Search Results for Pearson
Biographies
- Karl Pearson biography
- Karl Pearson
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- Karl Pearson's mother Fanny Smith and his father William Pearson were both from Yorkshire families.
- William was a barrister of the Inner Temple [',' H M Walker, Karl Pearson, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences XI (New York, 1968), 496-503.','26]:-
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- In this article we shall refer to him either as Karl or as Pearson.
- But these were days of great happiness for Pearson [',' K Pearson, Old Tripos days at Cambridge, as seen from another viewpoint, Mathematical Gazette 20 (1936), 27-36.','22]:-
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- Pearson was never one to accept authority and this comes out clearly during his undergraduate years at Cambridge.
- Pearson was deeply interested in religion yet hated the compulsory nature of these activities.
- Having won, he surprised the University authorities by continuing to attend chapel but, of course, to Pearson there was a world of difference between attending voluntarily and compulsory attendance.
- On his return to England in 1880, Pearson first went to Cambridge [',' K Pearson, Old Tripos days at Cambridge, as seen from another viewpoint, Mathematical Gazette 20 (1936), 27-36.','3]:-
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- In it Pearson gives a clear indication of why he studied so many diverse subjects (see for example [',' E S Pearson, Karl Pearson : An appreciation of some aspects of his life and work II, Biometrica 29 (1938), 161-247.','17] or [',' H M Walker, Karl Pearson, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences XI (New York, 1968), 496-503.','26] or The New Werther):-
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- Despite the feelings he expresses in this quote, Pearson decided to study law so that he might, like his father, be called to the Bar.
- Again quoting Pearson's own account [','International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences XI (New York, 1968), 496-503.','3]:-
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- Despite being called to the Bar in 1882, Pearson never practiced law.
- From 1884 to 1890 Pearson was highly productive.
- Their marriage in 1890 produced three children; Egon Pearson (born 1895) who followed his father's profession, and two daughters Sigrid Loetitia who was three years older than Egon and Helga Sharpe who was three years younger.
- It is worth pausing to realise that Pearson is known as one of the founders of statistics, yet we have reached 1890 and the 33 year old professor of applied mathematics, although having a high reputation in a wide variety of areas, had still not begun to work on statistical problems.
- As Aldrich writes in [',' J Aldrich, Karl Pearson (1857-1936), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences 16 (2001), 11159-11163.','6]:-
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- Walker writes in [',' H M Walker, Karl Pearson, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences XI (New York, 1968), 496-503.','26]:-
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- The importance for science of the intense personal friendship which soon sprang up between Pearson and Weldon, then both in their early thirties, can scarcely be exaggerated.
- Weldon asked the questions that drove Pearson to some of his most significant contributions.
- Through Weldon and Galton's book, Pearson became interested in developing mathematical methods for studying the processes of heredity and evolution.
- Pearson coined the term 'standard deviation' in 1893.
- Pearson was a co-founder, with Weldon and Galton, of the statistical journal Biometrika .
- Weldon, in a letter to Pearson on 16 November 1900, suggested solving the problem of getting such papers published by setting up their own journal.
- Pearson was enthusiastic and suggested they name the journal Biometrika .
- The first volume appear in October 1901 with Pearson as its editor, a role he continued to hold until his death 35 years later.
- From around 1906 Pearson put a large effort into setting up a postgraduate centre.
- He did this (see [',' E S Pearson, Karl Pearson : An appreciation of some aspects of his life and work II, Biometrica 29 (1938), 161-247.','17]):-
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- Galton had set up the Eugenics Record Office in 1904 and in 1906 he put Pearson in charge.
- Pearson already ran the Biometric Laboratory and in 1911 the two laboratories were combined into the Department of Applied Statistics in University College.
- Galton had expressed the wish that Pearson should be offered the chair, so becoming head of the new Department.
- In so doing Pearson gave up his Goldsmid chair.
- Pearson had a long, bitter, and very public dispute with Fisher.
- At first they exchanged friendly letters after Pearson received a manuscript from Fisher in September 1914 of a paper he was submitting for publication.
- Pearson's initial response was to say (see [',' E S Pearson, Some early correspondence between W S Gosset, R A Fisher and Karl Pearson, Biometrika 55 (1968), 445-457.','18]):-
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- Again a week later [',' E S Pearson, Some early correspondence between W S Gosset, R A Fisher and Karl Pearson, Biometrika 55 (1968), 445-457.','18]:-
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- Pearson then offered to have his staff at the Galton Laboratories work on a tabulation of values for the frequency curves arising in Fisher's paper to test the exact distribution produced by Fisher against previously known approximations.
- However Pearson misunderstood the assumptions of Fisher's maximum likelihood method, and criticised it unfairly in the May 1917 Cooperative Study paper which he co-authored with his staff concerning tabulating the frequency curves.
- Fisher, believing that Pearson's criticism was unwarranted, responded with a paper which criticised examples in the Cooperative Study to the extent of ridiculing them.
- Fisher had looked again at his earlier correspondence with Pearson, noticed that many of his papers had been rejected, and concluded that Pearson had been responsible.
- Pearson used large samples which he measured and the tried to deduce correlations in the data.
- The dispute became bad enough to have Fisher turn down the post of Chief Statistician at the Galton Laboratory in 1919 since it would have meant working under Pearson.
- Maria, Pearson's wife, died in 1928 and he remarried Margaret Victoria Child, a co-worker in his department, in the following year.
- Pearson resigned from the Galton Chair in the summer of 1933 and University College decided to split his Department into two.
- His son Egon Pearson became head of the Department of Statistics, while Fisher was appointed to the Galton Chair to succeed Pearson as head of the Department of Eugenics.
- Greenwood writes of Pearson's character in [',' M Greenwood, Karl Pearson, Dictionary of National Biography, 1931-1940 (London, 1949), 681-684.','9]:-
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- Pearson was among the most influential university teachers of his time; he took great pains to be intelligible and could hold a large audience either of students or merely casual hearers who were without special interest in his topics.
- Pearson's influence upon those who only knew him through his writings was also great.
