Search Results for Petersburg or Petrograd or Leningrad


Biographies

  1. Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925)
    • Born: 16 June 1888 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Died: 16 September 1925 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia again) .
    • Alexander entered the Second St Petersburg Gymnasium in August 1897 and his record shows a quite ordinary school performance at first.
    • Friedmann graduated from school in 1906 and entered the University of St Petersburg in August of that year.
    • There he was strongly influenced by Steklov who had taken up an appointment at St Petersburg in the year Friedmann entered and shared Friedmann's political views.
    • Friedmann was also influenced by Ehrenfest who moved to St Petersburg in 1906.
    • While Friedmann was an undergraduate at St Petersburg his father died.
    • In February 1913 he was appointed to a position in the Aerological Observatory in Pavlovsk, a suburb of St Petersburg, where he was to study meteorology.
    • In the spring of 1920, with the Civil war still raging, Friedmann returned to St Petersburg (now named Petrograd) to take up a post at the Main Geophysical Observatory.
    • Friedmann was never one to take life easy and he took up an impressive number of appointments in 1920 in Petrograd.
    • He began teaching mathematics and mechanics at Petrograd University, became a professor in the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the Petrograd Polytechnic Institute, worked in the Department of Applied Aeronautics at Petrograd Institute of Railway Engineering, worked at the Naval Academy and undertook research at the Atomic Commission at the Optical Institute.
    • Friedmann had taken up a new interest soon after returning to Petrograd.
    • Only Krutkov, when a colleague of Friedmann's from Petrograd, met Einstein at Ehrenfest's house in Leiden in May 1923 and told him of the details contained in Friedmann's letter did Einstein admit his error.
    • In July 1923 Friedmann left Petrograd to visit Germany and Norway.
    • He returned to Leningrad (Petrograd had been renamed Leningrad in 1924).
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .

  2. Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock biography
    • Born: 22 December 1898 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Died: 27 December 1974 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock attended school in St Petersburg but before he finished his high school studies, World War I broke out in 1914.
    • At this time St Petersburg was renamed Petrograd so when Fock completed his school education in 1916 it was the department of Physics and Mathematics of Petrograd University that he entered.
    • He survived World War I and, after being demobilised from the army in 1918, he returned to Petrograd University to continued his studies.
    • However in 1919 a new State Optical Institute was opened in Petrograd and a special group of students was formed in an effort to make sure that the very brightest students could still get a good education despite the chaotic situation in the country.
    • Fock had already published two papers, one on quantum mechanics and one on mathematical physics, before he graduated from Petrograd University in 1922.
    • In 1932 he was appointed as Professor of Theoretical Physics at Leningrad University.
    • In fact, of course, he was still in St Petersburg but the city (and university) had undergone a further name change and after being known as Petrograd for ten years became Leningrad in 1924.
    • This academy, based in St Petersburg, had also undergone various name changes and from 1917 to 1925 had been known as the Russian Academy of Sciences.

  3. Nikolai Evgrafovich Kochin (1901-1944)
    • Born: 6 May 1901 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • After completing his primary education, he entered the 1st Gymnasium in St Petersburg and his performance in almost all his subjects received the top grade [',' Nikolai Yevgrafovich Kochin (on the 100th anniversary of his birthday), J.
    • Kochin had an older sister who began to study mathematics at the Bestuzhev Institute for Women in St Petersburg.
    • In early 1917, while Kochin was nearing the end of his secondary education, the Russian Revolution broke out in Petrograd.
    • [The city of his birth, St Petersburg, was named Petrograd at this time.] There had been food shortages, strikes and military set-backs in World War I which led up to the February Revolution.
    • Kochin, however, was able to complete his school education in 1918 and in the same year entered Petrograd University which had been renamed 1st Petrograd State University shortly before he began his studies.
    • A White Army led by Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich marched from Estonia and attempted to capture Petrograd.
    • Kochin was part of the Red Army, led by Trotsky, that defeated this White Army at Gatchina near Petrograd.
    • In November 1919 Kochin was part of the Red Army that captured Yamburg, about 100 km south west of Petrograd, following the withdrawal of Yudenich's White Army from the town.
    • Kochin enlisted as a cadet in the Artillery Academy in Petrograd in 1920.
    • Once he left the army Kochin joined Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Friedmann's Mathematics Department in the Main Geophysical Observatory in Petrograd and, at the same time, continued his studies in the Mathematics Department of the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Petrograd University.
    • He was appointed to Leningrad State University in 1924 (Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in 1924) and taught mathematics and mechanics there until 1934.
    • In 1932 he began working at the Physics and Mathematics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Leningrad.

  4. Dmitrii Konstantinovich Faddeev biography
    • Died: 30 October 1989 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • It was in St Petersburg that Dmitrii Konstantinovich grew up, for it was there that his parents worked; Konstantin Tikhonovich worked at the famous Nevsky Metalworks, Mechanical and Shipbuilding Factory.
    • In 1914 St Petersburg was renamed Petrograd and it was there that the Russian Revolution began in 1917.
    • The city and its inhabitants suffered greatly through the Russian Civil War but when stability returned in 1923, Faddeev began his studies in mathematics at Petrograd State University while, at the same time, studying music at the famous Petrograd Conservatory on Theatre Square.
    • He left the Conservatory, by this time renamed the Leningrad Conservatory since the city had been renamed Leningrad in 1924, and concentrated fully on his mathematical studies.
    • At Leningrad State University (as Petrograd State University was renamed in 1924), Faddeev was taught, and was greatly influenced, by Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov and Boris Nikolaevich Delone.
    • They had three children, one of whom was Lyudvig Dmitrievich Faddeev (born 10 March 1934) who was educated in the Faculty of Physics at Leningrad State University and went on to become an outstanding mathematician and theoretical physicist producing ideas and results which are at the forefront of today's research.
    • Leaving the Weights and Measures Department in 1930, Faddeev taught at various Leningrad schools and also for a time at the Polytechnic Institute and the Engineering Institute.
    • He began teaching at Leningrad State University in 1933 and, in 1935, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (equivalent to the habilitation).
    • At this stage the Institute moved from Leningrad to Moscow but, despite this, Faddeev continued to undertake joint work with others at the Institute.
    • In 1940 the Leningrad Department of the Steklov Institute of Mathematics was founded and Faddeev worked there from that time on.
    • In 1937 Faddeev became a professor at Leningrad State University, taking on a more important leadership role since Delone had moved to Moscow.
    • This had little effect on life in Leningrad.
    • By the following month Hitler had plans to take both Leningrad and Moscow.
    • As the German armies rapidly advanced towards Leningrad, many people were evacuated from the city including Faddeev and his family.
    • For the duration of the siege of Leningrad, Faddeev lived in Kazan, about 800 km due east of Moscow and considered safe from the German invasion.
    • For a long time there was no opportunity to return to Leningrad which was only liberated from the siege in January 1944.
    • Faddeev, and other academics, obtained such a permit and again Leningrad State University began to operate.
    • The first Mathematical Olympiad took place in Leningrad in 1934.
    • This is an undergraduate text based on his lectures at Leningrad University.

  5. Vladimir Smirnov biography
    • Born: 10 June 1887 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Died: 11 February 1974 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • Vladimir Smirnov attended the Second Gymnasium, the oldest secondary school in St Petersburg, and there he won the gold medal for mathematics.
    • From school he entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St Petersburg University.
    • Valentina Doinikova, who was a friend of Friedmann, describes how the three went around together while undergraduates at St Petersburg University:- .
    • In 1910 Smirnov graduated from St Petersburg and remained at the University to study for the higher degrees which would allow him to become a university teacher.
    • From 1912 Smirnov taught at the St Petersburg Institute of Railway Engineering.
    • He taught at Simferopol University in the southern Ukraine from 1919 to 1922, then he returned to St Petersburg (by now Leningrad).
    • He became the head of the Mathematics School at the University of Leningrad and was elected to the USSR Academy of Sciences.
    • In 1953 Smirnov organised the Leningrad Mathematical Seminar.
    • To some extent this Seminar also filled the gap left when the Leningrad Mathematical Society disbanded due to political pressure in the late 1920s.
    • Smirnov had been an active member of the Leningrad Mathematical Society through the 1920s and he was a strong believer in relaunching the Society.
    • In 1959, mainly due to the efforts of Smirnov, it became possible to restart the Leningrad Mathematical Society and Smirnov was elected the honorary president of the Society.
    • (In 1990 the name of the Society was changed from the Leningrad Mathematical Society back to the St Petersburg Mathematical Society.
    • Their love and respect for their teacher's memory were reflected in a three-day scientific conference which was held in Leningrad in June 1987 and was dedicated to the centenary of the scientist's birth.
    • 1.nSt Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Membern .
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .

