It may be said, indeed, that the framers of the now measure have entirely ignored many of the chief arguments aud conclusions of, that Report: -- a document which in its thoroughness, its ripe wisdom, and its calm impartiality, stands in irreconcilable disaccord with much or the contents of the present hasty, and therefore slipshod and one-sided, Bill it should be a sad reflection that the steady labour of two years ; cheerfully given by a group of men of the highest eminence, chosen from all parties and from almost every field of knowledge; a group including Froude, Huxley, and Stirling-Maxwell; and presided over by our illustrious Chancellor, wbo is not only the greatest of all benefactors of the Scottish Universities, but of all men the most conversant with their position and their wants; that such hearty, honest, and valuable labour has been spent absolutely in vain.

  53. Bell papers
    • The Greek prize was Clerk Maxwell's classic on electricity and magnetism, the other, Homer's Odyssey.

  54. Von Neumann: 'The Mathematician' Part 2
    • As I have pointed out before, Euclid's system of geometry was the prototype of the axiomatic presentation of classical mechanics, and similar treatments dominate phenomenological thermodynamics as well as certain phases of Maxwell's system of electrodynamics and also of special relativity.


Quotations

  1. Quotations by Maxwell
    • Quotations by James Clerk Maxwell .
    • The Life of James Clek Maxwell .
    • [Maxwell strongly disagreed with these views and was attacking them.] .
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Quotations/Maxwell.html .

  2. Quotations by Bondi
    • It does not matter whether this room is created by allowing for arbitrary forces as Newtonian dynamics does, or by allowing for arbitrary equations of state for matter, as General Relativity does, or for arbitrary motions of charges and dipoles, as Maxwell's electrodynamics does.

  3. Quotations by Boltzmann
    • is not familiar with Maxwell's memoirs on his dynamical theory of gases? ..

  4. Quotations by Todhunter
    • [Maxwell asked whether he would like to see an experimental demonstration of conical refraction] .

  5. Quotations by Ampere
    • James Clerk Maxwell in A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873) .

  6. Quotations by Planck
    • His name stands magnificently over the portal of classical physics, and we can say this of him; by his birth James Clerk Maxwell belongs to Edinburgh, by his personality he belongs to Cambridge, by his work he belongs to the whole world.


Famous Curves

No matches from this section


Chronology

  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • Maxwell writes his first paper at the age of 14: On the description of oval curves, and those having a plurality of foci.
    • Maxwell publishes On Faraday's lines of force showing that a few relatively simple mathematical equations could express the behaviour of electric and magnetic fields and their interrelation.
    • Maxwell proposes that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon.
    • Maxwell publishes Electricity and Magnetism.
    • This work contains the four partial differential equations, now known as "Maxwell's equations".
    • The methods will be important in Maxwell's mathematical analysis of electromagnetic waves.
    • This will transform the Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic theory of gases into a rigorous principle through the use of Lebesgue measure.

  2. Chronology for 1870 to 1880
    • Maxwell publishes Electricity and Magnetism.
    • This work contains the four partial differential equations, now known as "Maxwell's equations".

  3. Chronology for 1930 to 1940
    • This will transform the Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic theory of gases into a rigorous principle through the use of Lebesgue measure.

  4. Chronology for 1840 to 1850
    • Maxwell writes his first paper at the age of 14: On the description of oval curves, and those having a plurality of foci.

  5. Chronology for 1850 to 1860
    • Maxwell publishes On Faraday's lines of force showing that a few relatively simple mathematical equations could express the behaviour of electric and magnetic fields and their interrelation.

  6. Chronology for 1860 to 1870
    • Maxwell proposes that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon.

  7. Chronology for 1880 to 1890
    • The methods will be important in Maxwell's mathematical analysis of electromagnetic waves.


EMS Archive

  1. EMS honours Maxwell and Tait
    • The Edinburgh Mathematical Society honours Maxwell and Tait .
    • On Friday 4 December 1931, 100 years after the birth of James Clerk Maxwell and Peter Guthrie Tait, the Edinburgh Mathematical Society held a meeting in their honour:- .
    • MAXWELL AND TAIT .
    • Dr W H M'Crea delivered a lecture "James Clerk Maxwell and Peter Guthrie Tait" to the Edinburgh Mathematical Society in the Mathematical Institute, Edinburgh University yesterday.
    • James Clerk Maxwell and Peter Guthrie Tait, said Dr M'Crea, took a prominent place among the scientists of last century.
    • After holding professorships at Aberdeen and London, Maxwell became the first occupant of the Cavendish Chair of Experimental Physics at Cambridge.
    • It was impossible in a lecture to give a catalogue of the achievements of Maxwell and Tait.
    • Maxwell showed how the energy is shared out among the molecules, and Tait gave a revised proof of his result.
    • These examples witness to the fact that the investigations of Maxwell and Tait continue to bear fruit in the fundamental problems of the physical universe.
    • At the conclusion of the lecture, Mr J C Tait, who is a son of Professor Tait, read letters and other documents which passed between Maxwell and Tait.
    • http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/ems/EMS_Maxwell_Tait.html .