- Walker sums up Pearson's importance in [',' H M Walker, Karl Pearson, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences XI (New York, 1968), 496-503.','26] as follows:-
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- Although Pearson made contributions to statistical technique that now appear to be of enduring importance, these techniques are of less importance than what he did in arousing the scientific world from a state of sheer interest in statistical studies to one of eager effort by a large number of well-trained persons, who developed new theory, gathered and analysed statistical data from every field, computed new tables, and re-examined the foundations of statistical philosophy.
- We have mentioned above some of the honours which Pearson received.
- A Poster of Karl Pearson
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- Karl Pearson's Introduction to William Clifford's Common Sense
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- Honours awarded to Karl Pearson
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- http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Pearson.html
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- Egon Pearson biography
- Egon Sharpe Pearson
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- Egon Pearson's father was Karl Pearson, whose biography is given in this archive, and his mother was Maria Sharpe.
- World War I began in 1914 before he was due to matriculate at Cambridge, and had Pearson's health been good he would have found himself in military service.
- At the end of one year of study, Pearson left Cambridge in 1915 determined to make a contribution to the war effort, and he worked for the Admiralty and the Ministry of Shipping.
- Pearson never took up his undergraduate studies at Cambridge again after the war but was awarded his B.A.
- Pearson also attended astronomy lectures by F J M Stratton and undertook work with F L Engledow and G U Yule.
- In 1921 Pearson joined his father's Department of Applied Statistics at University College London as a lecturer.
- Instead Pearson attended all of his father's lectures and began to produce a stream of high quality research publications on statistics.
- In 1924 Pearson became an assistant editor of Biometrika but perhaps one of the most important events for his future research happened in the following year.
- When Neyman met Pearson in his father's Department in 1925 he did not realise that he was going through a sort of crisis.
- Karl Pearson's work had been under attack from R A Fisher for a number of years and Egon later explained (see for example [',' C Reid, Neyman (New York, 1997).','3]):-
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- In [',' C Reid, Neyman (New York, 1997).','3] the friendship that developed between Neyman and Pearson during 1926 is described.
- It paints a picture of Pearson, and his difficulties, at this time:-
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- Pearson was an introverted young man who felt inferior for a number of reasons.
- [Karl Pearson], "lovingly protected" in his childhood and kept out of the war in his youth.
- It is perhaps worth noting that 1926 was the year when Karl Pearson allowed his son to begin lecturing at University College.
- Even then it took place simply because Karl Pearson's health prevented him teaching, rather than for positive reasons.
- Pearson and Neyman agreed to undertake a joint research project in June 1926, just before Neyman left for Paris.
- Their joint research was carried on by letters, but there were meetings such as in the spring of 1927 when Pearson visited Neyman in Paris.
- Neyman describes their collaboration in [',' J Neyman, Egon S Pearson (August 11, 1895-June 12, 1980) : An appreciation, Ann.
- Neyman also describes in [',' J Neyman, Egon S Pearson (August 11, 1895-June 12, 1980) : An appreciation, Ann.
- As H A David writes in [',' H A David, Egon S Pearson, 1895-1980, Amer.
- The Neyman-Pearson theory of testing statistical hypotheses has become an integral part of every statistician's education and vocabulary.
- There was a second major correspondence which Pearson carried out over much the same period as the Neyman-Pearson collaboration.
- This was one which Pearson carried out with Gosset, and Gosset's ideas played a big role in the discussions between Pearson and Neyman.
- Pearson visited the United States in 1931 and, in addition to lecturing in Iowa, he held discussions with Shewhart in the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York.
- The following year Shewhart visited Pearson in London and their discussions on quality control in industry led to the creation of the Industrial and Agricultural Research Section of the Royal Statistical Society.
- In 1933 Karl Pearson retired from the Galton Chair of Statistics which he had held in University College London.
- Against his wishes the University authorities decided to split the Department into two separate departments; the Galton Chair and Head of the Department of Eugenics went to Fisher, while Egon Pearson was appointed Reader and became Head of the Department of Applied Statistics.
- If Karl Pearson did not like that arrangement, then certainly neither did Fisher.
- Neyman came to work in Pearson's Department in 1934 and in that same year Pearson married Eileen Jolly, the daughter of a solicitor.
- Egon and Eileen Pearson had two daughters.
- Family commitments, further administrative duties and assuming the role of Managing Editor of Biometrika on his father's death in 1936 all reduced the time that Pearson could devote to research.
- He had been awarded the Weldon prize and medal in 1935, mainly for his work with Neyman, but despite having Neyman as a colleague, Pearson's efforts began to be directed towards revising his father's two volume work Tables for Statisticians and Biometricians.
- H A David [',' H A David, Egon S Pearson, 1895-1980, Amer.
- The advent of World War II in 1939 led to a shift in Pearson's work.
- Neyman had already left London in 1938 for a post in Berkeley and with the outbreak of war Pearson began to undertake war work for the Ordinance Board undertaking statistical analysis of the fragmentation of shells hitting aircraft and similar work.
- In fact, Pearson enjoyed this period:-
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- Pearson had found the years working in the same institution as Fisher very difficult.
- Karl Pearson had attacked Fisher aggressively and had, in return, been attacked aggressively by Fisher.
- Egon Pearson had a very different personality from his father and held Fisher's work in high regard.
- However, even after Karl Pearson died, Fisher kept up his attack on him in print and Egon Pearson must have found it difficult to share a building with Fisher.
- After Fisher moved away from London in 1939, especially after he began to work at Cambridge from 1943, Pearson must have found the atmosphere in London a much happier one.
- In addition to the honours which we have mentioned above, Pearson was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Statistical Society in 1955.
- Pearson had a quiet disposition, but his shy and rather diffident manner hid an independent and pertinacious spirit which had enabled him to surmount both the controversies surrounding his father Karl and contemporaries like Fisher and Neyman, and some health problems, such as his delicate health when an undergraduate, a heart condition of long standing, and occasional back trouble due to his considerable height.