  6. Boris Nikolaevich Delone biography
    • Born: 15 March 1890 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Boris Nikolaevich's mother was Nadezhda Alexandrovna and his father was Nikolai Borisovich Delone, a professor of mechanics and physics at St Petersburg University.
    • In the middle of his years at high school the Delone family had moved from St Petersburg to Kiev where Nikolai Borisovich completed his secondary education.
    • Delone moved to Petrograd in 1922.
    • Petrograd was the name that St Petersburg had been given in 1914 and, two years after Delone began working there, in 1924, it was again renamed, this time to Leningrad.
    • Delone worked at Leningrad University from 1922 until 1935.
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society had been founded in 1890 but disbanded at the time of the 1917 Revolution.
    • However the Society was reformed in 1921 as the Petrograd Physical and Mathematical Society and Delone joined in the following year after his move to Petrograd.
    • The Institute of Physics and Mathematics had been established by Vladimir Andreevich Steklov in Petrograd (as it was called at the time) in 1921.
    • In 1947 Delone published The St Petersburg school in the theory of numbers (Russian) which described the works of the early number theorists who worked at St Petersburg University, namely P L Chebyshev, A N Korkin, E I Zolotarev, A A Markov, G F Voronoy and I M Vinogradov.
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .

  7. Vasilii Sergeevich Vladimirov biography
    • Born: 9 January 1923 in Dyaglevo, Volkhovsk, near Petrograd, Russia .
    • We should explain the reference to Petrograd in his place of birth.
    • St Petersburg had been renamed Petrograd in 1914 and it still had this name when Vladimirov was born, although it was renamed Leningrad in 1924 when he was one year old.
    • In 1934 he entered a 7-year school but, in 1937 he enrolled in the Leningrad Technical School of Hydrology and Meteorology where he studied for two years.
    • This enabled him to successfully take his high school examinations and, later that year, he enrolled in the faculty of Physics at Leningrad University.
    • The Molotov-Ribbentrop non-aggression pact between Germany and the Soviet Union meant that the initial years of the war had little effect on life in Leningrad and Vladimirov was able to study at the University.
    • A German army under Wilhelm Josef Franz Ritter von Leeb began advancing towards Leningrad and, on 27 June, the citizens of Leningrad were called on to help defend the city from the advancing German forces.
    • At first an effort was made to stop the advancing Germans at Kingisepp, a town about 130 km south west of Leningrad.
    • Vladimirov worked on building defences there but, in August 1941, as the defences were collapsing under the German attack, he went to Tosno, a town 50 km southeast of the centre of Leningrad where again defences were being built in an attempt to protect Leningrad.
    • The German troops took control of Tosno in September 1941 and Leningrad became a besieged city at this time.
    • Vladimirov was sent to an Air Force training academy on the Leningrad front where he learnt to drive tractors.
    • His training was complete by November and he spent the years of the Leningrad siege at a number of different air bases on the Leningrad front.
    • The siege of Leningrad lasted for 872 days and was finally lifted on 27 January 1944.
    • The lifting of the siege did not mean the end of the war, however, and from December 1944 to October 1945 Vladimirov served with an anti-aircraft unit in Leningrad which was part of the air defence system for the city.
    • In May 1945 all German troops surrendered to the Allies but Vladimirov continued to serve in Leningrad until October when he was discharged, given the rank of sergeant major in the reserves, and permitted to return to his university studies at Leningrad University.
    • For his work during the war he was awarded the Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad", and the Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945".
    • Venkov had studied at Leningrad University and had been appointed as a professor there in 1935.
    • He graduated from the Department of Number Theory of Leningrad University in 1948.
    • In the year that he graduated, Vladimirov was appointed as a junior researcher in the Leningrad Branch of the Steklov Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
    • We should also mention the Medal of Zhukov, the Medal "In Commemoration of the 250th Anniversary of Leningrad", the Medal "Veteran of Labour", the Medal "In Commemoration of the 850th Anniversary of Moscow" and the Medal "In Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of Saint Petersburg".

  8. Aleksandr Aleksandrov biography
    • Aleksandr Danilovic Aleksandrov's father was the headmaster of a secondary school in St Petersburg and his mother was a teacher at the same school.
    • In fact, although he was born in the village of Volyn, he lived in St Petersburg from a very young age.
    • Of course this is not strictly true, since when Aleksandrov was two years old St Petersburg changed its name to Petrograd.
    • Aleksandrov attended school in Petrograd but while he was at school the name of the city in which he lived changed yet again and so by the time he left school in 1928 it was a Leningrad school from which he graduated.
    • Therefore when he entered Leningrad University in 1929 he set out on a theoretical physics course in the Faculty of Physics.
    • In 1932 Aleksandrov moved from the Optics Institute to Physics Research Institute of Leningrad University where he worked on the theoretical side of the subject.
    • Aleksandrov was appointed as Professor of Geometry at Leningrad University in 1937.
    • In 1940 the Leningrad Branch of the Mathematical Institute was founded and it had among its members Aleksandrov, Kantorovich, Linnik, and Faddeev.
    • In 1944 Aleksandrov returned to the University of Leningrad where he was Professor of Geometry.
    • In 1952 he became Rector of the University of Leningrad.
    • It was a period in which he worked hard to recreate the mathematical activity in Leningrad which had been associated with the St Petersburg Mathematical Society.
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society was founded in 1890 and was the third oldest mathematical society in Russia (Moscow founded 1867 and the Kharkov founded 1879 are older).
    • It had ceased to exist in 1917 due to the Revolution, but was recreated after initiatives from Steklov as the Petrograd Physical and Mathematical Society in 1921.
    • Then Smirnov organised the Leningrad Mathematical Seminar in 1953 which went some way to filling the gap left but both Aleksandrov and Smirnov worked hard to restart the Leningrad Mathematical Society.
    • They succeeded in 1959 when the Leningrad Mathematical Society again began to hold meetings.
    • In 1964 Aleksandrov left Leningrad and moved to Novosibirsk where he was appointed as Head of the Department of Geometry of the University of Novosibirsk.
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .

  9. Yuri Vladimirovich Linnik (1915-1972)
    • Died: 30 June 1972 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • However, Vladimir Pavlovitch moved to Leningrad (St Petersburg before 1914 and now St Petersburg again) in 1926 when appointed to the State Institute of Optics.
    • In 1933 he was appointed a professor at Leningrad State University, and in 1946 he was appointed to the Pulkovo Observatory.
    • After studying at secondary school in Leningrad, Yuri Vladimirovich worked as a laboratory assistant for a year in 1931 before starting his university training.
    • Then, in 1932, he entered Leningrad University to study physics but, after studying for three years, he transferred to the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics at Leningrad State University.
    • He graduated in 1938 but, having already begun research as an undergraduate into quadratic forms, he remained at Leningrad State University.
    • Returning to Leningrad State University, he submitted his thesis Representation of Big Numbers by Positive Ternary Quadratic Forms and, due to the high quality of the work, he was awarded the higher degree of D.Sc.
    • In the same year he joined the Leningrad branch of the Steklov Institute for Mathematics as soon as it was founded in April 1940 and began working there.
    • However, the German armies were approaching Leningrad and Linnik volunteered to serve in the People's Guard to defend the city.
    • In September 1941 the Germans began the siege of the city of Leningrad.
    • Because of the war, the Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences had been moved from Moscow to Kazan, with the Leningrad branch also evacuated there, so Linnik was sent to Kazan.
    • This almost certainly saved his life for the siege of Leningrad lasted 872 days to January 1944.
    • After the siege of Leningrad ended in early 1944, Linnik was able to return from Kazan to Leningrad.
    • He was appointed as professor of mathematics at Leningrad State University in addition to his position in the Steklov Mathematical Institute in Leningrad which he had continued to hold in Kazan, and was able to resume in its proper location.
    • He worked in Leningrad for the rest of his life organising the chair of probability theory there and founding the world famous Leningrad school of probability and mathematical statistics.
    • Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 1975).','2], 240 of Linnik's research papers are listed, as well as a list of 40 notes and articles on the history of mathematics.
    • He was elected as the first president of the Leningrad Mathematical Society when it was founded in 1959, a role he filled for six years, and he was also elected to the Leningrad City Council.
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .

  10. Jacov Il'ich Frenkel biography
    • Died: 23 January 1952 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • In 1906 the family moved to Minsk, then in 1909 to St Petersburg.
    • After this he visited the United States, returning to St Petersburg to enter University in August 1913.
    • He graduated in 1916 from the Physics and Mathematics department, remaining at St Petersburg University to study for his doctorate.
    • The couple went to St Petersburg (by this time called Petrograd) in early 1921.
    • Returning to St Petersburg in 1926 (by the called Leningrad) he taught both at the Polytechnic Institute and at the University.
    • After his return to Leningrad he worked on a second volume of Electrodynamics.
    • In 1930 he went to the United States for a year, returning to Leningrad to maintain his remarkable publication record.
    • During World War II the Institute was evacuated in Leningrad and Frenkel left for Kazan in August 1941 to join the resited Institute.
    • He only just made it for two days later the advancing German armies prevented further trains leaving Leningrad.
    • He returned to Leningrad in the spring of 1944 but the remaining eight years of his life were very difficult ones.

  11. Gury Vasilievich Kolosov (1867-1936)
    • Died: 7 November 1936 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • Gury Vasilievich Kolosov received his school education in St Petersburg where he attended the Gymnasium.
    • This was the year in which he graduated from the Gymnasium and entered the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at the University of St Petersburg.
    • From 1893 Kolosov was employed both as the director of the mechanics laboratory at St Petersburg University, and as a teacher at the St Petersburg Institute of Communications Engineers.
    • In 1913 Kolosov returned to St Petersburg where he spent the rest of his career.
    • He worked both at St Petersburg University, becoming head of the department of theoretical mechanics in 1916, and at the Electrotechnical Institute where he was appointed head of the department of theoretical mechanics immediately on his return to the city in 1913.
    • Of course for much of this time (between 1914 and 1924), the city was known as Petrograd.
    • After 1924 it became known as Leningrad.
    • Kolosov worked in the famous city through a very difficult period since the Russian Revolution essentially began in St Petersburg in 1917.

  12. Nikoloz Muskhelishvili biography
    • Later in the same year he entered the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the University of St Petersburg.
    • Among his teachers at university was the Professor of Mechanics Aleksei Nikolaevich Krylov who was so impressed with the young Muskhelishvili that he said to a colleague, "Mark the name Muskhelishvili; it is one you will hear often in the future!" Muskhelishvili graduated with a first degree in 1914 and continued his studies at St Petersburg in the Department of Mechanics, preparing for a professorship.
    • Before these papers were published, Muskhelishvili was working as an assistant at the St Petersburg Electrotechnical Institute where he was appointed in 1915.
    • He worked there until 1918 but already in 1917 he was also appointed as an assistant at St Petersburg University.
    • Note that here we are using the name St Petersburg but, in 1914 St Petersburg was renamed Petrograd.
    • It was renamed again in 1924 when it became Leningrad, but today it has returned to the original name of St Petersburg.
    • During these years in St Petersburg he taught in several institutions in addition to the University.
    • After the Russian Revolution of February 1917 Georgia was ruled from St Petersburg but in May 1918 they set up an independent state.
    • He left St Petersburg in 1920 and took up an appointment at Tbilisi State University.
    • On the staff at Tbilisi State University when Muskhelishvili was appointed in 1920 was the Georgian mathematician George Nikoladze (1888-1931) who he had known while working in St Petersburg.
    • Nikoladze had studied at the First Tbilisi Classical Gymnasium (1898-1906) and the St Petersburg Technological Institute (1906-1913).
    • The family were living in St Petersburg (named Petrograd at this time) when the Russian Revolution broke out in February 1917 [',' P Kapodanno, On a neglected work of N I Muskhelishvili (Russian), in Studies in the history of physics and mechanics, 1986 (Russian) (’’Nauka’’, Moscow, 1986), 239-242; 271.','7]:- .
    • Within days, Rusudana and her younger sister, Tamara, offered their services to the newly-formed Petrograd Soviet, and in the following weeks they worked eight-hour shifts every day inside the Tauride Palace as telephone operators on the lines designated for the Soviet's leaders.

  13. George G Lorentz biography
    • Born: 25 February 1910 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • However, in 1906, he refused to participate in the suppression of a strike on his railway near St Petersburg.
    • His work was of such a high standard that his teachers advised him to transfer to Leningrad State University.
    • St Petersburg, the city of his birth, had been renamed Petrograd in 1914 but had been renamed Leningrad four years before Lorentz entered the university there in 1928.
    • At this time Leningrad was an excellent mathematical centre and Lorentz thrived there.
    • Independent thinkers were being persecuted and the President of the Leningrad Mathematical Society, a man with a reputation for courage and independent thought, was in such danger that the Leningrad Mathematical Society was disbanded in 1930 in a successful attempt to save the life of the President and the lives of other mathematicians.
    • This had little effect on life in Leningrad.
    • By the following month Hitler had plans to take both Leningrad and Moscow.
    • As the German armies rapidly advanced towards Leningrad, many people were evacuated from the city.
    • By this time Lorentz was married to Tanny Belikov and they became trapped in Leningrad [',' C de Boor and P Nevai, In memoriam George G Lorentz (1910-2006), J.
    • Soon there remained only a narrow corridor connecting Leningrad to Lake Ladoga, the eastern shore of the lake remaining in Soviet hands.
    • The war was to bring the population of Leningrad horrible sufferings.
    • Since November, I belonged to the paramilitary group for the air defence of Leningrad.
    • The books [',' R A Lorentz (ed.), George G Lorentz, Mathematics from Leningrad to Austin Vol 1 (Birkhauser Boston, Inc., Boston, MA, 1997).','1] and [',' R A Lorentz (ed.), George G Lorentz, Mathematics from Leningrad to Austin Vol 2 (Birkhauser Boston, Inc., Boston, MA, 1997).','2] contain a selection of Lorentz's papers and we will get a fair overview of his contributions by looking at the areas they cover.

  14. Pelageia Polubarinova Kochina biography
    • Yakov Stepanovich Polubarinov decided that Astrakhan did not provide the educational opportunities that he wanted for his four children, so the family moved to St Petersburg which was the capital of the Russian Empire at this time.
    • While Pelageia Polubarinova was attending the Pokrovskii Women's Gymnasium in St Petersburg, World War I broke out.
    • Then the town of St Petersburg had a German name and the war of 1914 led to much anti-German feeling, so the city's name was changed to its Russian version of Petrograd.
    • She graduated from the Gymnasium in 1916 and entered the women's programme which was affiliated to the University of Petrograd.
    • Nikolai Yevgrafovich Kochin graduated from the University of Petrograd in 1923.
    • Kochin was appointed to Leningrad State University in 1924.
    • This was the new name that the University of Petrograd took on when the city changed its name again in 1924 from Petrograd to Leningrad.
    • In 1934 she returned to a full time post being appointed as professor at Leningrad University.
    • In 1979 Kochina was awarded the Order of the Friendship of Nations, then in 1994 an international conference was held in St Petersburg on complex analysis and free boundary layer problems to celebrate her 95th birthday.

  15. Semyon Aranovich Gershgorin biography
    • Died: 30 May 1933 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • He studied at Petrograd Technological Institute from 1923, and defended an outstanding thesis submitted to the Division of Mechanics.
    • He became Professor at the Institute of Mechanical Engineering in Leningrad in 1930, and from 1930 he worked in the Leningrad Mechanical Engineering Institute on algebra, theory of functions of complex variables, numerical methods and differential equations.
    • He became head of the Division of Mechanics at the Turbine Institute as well as teaching innovative courses at Leningrad State University.

  16. Abram Samoilovitch Besicovitch biography
    • All the six children, four boys and two girls, were highly talented, with Abram Samoilovitch as the fourth in this family of six who would all excel in their studies at the University of St Petersburg.
    • He was taught by Markov at the University of St Petersburg where he originally intended to work in mathematical logic but he changed topics to study analysis since the library was not good enough in the logic area.
    • He graduated from St Petersburg in 1912 and, influenced by Markov, published his first paper on probability theory.
    • The University of Perm opened in 1916 as a branch of the University of St Petersburg but political events in the country soon began to dominate all else.
    • In the following year, with the Civil war still raging, he accepted a chair at Petrograd University (St Petersburg changed its name to Petrograd in 1914 and then to Leningrad in 1924).
    • Besicovitch left Petrograd for Copenhagen in 1924 and there worked with Harald Bohr.
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .

  17. Boris G Galerkin (1871-1945)
    • He attended secondary school in Minsk, then in 1893 he entered the Petersburg Technological Institute.
    • In 1903 Galerkin went to St Petersburg and there he became engineering manager at the Northern Mechanical and Boiler Plant.
    • In the same year he began teaching at the Petersburg Technological Institute.
    • In 1920 Galerkin was promoted to Head of Structural Mechanics at the Petersburg Technological Institute.
    • By this time he also held two chairs, one in elasticity at the Leningrad Institute of Communications Engineers and one in structural mechanics at Leningrad University.
    • In 1921 the St Petersburg Mathematical Society was reopened (it had closed in 1917 due to the Russian Revolution) as the Petrograd Physical and Mathematical Society.
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .
    • Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University .