  2. Edinburgh Mathematical Society Lecturers 1883-2016
    • (Edinburgh) James Clerk Maxwell and Peter Guthrie Tait .
    • Extracts from letters and other documents which passed between Maxwell and Tait .
    • (St Andrews) The relations between Maxwell's equations and geometrical optics .
    • Edinburgh Maxwell, E.A.
    • (Paris-Dauphine) Recent mathematical results on the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation and related kinetic models .

  3. 1931-32 Dec meeting
    • McCrea, W H: "James Clerk Maxwell and Peter Guthrie Tait", [Not printed in an EMS publication] .
    • Tait, J G: "Extracts from letters and other documents which passed between Maxwell and Tait", [Not printed in an EMS publication] .
    • Mr McCrea gave a short account of the lives and work of Maxwell and Tait, the centenary of whose births the society was celebrating.

  4. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • Peter Guthrie Tait was a fellow-pupil of Maxwell at Edinburgh Academy and both of them went on to study at Edinburgh University and Cambridge.
    • With his collaborations with Maxwell, Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and Hamilton he made important contributions in both mathematics and physics.

  5. EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
    • Peter Guthrie Tait was a fellow-pupil of Maxwell at Edinburgh Academy and both of them went on to study at Edinburgh University and Cambridge.
    • With his collaborations with Maxwell, Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and Hamilton he made important contributions in both mathematics and physics.

  6. EMS 1938 Colloquium
    • The modern picture of these particles differs immensely from the classical views of Newton and Maxwell.

  7. EMS 1914 Colloquium
    • It is assumed that every part of matter consists of electric charges in motion, according to laws which are a generalised form of those of Maxwell's famous theory.

  8. The EMS: the first 100 years (1883-1983) Part 2
    • Peter Guthrie Tait (1831-1901), who was a school-fellow of James Clerk Maxwell at Edinburgh Academy, was a distinguished Professor of Natural Philosophy with very wide interests.

  9. The EMS: the first hundred years
    • In Great Britain top-ranking mathematicians and mathematical physicists, such as Cayley and Clerk Maxwell, could compare with any to be found outside these islands; however, at a lower level, the schools and universities were not producing comparable numbers of mathematicians able to advance their subject.


BMC Archive

  1. Minutes for 2010
    • Maxwell Institute, Edinburgh (2010): .
    • Present: Peter Giblin (Chair), Jim Howie (Maxwell Institute), Michael Singer (Maxwell Institute), John Hunton (Leicester), Alex Clark (Leicester), Peter Fleischmann (Kent), James Shank (Kent), David Jordan (Sheffield), Charles Goldie (LMS), Edmund Robertson (EMS), Richard Pinch (HGM), Sandra Pott (LMS), Isabelle Robinson (standing in for Ivor Goddard) (LMS) .
    • Maxwell Institute, Edinburgh (2010) Jim Howie, Michael Singer .

  2. Minutes for 2010
    • Representatives from the 2010 Maxwell Institute (JimHowie, Michael Singer) .
    • Academic and Financial Reports on the Maxwell Institute (Edinburgh/HeriotWatt) BMC 2010 .

  3. Scientific Committee 2006
    • The Chair reported that this would be a joint pure and applied meeting organised by Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt Universities through the auspices of the Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences.
    • Angus Macdonald, the head of the Maxwell Institute, had been contacted.

  4. Minutes for 2009
    • Galway), Jim Howie (Maxwell Institute), John Hunton (Leicester), Alex Clark (Leicester), James Shank (Kent), Peter Cooper (LMS), Charles Goldie (LMS), Peter Kropholler (EMS), Edmund Robertson (EMS), Martin Mathieu (elected at AGM).
    • Apologies: Michael Singer (Maxwell Institute), Cathy Hobbs (LMS), Sandra Pott (LMS).

  5. Minutes for 2009
    • Present: Peter Giblin (Chair), Ted Hurley (NUI Galway), James Ward (NUI Galway), Jim Howie (Maxwell Institute), Michael Singer (Maxwell Institute), John Hunton (Leicester), Alex Clark (Leicester), James Shank (Kent), Peter Fleischmann (Kent), Cathy Hobbs (LMS), Sandra Pott (LMS), Charles Goldie (LMS), Peter Kropholler (EMS), Edmund Robertson (EMS), Martin .