- Honours awarded to Egon Pearson
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- http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Pearson_Egon.html
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- Jerzy Neyman biography
- In the academic year 1915-16 Aleksandr Bernstein lectured to him on probability; he strongly influenced Neyman and encouraged him to read Karl Pearson's The Grammar of Science.
- Reviewing a new edition of Pearson's book many years later he recalled its impact (see for example [',' C Reid, Neyman - from life (New York, 1982).','4]):-
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- Receiving a Rockefeller Fellowship to work with Karl Pearson in London, he arrived there in September 1925 but was disappointed to discover that Pearson was ignorant of modern mathematics.
- He did however become friendly with Egon Pearson, Karl Pearson's son.
- Egon Pearson, writing in [',' E S Pearson, The Neyman-Pearson story: 1926-34.
- However his interest in statistics was stimulated again by a letter from Egon Pearson, who sought a general principle from which Gosset's tests could be derived.
- Neyman went on to produce fundamental results on hypothesis testing and, when Egon Pearson visited Paris in the spring of 1927, they collaborated in writing their first paper.
- His collaboration with Egon Pearson continued with On the problem of two samples being published by the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow in 1930.
- However life in Poland was becoming increasingly hard and 1931 Neyman wrote to Egon Pearson:-
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- Between 1928 and 1933 Neyman and Egon Pearson had written a number of important papers on hypothesis testing and the collaboration was highly productive with papers such as On the problem of the most efficient tests of statistical hypotheses (1933) and The testing of statistical hypotheses in relation to probabilities a priori (1933).
- In 1933 Karl Pearson retired as from the Galton Chair of Statistics in University College London and Egon Pearson became Head of the Department of Applied Statistics.
- Neyman obtained a three month leave of absence to go in England in 1934 to fill a temporary post in Egon Pearson's department.
- The arrangement which put Fisher and Egon Pearson into the same building at University College did not work well on a personal level.
- However, Egon Pearson worked hard to keep him in London and managed to arrange salary increases.
- R A Fisher biography
- Karl Pearson offered him the post of chief statistician at the Galton laboratories and he was also offered the post of statistician at the Rothamsted Agricultural Experiment Station.
- In 1933 Karl Pearson retired as Galton Professor of eugenics at University College and Fisher was appointed to the chair as his successor.
- In fact the post was split in two, with Karl Pearson's son Egon Pearson also being appointed to a chair.
- There was a certain irony in the fact that Fisher succeeded Pearson in 1933 for the two had a long running dispute.
- The dispute began in 1917 when Pearson published a paper claiming that Fisher had failed to distinguish likelihood from inverse probability in a paper he wrote in 1915.
- Although at this stage Fisher was only starting out on his career, he felt angry that Pearson had published an article which was critical of his results without telling him that he was about to do so.
- Moreover, he did not accept Pearson's criticism, feeling that he was correct.
- Two referees, R C Punnett and Pearson, were appointed and reported on the paper.
- The feud became bitter, however, when Pearson used his position as editor of Biometrika to attack Fisher's use of the chi-squared test in a 1922 paper.
- Pearson went much further, however, and claimed that Fisher had done a disservice to statistics by widely publishing erroneous results.
- Of course Fisher also took every opportunity to attack Pearson, and it would be fair to say that each showed hatred towards the other.
- Even after Pearson died in 1936, Fisher continued his attack on him, which made the atmosphere in University College a very difficult one with Pearson's son Egon Pearson also holding a chair there.
- Raphael Weldon biography
- This was a fortunate appointment, for it brought him in close contact with Pearson who had been appointed there five years earlier.
- Walker writes (see Pearson's biography):-
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- The importance for science of the intense personal friendship which soon sprang up between Pearson and Weldon, then both in their early thirties, can scarcely be exaggerated.
- Weldon asked the questions that drove Pearson to some of his most significant contributions.
- What were the questions which Weldon asked Pearson? How does one describe asymmetrical, double-humped, and other non-Gaussian frequency distributions? How does one derive best values for the parameters of such distributions? What are the probable errors of such estimates? What is the effect of selection on one or more of the correlated variables?
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- By 1893 Weldon was serving on a Royal Society Committee along with Galton and Pearson 'For the Purpose of conducting Statistical Enquiry into the Variability of Organisms'.
- Weldon proposed a journal for biometrics in a letter written to Pearson dated 16 November 1899.
- It was written after William Bateson, a pioneer in genetics, had been highly critical of one of Pearson's papers submitted to the Royal Society.
- The journal Biometrika was named within weeks and Weldon and Pearson became joint editors.
- The editorial, written by Weldon and Pearson, set out the scope:-
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- Mr William Bateson, as president of Section D for that year, had devoted his address to a vindication of Mendelian principles in regard to heredity and variation, and subsequent discussion on the same subject provoked from professor Weldon and Professor Karl Pearson some rather severe criticism, to which Mr Bateson replied.
- In [',' K Pearson, Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, 1860-1906, Biometrika 5 (1906), 1-52.','2] Pearson gives this rather touching description of Weldon:-
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- John Wishart biography
- In 1924, after a recommendation from Whittaker, Wishart was offered a post in University College, London, as assistant to Pearson.
- Pearson had a project for Wishart to work on and, given that Whittaker had set up his mathematical laboratory in Edinburgh, it was clear why Whittaker's advice on a possible assistant had been sought.
- Pearson had published his Tables of the Incomplete Gamma Function in 1922 and now he was looking for computational help in his next 'tables' project Tables of the Incomplete Beta Function.
- Wishart learned a great deal of statistics during his three years with Pearson.
- He attended Pearson's lectures and learnt how to go about statistical research.
- In [',' E S Pearson, John Wishart 1898-1956, Biometrica 44 (1-2) (1957), 1-8.','2] Wishart's international connections are summed up:-
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- and is fully described on pages 154 to 163 of [',' E S Pearson, John Wishart 1898-1956, Biometrica 44 (1-2) (1957), 1-8.','2].
- William Gosset biography
- In 1905 he contacted Karl Pearson and arranged to go to London to study at Pearson's laboratory, the Galton Eugenics Laboratory, at University College in session 1906-07.