  18. Vera Nikolaevna Kublanovskaya biography
    • Krokino, where Vera was born, was a small fishing village on the south east side of Ozero Beloye, a lake due east of St Petersburg (named Petrograd at the time that she was born, but becoming Leningrad in 1924) and due north of Moscow.
    • Her grades were outstanding so, as was the usual practice for the very best students, she was advised to continue her studies at the Gertzen Pedagogical Institute in Leningrad.
    • Nikolai Totubalin and his wife agreed that their daughter could study in Leningrad, a city 450 km west of their home village.
    • This had little effect on life in Leningrad where Vera Nikolaevna met Dmitrii Konstantinovich Faddeev who strongly advised her that she should follow a career in mathematics.
    • By the following month Hitler had plans to take both Leningrad and Moscow.
    • When Vera Nikolaevna's mother became seriously ill she left Leningrad and returned to her home village of Krokino.
    • In doing so, she had the good fortune to avoid being caught in the siege of Leningrad.
    • For a long time there was no opportunity to return to Leningrad which was only liberated from the siege in January 1944.
    • However, in 1945 Vera Nikolaevna decided that she would investigate whether Faddeev's suggestion that she study for a degree in mathematics at Leningrad State University still applied.
    • She wrote to Faddeev at the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, and received a reply inviting her to come to Leningrad and begin taking a degree course.
    • After three years of study, Vera Nikolaevna graduated from Leningrad State University and was given an appointment as a junior researcher at the V A Steklov Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Leningrad.
    • There she came in contact with Leonid Vitalyevich Kantorovich who had received little encouragement with his mathematical economics so, after returning to Leningrad after being evacuated during the siege, had shifted his attention back to mathematics.
    • Vera Nikolaevna worked with Kantorovich on this project in a secret Leningrad laboratory until 1955.
    • After submitting her thesis The Application of Analytic Continuation in Numerical Analysis to Leningrad State University, she received the degree in 1955.
    • Starting in 1968, she began teaching at the Leningrad Shipbuilding Institute (now the St Petersburg Marine Technical University).
    • Many of her students defended candidate theses in numerical mathematics at the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics of the Leningrad State University.

  19. Sergei Bernstein biography
    • The Congress lasted 8 August to 13 August 1904 but Bernstein remained at Heidelberg until the spring of 1905 when he went to St Petersburg.
    • In 1906 he passed his Master's examination at St Petersburg but only with difficulty since Aleksandr Nikolayevich Korkin, who examined him on differential equations, expected him to use classical methods of solution (some sources say that Bernstein only passed the examination at the second attempt).
    • In 1932 Bernstein left Kharkov to become head of the Department of Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics of the Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Leningrad.
    • He also lectured at Leningrad University from 1934.
    • At the beginning of 1939 he took up a lecturing post at Moscow University but continued to live in Leningrad.
    • He lost his position as Head of the Mathematical Institute in Leningrad but, in 1940, became an honorary member of the Moscow Mathematical Society.
    • However in June 1941 Hitler attacked Russia with the German armies moving rapidly towards Leningrad.
    • Bernstein left Leningrad and went to the town of Borovoe between Astana and Kokshetau in the north of Kazakhstan.
    • His son, German Sergeevich, did not leave the family home in Leningrad and was trapped by the siege of the city which began in September 1941.
    • German Sergeevich died in an attempt to flee from the besieged city and, following the death of his son, Bernstein decided that he would give up the family home in Leningrad and move his residence to Moscow.
    • 2.nSt Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Membern .
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .

  20. Alexander Ivanovich Skopin biography
    • Born: 22 October 1927 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • Died: 15 September 2003 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • After the award of a PhD for a thesis written under I M Vinogradov's supervision, Ivan Alexandrovich actively worked on research and taught in both Leningrad University and in Leningrad Mining University.
    • A I Skopin was born and lived in Leningrad until World War II.
    • In 1942 he was evacuated, together with his mother and two small sisters, during the blockade of Leningrad.
    • However his father, Ivan Alexandrovich, did not leave Leningrad and as a result died of starvation.
    • After the war the family returned to Leningrad.
    • There Skopin passed the high school examinations without attending classes and entered the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics of Leningrad University where he was an outstanding student.
    • For almost ten years he was the scientific secretary of the Leningrad branch of the Steklov Mathematical Institute.
    • Actually Alexander I Skopin was the first Leningrad algebraist to begin using computer algebra methods to solve group-theoretic problems.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Subsequently, influenced by his teacher and founder of the Leningrad- St Petersburg algebraic scientific school D K Faddeev, he turned to the implementation of his ideas and algorithms on a computer.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Translation in Leningrad Math.
    • Skopin worked as a researcher at the Steklov Institute for the whole of his life and, in addition, he taught algebra in the Leningrad- St Petersburg University throughout his life.
    • Petersburg State University .

  21. Yuri Vladimirovich Matiyasevich biography
    • Born: 2 March 1947 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • He was brought up in Leningrad where he began his schooling in 1954.
    • The first of these was the Leningrad Lyceum 239 from which he graduated in 1963.
    • From the Leningrad Lyceum 239 he went to Moscow where he spent a year at the A N Kolmogorov Physico-mathematical boarding school No 18 which was attached to Moscow State University.
    • Although leaving his mother in Leningrad on her own was difficult for him, the opportunity to go to Moscow presented itself when his uncle, who lived in Moscow, offered financial assistance.
    • Matiyasevich had shown his outstanding mathematical abilities while in Leningrad for he had been highly successful in the Leningrad Mathematical Olympiad Competitions between 1960 and 1963 and in the All-Union Mathematical Olympiads between 1961 and 1963.
    • Not only did his excellent performance in the 1964 International Mathematical Olympiad bring him wide recognition but it also had the practical effect of allowing him to enter directly into the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics of Leningrad State University without taking any examinations and also to enter a year early, missing out the final year of his school education [',' B Yandell, The honors class: Hilbert’s problems and their solvers (A K Peters, 2002).','2]:- .
    • He graduated in 1969 and continued to study for his Candidate's degree (equivalent to a Ph.D.) at the Leningrad Department of the Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences with Sergei Maslov as his advisor.
    • I had planned to spend the winter holidays with my bride at a ski camp, so I left Leningrad before I got the verdict from Maslov and Lifshitz.
    • On my return to Leningrad I received confirmation that my proof was correct, and it was no longer secret.
    • He was awarded his Candidate's degree in 1970 and was appointed as a researcher in the Leningrad Department of the Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
    • He received the "Young mathematician" prize from the Leningrad Mathematical Society in this same year and received world-wide recognition when he presented his result in his lecture Diophantine representation of recursively enumerable predicates at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Nice in August 1970.
    • In 1980 Matiyasevich was appointed head of the Laboratory of Mathematical Logic at the Leningrad Department of the Steklov Institute.
    • In 1995 he was also appointed as Professor of Software Engineering at St Petersburg State University (Leningrad had reverted to its original name of St Petersburg in 1991).
    • Of the many honours given to Matiyasevich we mention that he was: awarded the A A Markov Prize of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1980); awarded an honorary doctorate by l'Universite d'Auvergne (1996); elected a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1997); received the Humboldt Research Award to Outstanding Scholars (1998); elected vice-president of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society (1998); awarded an honorary doctorate by l'Universite Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris (2003); elected to the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (2007); and elected as a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2008).

  22. Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman biography
    • Born: 13 June 1966 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • The club met twice a week at the Palace of Pioneers at the end of the school day and Rukshin, an undergraduate student at Leningrad University, had some novel ways of getting the best out of the boys who came to the club.
    • In the summer of 1980 Rukshin tutored Perelman in English so that he could enter Leningrad's Special Mathematics and Physics School Number 239 in September of that year.
    • To allow Perelman to get this intense tuition, learning the English covered in four years of schooling in a few weeks, the Perelman family had to remain in Leningrad over the summer rather than going to the country which would have been the norm.
    • Lessons were conducted walking round the parks of Leningrad and successfully achieved their aim.
    • Perelman entered Leningrad State University in autumn 1982.
    • One might imagine that his achievements would mean that he would be welcomed as a graduate student at the Leningrad branch of the Steklov Mathematics Institute with open arms.
    • Aleksandr Danilovic Aleksandrov wrote to the director requesting that Perelman be allowed to undertake graduate work under his supervision at the Leningrad branch of the Steklov Mathematics Institute.
    • Burago contacted Mikhael Leonidovich Gromov who had been a professor at Leningrad State University, but was at this time a permanent member of the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques outside Paris.
    • After visiting the IHES near Paris, Perelman returned to the Steklov Mathematics Institute in Leningrad but, thanks to Gromov, Perelman was invited to the United States to talk at the 1991 Geometry Festival held at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina.
    • While Perelman was in the United States in 1992, his mother stayed with friends in New York, his father had earlier emigrated to Israel, and Perelman's young sister Lena was still being educated in St Petersburg (Leningrad returned to its original name of St Petersburg in 1991).
    • He was offered a full professorship, without making any application, by Tel Aviv University in Israel, but he turned down all the offers and returned to the St Petersburg branch of the Steklov Mathematics Institute after his Miller fellowship came to an end in the summer of 1995.
    • He returned to St Petersburg at the end of April 2002 and, in July, put Finite extinction time for the solutions to the Ricci flow on certain three-manifolds, the third instalment of his work, on the web.
    • He continued working at the Steklov Mathematics Institute in St Petersburg where he was promoted to Senior Researcher.