  6. BMC Report
    • There was a short presentation by Ben Mestel on the Isaac Newton Institute and by Jim Howie on the Maxwell Institute.

  7. EMS Dec88.html
    • James Clerk Maxwell Building, .

  8. Minutes for 2007
    • The Chair confirmed that the 2010 BMC/BAMC joint meeting is to be hosted by the Maxwell Institute, Edinburgh.

  9. BMC 2003
    • Robertson, E FTait, Maxwell and knot theory .

  10. BMC 2015
    • McCartney, MThe Cambridge Poems of James Clerk Maxwell .

  11. Minutes for 2007
    • On behalf of the Maxwell Institute, Edinburgh University and Heriot-Watt University, Professor Anthony Carbery invited the BMC (and the BAMC) to the City of Edinburgh in 2010.


Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. James Clerk Maxwell
    • James Clerk Maxwell .

  2. Parton, Galloway
    • James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) lived at 'Glenlair', four miles NE of Parton, Galloway (now Dumfries & Galloway), about 20 miles west of Dumfries, particularly during his retirement from academic life in 1865-1871, when he rebuilt the house.
    • In a letter to Tait on 11 December 1867, he first suggests 'Maxwell's Demon', a name coined by Kelvin [Maxwell Foundation, pp.74-75].
    • [Hartwick, Letter from Hartwick; Anon., The Clerk Maxwell Route] .
    • His great-grandfather inherited the Maxwell estates from his wife, adopting the name Maxwell, and these were then inherited as secondary estates, i.e.
    • they could not be held in common with the main Clerk title and estates, but passed to the second son, provided the holder adopted the name Maxwell.
    • Secondary inheritance can get quite confusing, but the Maxwell situation is only mildly confusing.
    • His great-grandfatherwas a second son, but his elder brother died without issue and so the great-grandfather inherited the title - but what happened to the Maxwell estate then is not shown in my source.
    • Maxwell's grandfather was a second son and adopted the name Maxwell.
    • He died before his elder brother, a Clerk, who died without heir, so the title passed to Maxwell's father's elder brother, Sir George Clerk (1787-1867), FRS, FRSE.
    • He appears to have had only one son, so the Maxwell estates descended to our man.

  3. References
    • The Clerk Maxwell Route.
    • The origins of the Clerk (Maxwell) genius.
    • Cf Maxwell Foundation for a later version of this article.
    • Maxwell, Edwin A.
    • Maxwell, James Clerk Foundation.
    • James Clerk Maxwell Commemorative Booklet.
    • Produced by the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation on the occasion of the Fourth International Congress on Industrial and Applied Mathematics coming to Edinburgh in July 1999.
    • Michael Atiyah: Foreword; Keith Moffat: Homage to James Clerk Maxwell; Freeman J.
    • Dyson: Why is Maxwell's Theory so hard to understand?; Roger Penrose: Out of a job in Aberdeen [review of Harman's ed.
    • Reid: James Clerk Maxwell's Scottish Chair; David O.
    • Forfar & Chris Pritchard: The remarkable story of Maxwell and Tait; Chris Pritchard: Aspects of the life and work of Peter Guthrie Tait.
    • James Clerk Maxwell.

  4. Cambridge Individuals
    • Maxwell, G.
    • Clerk Maxwell was the first Cavendish Professor and edited Cavendish's works.
    • John's in 1869, Fifth Wrangler in 1873, demonstrator to Maxwell at the new Cavendish Lab in 1873-1879, Fellow of St.
    • In 1882, he co-authored a biography of Maxwell.
    • Edwin Arthur Maxwell (1907-1987) was a student, then a Fellow of Queens' College.
    • James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) was a student at Peterhouse for two (or one?) terms in 1850-1851, then a student of Trinity, being Second Wrangler in 1854 (Routh was first) and sharing the Smith's Prize with Routh (Stokes set the paper for the Prize and included the first statement of Stokes' Theorem!).
    • Maxwell as an infant' in Prof.
    • Edward James Routh (1831-1907) was a student at Peterhouse, Senior Wrangler in 1854 (Maxwell was second) and joint first Smith's Prizeman with Maxwell in 1854.

  5. Cambridge professorships
    • Clerk Maxwell was elected to the Professorship in March 1871.
    • Maxwell (1871-1879); Lord Rayleigh (1879-1884); J.
    • Maxwell investigated electrical standards here, assisted by R.
    • William Garnett (1850-1932) was assistant to Maxwell from 1873 and had hoped to succeed him.
    • Maxwell produced his Treatise on electricity and magnetism (1873) and The electrical researches of the Honourable Henry Cavendish (1879) while here.
    • The Laboratory has: the plates of Maxwell's first colour photograph of 1861; zoetrope strips painted by Maxwell; Maxwell's diabolo (which he was fond of playing with); J.