- He later published three important papers on the work he had undertaken during this year working in Pearson's laboratory.
- Writing in [',' William Sealy Gosset, 1876-1937, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 355-404.','8], McMullen says:-
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- He would discuss statistical problems with Fisher, Neyman and Pearson.
- In 1934 Gosset had a motor accident, described in [',' William Sealy Gosset, 1876-1937, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 355-404.','8]:-
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- McMullen, who was a personal friend, describes Gosset in [',' William Sealy Gosset, 1876-1937, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 355-404.','8] as follows:-
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- Florence Nightingale David biography
- She went to see Karl Pearson to ask his advice about obtaining an actuarial position.
- Pearson was certainly impressed with David and he offered her a research assistant position in University College London.
- Her first publication, written jointly with Pearson and S A Stouffer, appeared in Biometrika in 1932.
- After Pearson had arranged for the research assistant position to be extended, David was offered an assistant lectureship in statistics at University College London following Pearson's retirement in 1935.
- Also in 1962 she published Elementary statistical exercises written jointly with Egon Pearson.
- George Udny Yule biography
- Yule returned from Germany to London in the summer of 1893 and was offered a post as a demonstrator in University College, London, by Karl Pearson.
- In fact Pearson had known Yule when he had studied at University College as an undergraduate so he knew that he was appointing someone with great potential.
- For the first time, Yule was inspired by the work which he undertook with Pearson, and his first paper on statistics appeared in 1895 On the correlation of total pauperism with proportion of out-relief.
- In 1895 Yule was elected to the Royal Statistical Society and over the next few years, inspired by Pearson, he produced a series of important articles on the statistics of regression and correlation.
- It was a book clearly reflecting Pearson's approach to statistics, but containing many of the notable contributions made by Yule.
- When Karl Pearson died in 1936, Yule was deeply affected.
- Samuel Wilks biography
- In 1932 Wilks received a two-year appointment as a National Research Council International Research Fellow and went to England where he spent the first of these years in Karl Pearson's department in University College, London.
- This was Karl Pearson's last year before retiring and Wilks was able to work with both him and his son Egon Pearson who was appointed as a professor shortly afterwards.
- In 1933 he went to Cambridge where he worked with John Wishart, who had been a research assistant to both Karl Pearson and R A Fisher.
- Egon Pearson writes [',' E S Pearson, Samuel Stanley Wilks, 1906-1964, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
- Pao Lu Hsu biography
- Egon Pearson, following the retiral of his father Karl Pearson as Galton Professor of Statistics, had been made Reader and became Head of the Department of Applied Statistics three years before Hsu arrived there.
- Jerzy Neyman had been appointed in 1934 while R A Fisher held Karl Pearson's Galton Chair of Statistics and was Head of the Department of Eugenics at University College.
- During this period [at University College, London] Hsu wrote a remarkable series of papers on statistical inference which show the strong influence of the Neyman-Pearson point of view.
- Hsu's first two papers were published in the Statistical Research Memoirs which were edited by Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson.
- In 1938 Hsu, while still undertaking research for his doctorate, too up a position as lecturer in Egon Pearson's Department.
- Maurice Bartlett biography
- Wishart recommended him to Egon Pearson who was looking to appoint a lecturer to his new Statistics department of University College, London.
- At University College, as well as Egon Pearson, he joined Jerzy Neyman and R A Fisher.
- Egon Pearson retired from his chair at University College, London, in 1960 and the university approached Bartlett and offered him the chair.
- He had a marked artistic talent: about four years ago, he showed me in his home at Exmouth a very lifelike pencil sketch he had made of Egon Pearson.
- Francis Edgeworth biography
- Edgeworth's work was to influence Pearson although bad feeling developed between the two and later Pearson was to deny Edgeworth's influence.
- At the Galton dinner in February 1926 Pearson spoke of Edgeworth's death a few days earlier:-
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- John Maynard Keynes biography
- He published papers in statistics, in particular he attacked strongly work by Karl Pearson in letters published in 1910 and 1911 in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
- Whether Pearson or Keynes had the better scientific case is open to question, but there is no doubt that Keynes was by far the more skilful in his style of letter writing, making Pearson (probably unfairly) look rather silly.
- Francis Galton biography
- After reading Galton's book Hereditary Genius (1869) Charles Darwin wrote to him saying [',' K Pearson, The Life, Letters, and Labours of Francis Galton (London, 1914-30).','7]:-
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- This laboratory continued in existence after the International Health Exhibition closed and it was the forerunner of the Biometric Laboratory run by Karl Pearson at University College, London.
- Karl Pearson read Natural inheritance and it had a profound influence on his thinking:-
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- William Clifford biography
- Common sense of the exact sciences was completed by Karl Pearson and published in 1885.
- An extract from Karl Pearson's Introduction to Clifford's Common sense of the exact sciences is given at THIS LINK.
- Karl Pearson's Introduction to William Clifford's Common Sense
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- Katherine Johnson biography
- but Henry Pearson, our supervisor - he was not a fan of women - kept pushing him to finish the report we were working on.
- Finally, Ted told him, "Katherine should finish the report, she's done most of the work anyway." So Ted left Pearson with no choice; I finished the report and my name went on it, and that was the first time a woman in our division had her name on something.
- Harald Cramér biography
- By the mid 1930s Cramer's attention had turned to look at the approach of the English and American statisticians such as Fisher, Neyman and Egon Pearson (Karl Pearson's son).
- Eleanor Pairman biography
- Leaving Edinburgh, Pairman went to London where she worked for a year for Karl Pearson in the Department of Applied Statistics at University College London as a computer (at this time computers were people and not machines!).
- It was a highly productive year for not only did she produce a substantial joint publication with Karl Pearson On corrections for the moment-coefficients of limited range frequency distributions when there are finite or infinite ordinates and any slopes at the terminals of the range which appeared in Biometrika (November 1919), but she also wrote Tracts for Computers which was published by Cambridge University Press (1 January 1920).
- Ladislaus Bortkiewicz biography
- Bortkiewicz was critical of the approach of Karl Pearson to statistics.