  23. Vera Nikolaevna Faddeeva biography
    • Died: 15 April 1983 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • In 1927 she entered the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute but transferred in the following year to Leningrad State University.
    • They had three children, one of whom was Lyudvig Dmitrievich Faddeev (born 10 March 1934) who was educated in the Faculty of Physics at Leningrad State University and went on to become an outstanding mathematician and theoretical physicist producing ideas and results which are at the forefront of today's research.
    • The years during which Vera Nikolaevna was an undergraduate at Leningrad State University were ones of great difficulty for the academics at the university.
    • During this period independent thinkers were persecuted and N M Gyunter, at that time President of the Leningrad Mathematical Society and a man with a reputation for courage and independent thought, was in great danger.
    • In fact the Leningrad Mathematical Society was disbanded in 1930 following a proposal by the vice-president Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov, in a successful attempt to save Gyunter's life and the lives of other mathematicians.
    • Following her graduation, Faddeeva worked at the Leningrad Board of Weights and Measures (as her husband had done in the previous couple of years).
    • She was employed as an assistant at the Leningrad Hydraulic Engineering Institute from 1930 to 1934 and, in 1933-34, also as a junior researcher at the Seismology Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
    • For three years, beginning in 1935, she worked as a researcher at the Leningrad Institute of Constructions being part of a team led by Boris Grigorievich Galerkin [',' M K Kerimov, In memory of Vera Nikolaevna Faddeeva (on the centenary of her birth), Comput.
    • Faddeeva undertook graduate study at the Leningrad Pedagogical Institute for three years, beginning in 1938.
    • This had little effect on life in Leningrad.
    • By the following month Hitler had plans to take both Leningrad and Moscow.
    • As the German armies rapidly advanced towards Leningrad, many people were evacuated from the city including Faddeeva and her family.
    • For the duration of the siege of Leningrad, Faddeeva lived in Kazan, about 800 km due east of Moscow and considered safe from the German invasion.
    • For a long time there was no opportunity to return to Leningrad which was only liberated from the siege in January 1944.
    • Faddeeva, together with her husband and other academics, obtained such permits and again Leningrad State University began to operate.
    • She had been appointed as a junior researcher at the Leningrad Division of the Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1942 and continued to work for the Institute for the rest of her career.
    • After submitting her candidate's thesis On One Problem in Mathematical Physics to Leningrad State University in 1946 she was awarded the degree (equivalent to a Ph.D.).
    • Gavurin was a colleague of Faddeeva and, together with Leonid Vitalyevich Kantorovich, he had set up a computational mathematics unit within the mathematical analysis department at Leningrad State University in 1948.
    • Jointly with S G Mikhlin, she headed the scientific seminar of the Leningrad Division of the Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences on numerical methods.

  24. Mikhail Moiseevich Lesokhin biography
    • Born: 13 August 1933 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • Died: 1 June 1998 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • His father was a shoemaker in Leningrad and Mikhail Moiseevich had a very hard childhood as a result of World War II.
    • In 1941 the Germans invaded Russia and by September of that year German troops were on the outskirts of Leningrad cutting the city off from the rest of Russia.
    • About 660,000 people died in Leningrad during the siege from scurvy and starvation.
    • Mikhail Moiseevich and his mother, therefore, had to spend time in the Far East before the hospital was closed and they were able to return to Leningrad.
    • The fact that he was a brilliant pupil, together with the educational help he had received from the doctors at the hospital, meant that Mikhail Moiseevich was not disadvantaged educationally when he attended high school in Leningrad and when he graduated in 1951 he received the medal for the top pupil in the whole school.
    • In 1951 Lesokhin entered the Leningrad Herzen Pedagogical Institute where he studies mathematics and physics.
    • He worked there for three years, returning to take up a post as an assistant in the Department of Higher Algebra in the Leningrad Herzen Pedagogical Institute in 1962.

  25. Sergei Sobolev biography
    • Born: 6 October 1908 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Died: 3 January 1989 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • The high school which he entered was called the 190th School of Leningrad at the time although previously it had been called the Lentovskii High School.
    • was founded during the First Russian Revolution by the foremost St Petersburg teachers for pupils who had been excluded from the State Schools and Technical Colleges because of their participation in the revolutionary movement.
    • After graduating from high school in 1925, Sobolev entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Leningrad State University where his talents were quickly spotted by Smirnov who had returned to Leningrad three years earlier.
    • However, in addition, he taught at the Leningrad Electrotechnic Institute in 1930-31.
    • In the same year the Steklov Mathematical Institute was moved from Leningrad to Moscow and Sobolev went with the new Institute to Moscow.

  26. Olga Alexandrovna Ladyzhenskaya biography
    • Died: 12 January 2004 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • In 1939, despite leaving secondary school with excellent marks, Olga was forbidden to enter Leningrad State University as her father was thought of as an "enemy of the nation".
    • She was given a placement in the Pokrovski Teachers' Training College, remarkably only based on her word, as Leningrad (now St Petersburg) had not yet returned her academic documents.
    • When World War II began she was left with no choice but to leave Leningrad, first moving to Gorodets where she taught in an orphanage, and then moving with her mother and older sister to return to Kologriv.
    • After she graduated in 1947, Olga moved once again to Leningrad due to family circumstances and became a postgraduate at the Leningrad State University on the recommendation of MGU.
    • During that year she married Andrei Alexevich Kiselev, a specialist in the number theory and history of mathematics, in the city of Leningrad.
    • In 1954, she was made a teachers at Leningrad State University and initially became a researcher at the Steklov Mathematical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
    • In 1954, and again in 1961, she was awarded the First Prize of the Leningrad State University.
    • She was awarded the S V Kovalevsky prize in 1992, an honorary doctorate from the University of Bonn on 13 May 2002, and the Golden Lomonosov Medal, the Ioffe Medal, and the St Petersburg University Medal in 2003.
    • From 1959 she was a member of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society when the Society was recreated and she served as its Vice-President from 1970 to 1990 and its President between 1990 and 1998, after which she was elected Honorary Member of the Society.
    • It was then that Leray saw the sights of Leningrad for the first time, including the Hermitage, Peterhof, and on meeting Olga realized that they had been researching the same topics.
    • Olga, was not only interested in mathematics and science, but she had a passion for arts and was an active participant in the intellectual community of St Petersburg.
    • Once a member of the city council of people's deputies, she helped mathematicians and their families in Leningrad to get free accommodation.
    • She loved St Petersburg but she was also a sun worshipper and had been due to be in Florida from January 12th during the long dark days of winter in St Petersburg.
    • 1.nSt Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Membern .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society More pictures .

  27. Andrei Andreyevich Markov (1856-1922)
    • Petrograd (now St Petersburg), Russia .
    • The family moved to St Petersburg where Andrei Grigorievich served in the Forestry Department and then became a manager of various households and estates.
    • His secondary schooling was at St Petersburg Gymnasium No 5 where he showed outstanding talents for mathematics but performed rather poorly in other subjects.
    • It was clear that mathematics was the right subject for Markov to study at university and, in 1874, he entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St Petersburg University.
    • This thesis was outstanding [',' B N Delone, The St Petersburg school of number theory (American Mathematical Socity, Providence, RI, 2005).','4]:- .
    • This work, very highly esteemed by Chebyshev, represents one of the finest achievements of the St Petersburg school of number theory, and perhaps even of all Russian mathematics.
    • After submitting his master's thesis, Markov began to teach at St Petersburg University as a privatdozent while working for his doctorate (equivalent to the habilitation).
    • Markov became an extraordinary professor at St Petersburg University in 1886 and an ordinary professor in 1893.
    • After 1900 Markov applied the method of continued fractions, pioneered by his teacher Pafnuty Chebyshev, to probability theory [',' B N Delone, The St Petersburg school of number theory (American Mathematical Socity, Providence, RI, 2005).','4]:- .
    • Sergei Bernstein, who continued to develop the theory of Markov chains, wrote (see for example [',' B N Delone, The St Petersburg school of number theory (American Mathematical Socity, Providence, RI, 2005).','4]):- .
    • He returned to St Petersburg but his health was now deteriorating and he had an eye operation.
    • 2.nSt Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Membern .