  6. London individuals H-M
    • By 1873, he had mastered calculus and differential equations and in 1873, he discovered Maxwell's work which he was among the first to master, already applying it in 1876.
    • In 1885, Heaviside was the first to present Maxwell's equations in their present form.
    • James Clerk Maxwell spent five years, 1860 1865, as Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Kings College London (Institute of Physics plaque in the courtyard).
    • He carried out many of the necessary experiments in his garret, including his experiments on the viscosity of gases, for which Mrs Maxwell acted as stoker and temperature regulator.
    • The experiment should not have worked - his plates were not sensitive to red, but the red dye also reflected ultraviolet which the plate did record! [Maxwell Foundation, pp.38-39] His 1864 paper included 'Maxwell's equations', but he had discovered the key fact that the ratio of the electromagnetic and electrostatic units was the speed of light by 19 Oct 1861 and the consequence that light and electromagnetism were the same when he communicated this to Faraday [Smith-Rose, p.30; Maxwell Foundation, p.19].
    • In the Ball albums at Cambridge is a letter from Maxwell at 86 Hereford Road, Westbourne Grove, on 12 Apr 1869.

  7. Edinburgh
    • A new statue of James Clerk Maxwell has been erected nearby.
    • Students of Edinburgh University include the statistician Sir John Sinclair (1754-1835), the calculator George Parker Bidder (1806-1878), Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), David Hume (1711-1776), Sir John Leslie (1766-1832), Thomas Young (1773-1829) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879).
    • P G Tait (1831-1901) was Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1860 (elected in preference to Maxwell and Routh).
    • James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) was born at 14 India Street.
    • The house, purchased by the James Clerk Maxwell Foundation about 1992 and converted into the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences from 1993, contains a small museum with Maxwelliana and a portrait of Tait.
    • Maxwell (in 1840-1847) and Tait were students at Edinburgh Academy, both being taught by a Mr.
    • During his nine years in Edinburgh, Maxwell lived with an aunt, Mrs Wedderburn, in Heriot Row.

  8. Cambridge Colleges
    • Maxwell, Rayleigh, Robert Smith (later a Master of Trinity and founder of Smith's Prizes), Cuthbert Tunstall and John Wilkins, but I didn't find memorials to them -- certainly some had only a brief connection with Trinity.
    • Maxwell, Newton, Rayleigh, Fox Talbot and Thomson in Cambridge individuals.
    • Maxwell, Reynolds and Wallis in Cambridge individuals.

  9. Aberdeen
    • One of the professors of natural philosophy, since 1856, was James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), who was released, supposedly on the grounds that he could get another job while the other professor couldn't.
    • The other man was Faraday's nephew David Thomson, a capable teacher and senior to Maxwell, so perhaps there were other reasons for the decision.
    • In 1858 Maxwell married Katherine Mary Dewar, daughter of the Principal of Marischal College.

  10. Corsock, Stewartry of Kirkcudbright
    • And a few miles south is Glenlair, the family home of James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), now a burnt-out shell from a fire in 1929.
    • Clerk Maxwell is buried alongside his parents and wife in the churchyard at Parton, some miles south-west of Corsock.

  11. Other institutions in Cambridge
    • Adams (1861-1863); Cayley (1869-1871); Maxwell (1875-1877); Glaisher (1882-1889); G.
    • Maxwell (1907-1987, not mentioned by Slater); G.

  12. London Museums
    • The Electricity & Magnetism Gallery, now closed, had some material and a bust of Maxwell.

  13. London Learned Societies
    • Maxwell demonstrated the first colour photograph here on 17 May 1861 (see in Section 3 for details).

  14. Teddington, Middlesex
    • Glazebrook had been Maxwell's assistant at the Cavendish Laboratory and worked with him on electrical standards.

  15. London Scientific Institutions
    • Maxwell was Professor in 1860-1865.

  16. London individuals D-G
    • Maxwell later elaborates this into the wave theory of light.

  17. Winchester, Hampshire
    • Durell was mathematics master from 1905 until his retirement in the 1940s [Maxwell].

  18. Other Institutions in central London
    • James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) is commemorated by a floor inscription nearby.

  19. London individuals A-C
    • Maxwell, was to edit Henry Cavendish's papers.


Astronomy section

  1. Extras Index
    • MaxwellJames Clerk Maxwell on the nature of Saturn's rings .


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