- He claimed that Pearson produced formulae to match observed results but with no theoretical reasoning.
- Ebenezer Cunningham biography
- Then he moved to University College London where he worked under Pearson.
- He wrote on linear differential equations, prompted by Pearson's work and other work related to statistics.
- Evgeny Evgenievich Slutsky biography
- Leontovich was a physiologist who had been studying the statistical ideas of Gauss and Pearson and he gave Slutsky material on statistical techniques.
- As a statistician, Slutsky was influenced by Pearson's work, as we mentioned above, and he was interested in both the mathematical background of the statistical methods he studied as well as their application to economics and, later in his career, to natural sciences.
- Robert Geary biography
- Fisher was in the early stages of his fundamental work and the celebrated collaboration of Neyman and Pearson had not begun.
- One only had to dig it out a bit." He was obviously greatly attracted to the Neyman and Pearson approach, however, and used it consistently.
- Erastus De Forest biography
- His contributions were recognised, however, by Pearson whose attention was drawn to De Forest's papers.
- Pearson acknowledged De Forest's priority in deriving the chi square distribution.
- Benjamin Osgood Peirce biography
- While in Berlin he met a fellow student, Karl Pearson, and the two became good friends.
- Pearson wrote (quoted in [',' E H Hall, Benjamin Osgood Peirce (1854-1914), Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 53 (10) (1918), 850-854.','9]):-
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- Bronius Grigelionis biography
- A flexible and statistically tractable Kolmogorov-Pearson diffusions are also described.
- Edward Ross biography
- After a First Class performance in Part II of the Mathematical Tripos in 1906, Ross was appointed as Assistant to Karl Pearson at University College, London in October 1906.
- Arthur Milne biography
- Beyond producing the relevant mathematics, he flew in early aircraft, hanging over the wing to take readings of temperature and pressure, and he supervised the eminent statistician Karl Pearson in drawing up new firing tables, based on the team's findings, which were issued throughout the armed services.
- George Lidstone biography
- The author shows by numerical examples that in many cases this series gives a better fit than Pearson's type III curves.
- Edwin Olds biography
- Finally a third test procedure is developed by using the Neyman-Pearson Lemma for testing simple hypotheses.
- Bibhutibhushan Datta biography
- Though the problem of the motion of two spheres in an infinite liquid along the line joining their centres has been completely solved by various investigators, the first writer to attempt the corresponding problem for two spheroids or ellipsoids is Professor Karl Pearson.
- Anthony Spencer biography
- The paper written jointly with Albert Green was reviewed by C E Pearson who wrote:-
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- Frances Chick Wood biography
- Greenwood had studied with Karl Pearson and was appointed as a statistician at the Lister Institute in 1910.
- Olinthus Gregory biography
- Of these fourteen, Gregory was elected to serve on the committee along with John Herschel, Charles Babbage, Henry Colebrooke, Thomas Colby, Daniel Moore, William Pearson, and Francis Baily.
- Maurice Kendall biography
- An advanced treatise on mathematical statistics was proposed in 1939 and Maurice Kendall, Egon Pearson, John Wishart, and others held preliminary discussions.
- Henry Scheffé biography
- He was particularly interested in optimal properties and he extended the Neyman-Pearson theory of best similar test.
- Philip Hall biography
- By that time he was already working as a research assistant to Karl Pearson in University College, London.
- Herman Chernoff biography
- Given a paper to read during a weekend by Neyman and Pearson, he found it baffling at first but finally realised that the ideas were not complicated.
- George Airy biography
- the book was used at Cambridge and influenced Pearson.
- Bill Morton biography
- In 1952 Morton married Patricia Mary Pearson; they had two sons and two daughters.
- Abraham de Moivre biography
- De Moivre first published this result in a Latin pamphlet dated 13 November 1733 (see [',' R H Daw and E S Pearson, Studies in the history of probability and statistics XXX : Abraham de Moivre’s 1733 derivation of the normal curve : a bibliographical note, Biometrika 59 (1972), 677-680.','4] for an interesting discussion) aiming to improve on Jacob Bernoulli's law of large numbers.
- George Box biography
- He continued to work for ICI while at the same time working towards his doctorate at University College, supervised by Egon Pearson.
- Leopold Schmetterer biography
- As the author states, he is mainly concerned with those classical branches of Mathematical Statistics associated with the names of Fisher, Pearson and, above all, Neyman.
History Topics
- Statistics index
Societies etc
- Royal Astronomical Society
- Fourteen attended this initial meeting including John Herschel, Charles Babbage, Henry Colebrooke, Thomas Colby, Daniel Moore, Olinthus Gregory, William Pearson, and Francis Baily.
- Of the fourteen present at the inaugural meeting, it would appear that William Pearson and Francis Baily had been pressing for the creation of an astronomical society for several years.
- There are records of Pearson proposing an Astronomical Society in 1812, or earlier, and certainly Baily's recommendation that such a Society be formed appears in print in a 1819 article.
- Herschel visited Pearson on Monday 17 January, then recorded the following entry in his dairy for Tuesday 18 January:-
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- Spent morning at Dr Pearson's.
- dined and returned with Dr Pearson and Babbage to the meeting of the committee in the evening.
- Officers were elected at this meeing including the Duke of Somerset as President, Colebrooke and William Herschel as Vice-Presidents, Pearson as Treasure, Babbage and Baily as Secretaries, and John Herschel as Foreign Secretary.
- EMS 1992
- BACK ROW, G Popov, E Kirchberg, T B Fugard, B Thorpe, J Carr, V S Kiryakova, G C Smith, D L Johnson, J Kyle, F W Clarke, J B Muskat, A Umar, D J H Garling, M J Crabb, F Smithies, J Gunson, J K Pearson, S A Slebarski, F Ghahramani, C M Campbell, S P Lam, E F Robertson, K A Bencsath, D Vumar, J A Lester, A M Davie, W H Foster, J H Renshaw, T Kakita, Zhong-jin Ruan,
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Honours
- Pearson
- Times Obituaries
- Egon Pearson's biographyThe obituary (1980)
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- Karl Pearson's biographyThe obituary (1936)
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- RSS Guy Medal in Gold
- Fellow of the Royal Society
- Fellows of the RSE
- Karl Pearson1934More infoMacTutor biography
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- Fellows of the RSE
- Karl Pearson1934More infoMacTutor biography
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References
- References for Karl Pearson
- References for Karl Pearson
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- http://www.britannica.com/biography/Karl-Pearson
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- E S Pearson, Karl Pearson : An Appreciation of Some Aspects of His Life and Work (Cambridge, 1938).