  28. Otto Yulyevich Schmidt biography
    • In June 1917 he went to Petrograd (as St Petersburg was called at that time) to attend the All-Russian Congress on Higher Education.
    • There had already been riots in Petrograd in March 1917 because of severe food shortages and, as a result, the Tsar was forced to abdicate and a Provisional Government set up.
    • In March of the following year operations were moved from Petrograd to Moscow and Schmidt relocated to Moscow where his first son Vladimir Ottovich was born in March 1920.
    • At times the condition eased and he was able to lecture in Moscow and Leningrad.

  29. Andrei Petrovich Kiselev biography
    • Died: 8 November 1940 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • He graduated from this Gymnasium in 1871 having won the gold medal and, in the same year, entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St Petersburg University.
    • At St Petersburg University, Kiselev was taught by a number of world-class mathematicians.
    • Their son Vladimir graduated from St Petersburg State University and then joined the Navy, their daughter Elena began training to become a mathematics teacher but was forced to give up because of illness, and their other daughter graduated from the St Petersburg Women's Medical Institute.
    • Kiselev graduated in 1875 from the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St Petersburg University with a degree which entitled him to teach in Gymnasia.
    • He had retired in 1901 and after a while had moved to St Petersburg to be near his publishers.
    • He was able to return to St Petersburg, by then known as Leningrad, towards the end of his life.
    • After his death in Leningrad, Kiselev was buried in the Volkov cemetery, in an area reserved for academics.

  30. Mikhail Fedorovich Subbotin (1893-1966)
    • Died: 26 December 1966 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • From 1930 he worked in astronomy and celestial mechanics at Leningrad (St Petersburg) University being appointed as head of the astronomy department there.
    • He held a variety of posts such as Chairman of the Department of Celestial Mechanics (1935-44), Head of the Theoretical Section of Pulkovo Observatory (1931-34), and Head of Leningrad University Observatory (1934-39).
    • By September 1941 German armies and the armies of their ally Finland were close to Leningrad.
    • By November 1941 Leningrad was almost completely cut off.
    • It is worth noting that Leningrad held out and by January 1944 the German troops were driven back and the siege lifted.
    • The University of Leningrad was re-established at Saratov and by the end of 1942 Subbotin was in Saratov as the Director of the Leningrad Astronomical Institute.
    • When the situation allowed, the Institute was returned to Leningrad with Subbotin as its head.

  31. Vladimir Maz'ya biography
    • Born: 31 December 1937 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • In 1941 the Germans invaded Russia and by September of that year German troops were on the outskirts of Leningrad cutting the city off from the rest of Russia.
    • After the war, Maz'ya entered the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics of Leningrad State University when he was eighteen years old.
    • By the time Maz'ya graduated from Leningrad State University in 1960 he already had published a paper.
    • After graduating, Maz'ya was appointed as a Junior Research Scientist at the Mathematics and Mechanics Institute of Leningrad University.
    • Also in 1962 Maz'ya was awarded the prize for the best junior mathematician by the Leningrad Mathematical Society.
    • in mathematics from Leningrad State University.
    • In addition to his position at the Mathematics and Mechanics Institute of Leningrad University, Maz'ya was appointed as professor in the Department of Mathematics of the Leningrad Shipbuilding Institute in 1968.
    • In 1986 he was appointed as Head of the Laboratory of Mathematical Models in Mechanics at Leningrad Institute of Engineering Studies which was part of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
    • We mentioned above the prize he was awarded by the Leningrad Mathematical Society early in his career.

  32. Leonid Vital'evich Kantorovich biography
    • Born: 19 January 1912 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • The first events to impact on the young child Leonid was the general strike and disorder that broke out in St Petersburg in February 1917 and then the violent revolution of October 1917 when workers stormed the Winter Palace and disposed the government.
    • He entered the Mathematics Faculty of Leningrad State University in 1926, when he was only 14 years old.
    • He attended lectures by Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov, Grigorii Mickhailovich Fichtengolz (1888-1959), one of the founders of the Leningrad school of real analysis, and Boris Nikolaevich Delone.
    • He graduated in 1930 at the age of eighteen having reached the level equivalent to a doctorate and continued to undertake research in the Mathematical Department of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Leningrad State University.
    • In the following year he was appointed as a research associate in the Research Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Leningrad State University and, from 1932, an associate professor in the Department of Numerical Mathematics.
    • In 1934 the Second All-Union Mathematical Congress was held in Leningrad and attracted around 700 participants.
    • His research was also highlighted in the lecture "Leningrad studies in analysis" given by Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov.
    • From 1934 to 1960 he was a professor of mathematics at Leningrad State University.
    • He was awarded first prize in mathematics at the Leningrad competition for young research workers in 1937 and at the All-Union competition of young research workers in 1938, he received the prize for his paper Functional analysis using the theory of semi-ordered spaces.
    • A young professor of mathematics at the Leningrad University was approached by the local plywood trust in 1938 to help with a seemingly trivial but puzzling production problem: how to draw a work schedule for eight lathes so as to maximize output of five varieties of plywood of a given assortment.
    • In 1938-1939, L V Kantorovich, a Leningrad mathematician, worked in consultation with a research laboratory of the plywood industry on the problem of allocating a number of different machines among products requiring various amounts of machine-time so as to maximize the output of the products in certain desired proportions.
    • In July 1939, he published his results in a pamphlet issued by the Leningrad State University [Mathematical Methods of Organizing and Planning Production (Russian)].
    • This was moved from Leningrad to Yaroslavl, 300 km north of Moscow and Kantorovich was evacuated there.
    • 2.nSt Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Membern .

  33. Nikolai Sergeevitch Krylov biography
    • Died: 21 June 1947 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • Nikolai Sergeevitch Krylov entered the Department of Physics at Leningrad University in 1934 [',' V A Fock, Nikolai Sergeevitch Krylov, in N S Krylov, Works on the foundations of statistical physics (Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1979), xiii-xv.
    • After graduating, he continued to undertake research at Leningrad University, advised by V A Fock.
    • Up to this time Krylov had been little affected by World War II, but in 1941 the Germans invaded Russia and by September German troops were on the outskirts of Leningrad cutting the city off from the rest of Russia.
    • About 660,000 people died in Leningrad during the siege from scurvy and starvation.
    • The exceptionally bitter winter of 1941-42, when temperatures fell to -40° C, was one of extreme hardship for Krylov but he was evacuated and was able to recover his health in time to defend his doctoral thesis in Kazan (where Leningrad University had moved because of the war) in the summer of 1942.
    • The blockade of Leningrad was broken in January 1943, but it was into 1944 before the German troops were forced back from the surroundings.
    • Krylov certainly could not return to Leningrad so he spent time working at the scientific centres in Elabuga, Joshkar Ola, and Moscow.
    • By the autumn of 1944 Leningrad was able to start the process of recovery (much had been destroyed by the bombardment and much of what remained was destroyed by the Germans before they retreated).
    • Krylov resumed his duties at senior scientist at the Physical Institute of Leningrad University.

  34. Yulian Vasilievich Sokhotsky (1842-1927)
    • Died: 14 December 1927 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • After graduating from the Gymnasium in 1860, he enrolled in the Physics and Mathematics Faculty at the University of St Petersburg but he remained there for only one year before returning to Warsaw where he continued his university studies without the help of any teachers.
    • He was awarded his first degree, a bachelor of mathematics, from the University of St Petersburg in 1866.
    • He submitted his Master's dissertation The theory of integral residues with some applications to the University of St Petersburg as part of the requirement for a Master's Degree in 1867 and, after defending his thesis in the following year, he was awarded the degree.
    • Following the award of his Master's degree (essentially equivalent to a Ph.D.) he began teaching at the University of St Petersburg.
    • He received a doctorate from St Petersburg in 1873.
    • Sokhotsky was appointed as an extraordinary professor after the award of his doctorate (essentially equivalent to the German habilitation) and then became an ordinary professor at the University of St Petersburg in 1883.
    • Sokhotsky was elected vice-president of the Mathematical Society of St Petersburg in 1890 and succeeded V G Imshenetsky as president in 1892.
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society .