- E S Pearson, The Neyman-Pearson story: 1926-34 : Historical sidelights on an episode in Anglo-Polish collaboration, Festschrift for J Neyman (New York, 1966).
- J Aldrich, Karl Pearson (1857-1936), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences 16 (2001), 11159-11163.
- H Ando, Karl Pearson : the statistics with relation to his personality and the society (Japanese), Proc.
- A W F Edwards, R A Fisher on Karl Pearson, Notes and Records Roy.
- M Greenwood, Karl Pearson, Dictionary of National Biography, 1931-1940 (London, 1949), 681-684.
- J B S Haldane, Karl Pearson, 1857 - 1957 : A centenary lecture delivered at University College London, Biometrika 44 (1957), 303-313.
- J B S Haldane, Karl Pearson, 1857 - 1957 : A centenary lecture delivered at University College London, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 427-438.
- D MacKenzie, Karl Pearson and the professional middle class, Ann.
- M E Magnello, The non-correlation of biometrics and eugenics : Rival forms of laboratory work in Karl Pearson's career at University College London I, History of Science 37 (1999), 79-106.
- M E Magnello, The non-correlation of biometrics and eugenics : Rival forms of laboratory work in Karl Pearson's career at University College London II, History of Science 37 (1999), 123-150.
- M E Magnello, Karl Pearson's mathematization of inheritance : from ancestral heredity to Mendelian genetics (1895-1909), Ann.
- E S Pearson, Karl Pearson : An appreciation of some aspects of his life and work I, Biometrica 28 (1936), 193-257.
- E S Pearson, Karl Pearson : An appreciation of some aspects of his life and work II, Biometrica 29 (1938), 161-247.
- E S Pearson, Some early correspondence between W S Gosset, R A Fisher and Karl Pearson, Biometrika 55 (1968), 445-457.
- E S Pearson, Some early correspondence between W S Gosset, R A Fisher and Karl Pearson, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 405-418.
- E S Pearson, The Neyman-Pearson story: 1926-34.
- Historical sidelights on an episode in Anglo-Polish collaboration, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 455-479.
- E S Pearson, Some reflections on continuity in the development of mathematical statistics 1890-94, Biometrika 54 (1967), 341-355.
- K Pearson, Old Tripos days at Cambridge, as seen from another viewpoint, Mathematical Gazette 20 (1936), 27-36.
- S Sarkar, J B S Haldane and R A Fisher's draft life of Karl Pearson, Notes and Records Roy.
- S A Stouffer, Karl Pearson - an appreciation on the 100th anniversary of his birth, J.
- H M Walker, Karl Pearson, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences XI (New York, 1968), 496-503.
- H M Walker, The contribution of Karl Pearson, J.
- S S Wilks, Karl Pearson : Founder of the Science of Statistics, Scientific Monthly 53 (1941), 249-253.
- G U Yule, Karl Pearson, Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society of London 2 (1936), 74-104.
- References for Egon Pearson
- References for Egon Pearson
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- E S Pearson, The selected papers of E S Pearson (Berkeley, Calif., 1966).
- M S Bartlett and L H C Tippett, Egon Sharpe Pearson, 1895-1980, Biometrika 68 (1) (1981), 1-11.
- N L Johnson and S Kotz, Egon Sharpe Pearson, in N L Johnson and S Kotz (eds.), Leading personalities in statistical sciences (New York, 1997), 146-149.
- H A David, Egon S Pearson, 1895-1980, Amer.
- E L Lehmann, The Neyman-Pearson theory after fifty years, in Proceedings of the Berkeley conference in honor of Jerzy Neyman and Jack Kiefer, Berkeley, Calif., 1983 I (Belmont, Calif., 1985), 1-14.
- P G Moore, A tribute to Egon Sharpe Pearson, J.
- J Neyman, Egon S Pearson (August 11, 1895-June 12, 1980) : An appreciation, Ann.
- References for William Gosset
- E S Pearson, Student - A Statistical Biography of William Sealy Gosset (Oxford, 1990).
- E S Pearson, Student as a Statistician, Biometrika 30 (1939), 210-250.
- E S Pearson, Some early correspondence between W S Gosset, R A Fisher and Karl Pearson, Biometrika 55 (1968), 445-457.
- E S Pearson, Some early correspondence between W S Gosset, R A Fisher and Karl Pearson, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 405-418.
- E S Pearson, Some reflections on continuity in the development of mathematical statistics 1890-94, Biometrika 54 (1967), 341-355.
- William Sealy Gosset, 1876-1937, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 355-404.
- References for R A Fisher
- E S Pearson, Some early correspondence between W S Gosset, R A Fisher and Karl Pearson, Biometrika 55 (1968), 445-457.
- E S Pearson, Some early correspondence between W S Gosset, R A Fisher and Karl Pearson, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 405-418.
- E S Pearson, Some reflections on continuity in the development of mathematical statistics 1890-94, Biometrika 54 (1967), 341-355.
- References for Raphael Weldon
- K Pearson, Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, 1860-1906, Biometrika 5 (1906), 1-52.
- K Pearson, Walter Frank Raphael Weldon, 1860-1906, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 265-322.
- E S Pearson, Some reflections on continuity in the development of mathematical statistics 1890-94, Biometrika 54 (1967), 341-355.
- References for Robert Geary
- W G Madow, Review: Tests of Normality, by R C Geary and E S Pearson, Journal of the American Statistical Association 33 (203) (1938), 622-623.
- D Miani, Review: Tests of Normality, by R C Geary and E S Pearson, Genus 4 (1/2) (1939-XVIII), 123.
- H L S, Review: Tests of Normality, by R C Geary and E S Pearson, Journal of the Institute of Actuaries (1886-1994) 69 (1) (1938), 101.
- References for Francis Edgeworth
- M G Kendall, Francis Ysidro Edgeworth, 1845-1926, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 257-263.
- E S Pearson, Some reflections on continuity in the development of mathematical statistics 1890-94, Biometrika 54 (1967), 341-355.
- References for Francis Galton
- K Pearson, The Life, Letters, and Labours of Francis Galton (London, 1914-30).
- E S Pearson, Some reflections on continuity in the development of mathematical statistics 1890-94, Biometrika 54 (1967), 341-355.
- References for Jerzy Neyman
- E S Pearson, The Neyman-Pearson story: 1926-34.
- References for Thomas Bayes
- Thomas Bayes's essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances, in E S Pearson and M G Kendall, Studies in the History of Statistics and Probability (London, 1970), 131-153.
- References for Samuel Wilks
- E S Pearson, Samuel Stanley Wilks, 1906-1964, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.
- References for John Wishart
- E S Pearson, John Wishart 1898-1956, Biometrica 44 (1-2) (1957), 1-8.
- References for Abraham de Moivre
- R H Daw and E S Pearson, Studies in the history of probability and statistics XXX : Abraham de Moivre's 1733 derivation of the normal curve : a bibliographical note, Biometrika 59 (1972), 677-680.
- References for Morgan Crofton
- A Dale, A history of inverse probability : From Thomas Bayes to Karl Pearson (New York, 1999).
- References for Joseph Bertrand
- A I Dale, A history of inverse probability : From Thomas Bayes to Karl Pearson (Second edition), Sources and Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999).
Additional material
- De Morgan and the Royal Astronomical Society
- in this I am somewhat confirmed by observing that Mr Sheepshanks, in his obituary notice of Dr Pearson (Annual Report, 1848), shows only a general recollection of the first letter, and none at all of the second.
- The first is from Dr Patrick Kelly (the author of the Cambist) to Dr Pearson, 12 December 1812.
- It thus appears that Dr Pearson had formed the plan by 1812 and was endeavouring to promote the formation.
- Mr Sheepshanks mentions, as a rumour, that the meeting of 12 January 1820, at which the Society came into existence, was resolved upon at a dinner given by Dr Pearson.
- It is from Mr (Sir James) South to Dr Pearson, 13 December 1819, giving permission to add the writer's name to a list then in collection, and accepting an invitation to dinner; the date of the symposium is not given.
- It thus appears that Dr Pearson kept the plan in his head, where it lived through his transformation from thriving London schoolmaster into a country rector and magistrate, that he got together a number of astronomers to join him, and lubricated the business, to use Sam Johnson's phrase, by a dinner.
- Sir J Herschel, when he wrote his life of Baily, was not aware that Dr Pearson had been agitating the plan for seven years.
- Dr Pearson, who finally left London in 1821, could not have been, what Baily was from the very first, the guide and stay of the Society, an institution which many might have founded, but few could have nursed.
- If the word be plural both were founders; but so far it can be used in the singular it applies only to Dr Pearson.
- It must be remembered that in 1820, Dr Pearson stood in a position which the Society gradually altered by raising others to his level.
- To us Baily is what he made himself in making the Society: but in 1820, though Baily was well above the horizon, Pearson was on the meridian.
- It is to be remembered that we are not to assume that we know of all Dr Pearson's exertions in this matter.
- My floating recollections of what people said in 1830 tend to strengthen the conclusion that Dr Pearson never lost sight of his favourite project.
- Clifford's 'Common Sense'
- Karl Pearson's Introduction to William Clifford's Common Sense
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- After William Clifford's death, his book Common Sense of the Exact Sciences was edited, completed, and published by Karl Pearson.
- We give here Pearson's Introduction where he explains what parts he had to complete and the size of his editorial task:
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- Clifford's books
- Karl Pearson completed and edited William Clifford's Common Sense of the Exact Sciences.
- We give an extract from Pearson's Introduction at THIS LINK.
- Clifford's Common Sense of the Exact Sciences was edited, completed, and first published posthumously by Karl Pearson in 1885.
- It includes Pearson's preface to the first edition, Newman's introduction to the 1946 edition, and a preface to the latter prepared by Bertrand Russell.
- The labour of revision and completion was begun by R C Rowe and finished by Karl Pearson.
- Undoubtedly one of the seminal books of the nineteenth century, it belongs alongside of Poincare's 'Foundations' and Karl Pearson's 'Grammar of Science'.
- Geary's books
- Tests of Normality (1938), by R C Geary and E S Pearson.
- The reaction from the normal curve which was due, in the main, to Karl Pearson's contributions to the theory of frequency curves, has now given place to a wide application of statistical methods which depend for their validity on the hypothesis of a normal universe.
- R A Fisher: 'History of Statistics
- The first of the distributions characteristic of modern tests of significance, though originating with Helmert, was rediscovered by K Pearson in 1900, for the measure of discrepancy between observation and hypothesis, known as c2.
- This, I believe, is the great contribution to statistical methods by which the unsurpassed energy of Prof Pearson's work will be remembered.
- Weatherburn books
- Professor Weatherburn dedicates his book to Professor R A Fisher and to the memory of Professor Karl Pearson.
- The book is dedicated to R A Fisher and to the Memory of Karl Pearson, and the former author especially is extensively quoted, both for ideas and for tables of functions, though there is, as suggested reading, a larger proportion than is common in Britain of text of U.S.A.
- EMS Roll of Honour for World War I
- Pearson, Frank R - Captain, Royal Air Force.
- Sheppard Papers
- "Quadrature formulae and curve-fitting." Incorporated in "On the systematic fitting of curves," by Karl Pearson, Biometrika, vol.
- Truesdell's books
- Though called an "introduction" to some of the corresponding Euler volumes in this series, this is really the first modern scholarly treatise on the theory of deformable solids: Todhunter and Pearson's and other older works dealing with this topic will henceforth have a place only in the historiography of the subject.