  35. Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin biography
    • Died: 3 December 1984 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • By the following month Hitler had plans to take both Leningrad and Moscow and Rokhlin volunteered to fight on the front with the Moscow People's Volunteer Corps.
    • Aleksandr Danilovic Aleksandrov was professor of geometry at Leningrad University from 1944 and, in 1952, he became the rector of the University.
    • He wanted to build up all the scientific departments and, in 1961, he invited Rokhlin to the chair of geometry at Leningrad.
    • By the end of the 1960s he was running his famous topological seminar at Leningrad.
    • Igor Shafarevich writes [',' I R Shafarevich, Reminiscences of V A Rokhlin, Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society 7 (Amer.
    • It also seems particularly sad that after so many years of battling against the system, his career should end in the way it did after his great achievements in Leningrad.

  36. Ivan Vsevolodovich Meshchersky (1859-1935)
    • Died: 7 January 1935 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • He then entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of St Petersburg University where he studied mathematics and mechanics.
    • Meshchersky taught in St Petersburg for 58 years.
    • In the following year he was appointed to the chair of mechanics at St Petersburg Women's College and he held this, in addition to a number of other posts, until 1919 when the College ceased to exist as an independent institution being incorporated into St Petersburg University.
    • Meshchersky is best known, however, for his work on the motion of bodies of variable mass which he described in January 1893 at a meeting of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society.
    • The St Petersburg Polytechnic Institute was being set up at this time and Meshchersky played a major role in developing the curriculum.

  37. Aleksei Krylov (1863-1945)
    • Died: 26 October 1945 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • He entered the Maritime High School in St Petersburg in 1878.
    • In 1888 Krylov joined the department of ship construction of St Petersburg Maritime Academy.
    • Krylov died in Leningrad (now St Petersburg) and is buried in the Volkovo cemetery.

  38. Evgeny Sergeevich Lyapin biography
    • Died: 13 January 2005 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Because his health was poor, Sergey Evgenyevich, who had been born in St Petersburg, had been sent to Yalta in the Crimea when he was a young boy.
    • The family returned to St Petersburg in November 1917 after the second of the two Russian Revolutions of 1917 which placed the Bolsheviks in power.
    • He was lucky that in the end someone (of the right class and political views) who had been accepted to study mathematics at university, decided to drop out and Evgeny Sergeevich was given the opportunity to study at Leningrad State University.
    • In 1936 Lyapin graduated from Leningrad State University but continued to undertake research there under the supervision of V A Tartakovskii.
    • However, in June 1941, Germany invaded Russia and by September of that year German troops were on the outskirts of Leningrad cutting the city off from the rest of Russia.
    • About 660,000 people died in Leningrad during the siege from scurvy and starvation.
    • During the siege Lyapin remained in Leningrad but had to give up his mathematical research and contribute to the war effort.
    • This he did by undertaking meteorological research at the Main Geophysical Observatory in Leningrad.
    • In the same year he was appointed to the Chair of Algebra at the Herzen Pedagogical Institute being also appointed as Professor of Algebra at Leningrad State University.

  39. Nikolay Sonin (1849-1915)
    • Died: 27 February 1915 in Petrograd (now St Petersburg), Russia .
    • Two years later he was made an academician in pure mathematics and moved to St Petersburg to take part in the academic and administrative work of the Academy.
    • From 1894 Sonin also taught at the St Petersburg University for Women.
    • From 1899 to 1901 he was superintendent of the St Petersburg Educational District and then from 1901 he was president of the Scientific Committee of the Ministry of National Education.

  40. Solomon Grigoryevich Mikhlin biography
    • Died: 29 August 1990 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • (Details of S G Mikhlin's family and his student years can be found in reminiscences of Grigory Z Mikhlin [',' G Z Mikhlin, Some words about my father (Russian), St Petersburg University 8 (3775) (2008), 29-30.','11].) Victoria died of peritonitis in 1961 during a boat trip on the Volga - apparently, there had been no doctor on board.
    • He graduated from a secondary school in Gomel (Belorussia) in 1923 and entered the Leningrad State Pedagogical Institute, named after Herzen, in 1925.
    • In January 1927 he became a second year student in the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics (MatMekh) of Leningrad State University after passing all the first year examinations without attending any lectures.
    • In 1930 he started his teaching career, working for short periods in several Leningrad institutes.
    • In 1944 Mikhlin returned to Leningrad State University as full professor.
    • (An interesting source of information about Mikhlin's laboratory is the article by M Anolik [',' M Anolik, Perfect scientific style (Russian), St Petersburg University 8 (3775) (2008), 32-33.','2].) .
    • When the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics moved to the Leningrad suburb of Peterhof in 1978, the seminar became more specialized, turning into the seminar of Mikhlin's laboratory on numerical methods.
    • Atti del II simposio internazionale, Taormina, 15-17 October 1998, Dedicato alla memoria del Prof Gaetano Fichera (Aracne Editrice, Rome, 2000).','9]), so Fichera and his wife brought the tiny golden lynx badge, the symbol of the Accademia dei Lincei membership, directly to Mikhlin's apartment in Leningrad on 17 October 1981.

  41. Evgenii B Dynkin biography
    • Born: 11 May 1924 in Leningrad, USSR (now St Petersburg, Russia) .
    • He lived with his family in Leningrad until 1935 when they were exiled to Kasakhstan and his father was designated one of the 'people's enemies'.

  42. Yakov Davydovich Tamarkin biography
    • The family moved to St Petersburg where Tamarkin attended the Second Gymnasium.
    • The Second Gymnasium was the oldest secondary school in St Petersburg having been founded in 1806.
    • The director of the school was Alexei Ivanovich Davidenkov, who came from a famous St Petersburg family.
    • Tamarkin graduated from the Second Gymnasium in 1906 with a gold medal and entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the University of St Petersburg in August of that year.
    • Valentina Doinikova, who was a friend of Friedmann, describes how Tamarkin, Friedmann and Smirnov went around together while undergraduates at St Petersburg University:- .
    • Tamarkin graduated in 1910 with the equivalent to a Master's degree, then remained at St Petersburg to prepare for the position of professor of mathematics.
    • As well as teaching at the University, Tamarkin taught at two other institutions in St Petersburg, namely the Electro-Technical School and the School of Communications.
    • It was during this time (in 1914) that St Petersburg changed its name to Petrograd.
    • The University of Perm opened in 1916 as a branch of the University of St Petersburg but in 1917 became an independent institution.
    • Both Friedmann and Besicovitch returned to Petrograd (as St Petersburg was then called) but Tamarkin spent two years at Perm until 1922 both as professor and dean of the university.
    • After this he returned to Petrograd, taking up teaching at the three institutions he had previously taught at, and adding a further teaching position at the Naval Academy.

  43. Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian biography
    • Following his father's advice, he decided to study at the University of Leningrad, a good choice since the Pulkovo Observatory was close to the city.
    • Arriving in Leningrad too late in 1924 to enter the University of Leningrad in that year, he studied in the Mathematics and Physics department of the Herzen Pedagogical Institute for eighteen months.
    • In 1925, Ambartsumian entered into the University of Leningrad (what is now known as the St Petersburg State University), as an undergraduate, hoping to devote his life's work to the research of astrophysics.
    • During my studies at the University of Leningrad I paid chief attention to astronomy and mathematical courses.
    • Graduating in 1928, he went on to continue his studies as a postgraduate at the Pulkovo Observatory near Leningrad (now St Petersburg), under the supervision of Aristarkh Apollonovich Belopolsky (1854-1934) who had worked at Pulkovo Observatory from 1888.
    • Ivanenko was, at this time, working at the Physical Mathematical Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences in Leningrad.
    • He spent the years 1931-43 lecturing at the University of Leningrad, heading the astrophysical department.
    • After three years' affiliation with Leningrad University, Ambartsumian founded and headed the first astrophysics chair in 1934, making him a professor at the university.
    • Having served as director of the Leningrad University Observatory between 1938 and 1941, he and the laboratories of the University were relocated to the remote Yelabuga, Tatarstan in west Russia in 1941.
    • This relocation was, of course, forced because of German forces advancing towards Leningrad.
    • In those years, the International Astronomical Union went through a critical stage in its existence as a consequence of the International Astronomical Union Executive Committee's decision to postpone the General Assembly that had been planned for 1951 in Leningrad.