- R A Fisher: 'Statistical Methods' Introduction
- This study, arising principally out of the work of Galton and Pearson, is generally known under the name of Correlation, or, more descriptively, as Covariation.
- R A Fisher: the life of a scientist' Preface
- For such generous assistance I wish to express my gratitude to the following: A E Brandt, Sir Edward Bullard, L L Cavalli Sforza, the late E A Cornish, Gertrude M Cox, A W F Edwards, D J Finney, T N Hoblyn, S B Holt, E Irving, Sir Bernard Keen, R T Leslie, the late P C Mahalanobis and Mrs Mahalanobis, Besse B Mauss, J R Morton, E S Pearson, R R Race, Stuart A Rice, P R Rider, W A Roach, S K Runcorn, the late H Fairfield Smith, Sir Gerard Thornton, Helen N Turner and F Yates.
- Rios Honorary Degree
- that are related to the statistical methods of hypothesis testing (Fisher, Neyman, Pearson, ..
- Rios's books
- An expository survey of the concepts of measure and integral, the Kolmogorov identification of probability with measure theory, probability distributions, and the Fisher-Neyman-Pearson theories of estimation and testing hypotheses.
- Samuel Wilks' books
- These theories date from Fisher's classical papers in the early 1920's and the Neyman-Pearson work published about 1930, and require for their understanding many of the previously developed concepts relating to distribution functions.
- Aitchison books
- As long age as 1897 Karl Pearson, in a now classic paper on spurious correlation, first pointed out dangers that may befall the analyst who attempts to interpret correlations between ratios whose numerators and denominators contain common parts.
Quotations
- Quotations by Pearson
- Quotations by Karl Pearson
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- http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Quotations/Pearson.html
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- Quotations by Nightingale
- K Pearson, The Life, Letters and Labours for Francis Galton (1924).
- Quotations by Galton
- Quoted in K Pearson, The Life , Letters and Labours of Francis Galton (London 1914)
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Famous Curves
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Chronology
- Chronology for 1890 to 1900
- Pearson publishes the first in a series of 18 papers, written over the next 18 years, which introduce a number of fundamental concepts to the study of statistics.
- Mathematical Chronology
- Pearson publishes the first in a series of 18 papers, written over the next 18 years, which introduce a number of fundamental concepts to the study of statistics.
EMS Archive
- EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
- After working with Karl Pearson in London he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Christian College in Madras India.
- She went to London where she worked with Karl Pearson and then went to the USA where she gained a doctorate from Radcliffe College.
- He worked with Karl Pearson on the statistics of regression and correlation.
- EMS 125th Anniversary booklet
- She went to London where she worked with Karl Pearson and then went to the USA where she gained a doctorate from Radcliffe College.
- After working with Karl Pearson in London he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Christian College in Madras India.
- He worked with Karl Pearson on the statistics of regression and correlation.
- 1900-01 Mar meeting
- 1929-30 Mar meeting
- Colloquium photo 1992
- BACK ROW, G Popov, E Kirchberg, T B Fugard, B Thorpe, J Carr, V S Kiryakova, G C Smith, D L Johnson, J Kyle, F W Clarke, J B Muskat, A Umar, D J H Garling, M J Crabb, F Smithies, J Gunson, J K Pearson, S A Slebarski, F Ghahramani, C M Campbell, S P Lam, E F Robertson, K A Bencsath, D Vumar, J A Lester, A M Davie, W H Foster, J H Renshaw, T Kakita, Zhong-jin Ruan,
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- EMS Roll of Honour for World War I
- Pearson, Frank R - Captain, Royal Air Force.
BMC Archive
- BMC Morning speakers
- BMC 1992
- Pearson, D B Value distibution and spectral analysis of differential operators
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- BMC speakers
- BMC speakers
Gazetteer of the British Isles
- Karl Pearson
- London Scientific Institutions
- UCL was the most significant site for the development of statistics - Galton, Fisher, Weldon and both K Pearson and E Pearson were here.
- Pearson was Goldsmid Professor of Applied Mathematics in 1884-1911, then Galton Professor of Eugenics and Director of the Galton Laboratory in 1911-1933.
- He also introduced the Spearman rank correlation measure, which Pearson violently disagreed with.
- Richardson was an assistant to Pearson in 1907.
- Fisher succeeded Pearson as Galton Professor for 1933-1943, but continued to live at Harpenden and his unit was evacuated to Rothamsted during the war.
- Comrie recalled first learning about the Brunsviga machine from Karl Pearson here on Armistice Day [Two New Zealand mathematicians.
- Karl Pearson was called to the Bar here in 1882.
- Notable holders of the geometry chair have been: Henry Briggs (1597-1620); Laurence Rooke (1657-1662); Isaac Barrow (1662-1664); Robert Hooke (1665-1703); Karl Pearson (1890-1894, who outlined the modern development of statistics in his lectures); L.
- References
- (Not seen - cited by Pearson.)
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- Pearson, Karl.
- Harpenden, Hertfordshire
- During this time he formally developed analysis of variance, he introduced the word variance and found the distribution of the correlation coefficient, the correct chi-squared distribution for contingency tables (Pearson failed to get the right number of degrees of freedom) and the distributions of the simple and multiple correlation coefficients.
- London individuals S-Z
- Inventor of the Spearman rank correlation measure - Pearson violently disagreed with this idea, but it has endured.
- London individuals H-M
- In early 1927, he worked for some months with Karl Pearson at University College London on the tables of the Incomplete Beta Function.
- London individuals A-C
- He spent some time at UCL, where he recalled first learning about the Brunsviga calculating machine from Karl Pearson on Armistice Day.
- London individuals N-R
- Karl Pearson (1857-1936) was born in London.
- Cambridge Colleges
- Richmond; Percival Frost (author of Curve Tracing); Karl Pearson; W.
- London individuals D-G
- His will established the Chair of Eugenics at UCL, with Karl Pearson to be the first holder.
- Cambridge Individuals
- Karl Pearson (1857-1936) was a student and a Fellow at King's, 1875-1886.
Astronomy section
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JOC/BS August 2001