  44. Vladimir A Steklov (1864-1926)
    • Steklov was awarded his doctorate in 1902 and, in that year, his supervisor Lyapunov accepted an appointment at St Petersburg.
    • In 1902, the year he was appointed to the Chair of Applied Mathematics, Steklov became chairman of the Society and held this post until 1906 when he moved to St Petersburg to take up the Chair of Mathematics there.
    • In fact this made him a very popular teacher at St Petersburg and, coupled with his excellent lecturing skills, brought many students to study at the Department of Mathematics and Physics.
    • Among the students that he taught at St Petersburg were Friedmann, Smirnov and Tamarkin.
    • When the German form of the city's name was changed to the Russian name of Petrograd, Steklov wrote in his diary entry of 2 September 1914:- .
    • St Petersburg has been renamed Petrograd by Imperial Order.
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society .

  45. Georgy Voronoy (1868-1908)
    • He then entered the University of St Petersburg, joining the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics.
    • He wrote in his diary (see for example [',' B N Delone, The St Petersburg School of the Theory of Numbers (Moscow-Leningrad, 1947).','2]):- .
    • After graduating from St Petersburg in 1889, writing a dissertation on Bernoulli numbers, Voronoy decided to remain there and work for his teaching qualification.
    • He wrote his doctoral thesis on algorithms for continued fractions which he submitted to the University of St Petersburg.
    • In fact both Voronoy's master's thesis and his doctoral thesis were of such high quality that they were awarded the Bunyakovsky prize by the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
    • Delone writes in [',' B N Delone, The St Petersburg School of the Theory of Numbers (Moscow-Leningrad, 1947).','2] about Voronoy's work of 1907-08:- .

  46. Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond (1906-1968)
    • Born: 24 October 1906 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Gelfond addressed the Second All-Union Mathematics Congress in Leningrad in 1934) on Transcendental numbers.

  47. Mikhael Leonidovich Gromov biography
    • Mikhael Leonidovich Gromov was born in Boksitogorsk, a town about 200 km east of St Petersburg (or Leningrad as it was called at the time of his birth).
    • Gromov attended Leningrad University, graduating with a Masters degree in Mathematics in 1965.
    • He research supervisor at Leningrad was Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin who had been a student of Andrei Nikolayevich Kolmogorov and Lev Semenovich Pontryagin.
    • Before the award of his doctorate, Gromov had been married to Margarita Gromov in 1967 and appointed as an Assistant Professor at Leningrad University in the same year.
    • He then presented his Post-doctoral Thesis to Leningrad University in 1973.

  48. Vladimir Aleksandrovich Marchenko biography
    • Alexander Grigoryevich was from a working class background but had a good education at the St Petersburg Academy of Forestry.
    • He married Olga Fedorovna who was a school teacher from St Petersburg, and they had four children: Irina, Dmitri, Sergei and Vladimir.
    • After graduating from high school in 1939, Vladimir Aleksandrovich entered the Department of Physics in Leningrad University.

  49. Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792-1856)
    • Lobachevsky bought equipment for the physics laboratory, and he purchased books for the library in St Petersburg.
    • The book [',' B V Fedorenko, New documents for the biography of N I Lobachevskii (Russian) (Leningrad, 1988).','5] contains some yearly reports Lobachevsky wrote as rector of Kazan University.
    • It was published in the Kazan Messenger but rejected by Ostrogradski when it was submitted for publication by the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

  50. Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov biography
    • He studied at the university in St Petersburg, entering the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics there in 1910.
    • In 1920 he returned to St Petersburg to two posts, one as professor at the Polytechnic Institute, and the other as docent at the university.
    • Around this time he did all the organizational groundwork for the foundation of the Steklov Mathematical Institute at the USSR Academy of Sciences in Leningrad.

  51. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)
    • Died: 18 September 1783 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • However, Euler now had to find himself an academic appointment and when Nicolaus(II) Bernoulli died in St Petersburg in July 1726 creating a vacancy there, Euler was offered the post which would involve him in teaching applications of mathematics and mechanics to physiology.
    • He travelled down the Rhine by boat, crossed the German states by post wagon, then by boat from Lubeck arriving in St Petersburg on 17 May 1727.
    • He had joined the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences two years after it had been founded by Catherine I the wife of Peter the Great.
    • At St Petersburg Euler had many colleagues who would provide an exceptional environment for him [',' A P Youschkevitch, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
    • In St Petersburg he lived with Daniel Bernoulli who, already unhappy in Russia, had requested that Euler bring him tea, coffee, brandy and other delicacies from Switzerland.
    • Daniel Bernoulli held the senior chair in mathematics at the Academy but when he left St Petersburg to return to Basel in 1733 it was Euler who was appointed to this senior chair of mathematics.
    • The financial improvement which came from this appointment allowed Euler to marry which he did on 7 January 1734, marrying Katharina Gsell, the daughter of a painter from the St Petersburg Gymnasium.
    • Euler's reputation was to bring an offer to go to Berlin, but at first he preferred to remain in St Petersburg.
    • He left St Petersburg on 19 June 1741, arriving in Berlin on 25 July.
    • For this remuneration he bought books and instruments for the St Petersburg Academy, he continued to write scientific reports for them, and he educated young Russians.
    • In 1766 Euler returned to St Petersburg and Frederick was greatly angered at his departure.
    • Amazingly after his return to St Petersburg (when Euler was 59) he produced almost half his total works despite the total blindness.
    • He was helped by his sons, Johann Albrecht Euler who was appointed to the chair of physics at the Academy in St Petersburg in 1766 (becoming its secretary in 1769) and Christoph Euler who had a military career.
    • After his death in 1783 the St Petersburg Academy continued to publish Euler's unpublished work for nearly 50 more years.
    • Cartography was another area that Euler became involved in when he was appointed director of the St Petersburg Academy's geography section in 1735.

  52. Daniel Bernoulli biography
    • Daniel had also attained fame through his work Mathematical exercises and on the strength of this he was invited to take up the chair of mathematics at St Petersburg.
    • His brother Nicolaus(II) Bernoulli was also offered a chair of mathematics at St Petersburg so in late 1725 the two brothers travelled to St Petersburg.
    • Within eight months of their taking up the appointments in St Petersburg Daniel's brother died of fever.
    • He thought of returning to Basel and wrote to his father telling him how unhappy he was in St Petersburg.
    • Johann Bernoulli was able to arrange for one of his best pupils, Leonard Euler, to go to St Petersburg to work with Daniel.
    • Euler arrived in 1727 and this period in St Petersburg, which Daniel left in 1733, was to be his most productive time.
    • One of the topics which Daniel studied in St Petersburg was that of vibrating systems.
    • While in St Petersburg he made one of his most famous discoveries when he defined the simple nodes and the frequencies of oscillation of a system.
    • A second important work which Daniel produced while in St Petersburg was one on probability and political economy.
    • Undoubtedly the most important work which Daniel Bernoulli did while in St Petersburg was his work on hydrodynamics.
    • Even the term itself is based on the title of the work which he produced called Hydrodynamica and, before he left St Petersburg, Daniel left a draft copy of the book with a printer.
    • Daniel Bernoulli was not happy in St Petersburg, despite the obvious scientific advantage of working with Euler.
    • The post was neither one in mathematics nor physics but Daniel preferred to return to Basel and give lectures on botany rather than remain in St Petersburg.
    • By this time his younger brother Johann(II) Bernoulli was also with him in St Petersburg and they left St Petersburg in 1733, making visits to Danzig, Hamburg, Holland and Paris before returning to Basel in 1734.
    • Whether this caused Daniel to become less interested in mathematics or whether it was the fact that his academic position was a non mathematical one, certainly Daniel never regained the vigour for mathematical research that he showed in St Petersburg.
    • Although Daniel had left St Petersburg, he began an immediate correspondence with Euler and the two exchanged many ideas on vibrating systems.
    • He was elected to most of the leading scientific societies of his day including those in Bologna, St Petersburg, Berlin, Paris, London, Bern, Turin, Zurich and Mannheim.

  53. Egor Ivanovich Zolotarev (1847-1878)
    • Born: 12 April 1847 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Died: 19 July 1878 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Egor Ivanovich attended the Gymnasium in St Petersburg completing his school education in 1863.
    • After leaving school Zolotarev enrolled at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of St Petersburg University.
    • Two years later Zolotarev was appointed as Professor of Mathematics at St Petersburg Faculty of Physics and Mathematics.
    • He also became an assistant in applied mathematics at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
    • 16 (1965), 191-206.','7] looks at both the published work of Zolotarev, and also manuscripts preserved in libraries in Moscow and St Petersburg, relating to his work on elliptic functions.

  54. Aleksandr Nikolaevich Korkin biography
    • Died: 1 September 1908 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Aleksandr Nikolaevich Korkin's father, Nikolay Ivanovich Korkin, was [',' B N Delone, The St Petersburg school in the theory of numbers (American Mathematical Society, London Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I.
    • This town, in northwest Russia, is about 700 km due east of St Petersburg.
    • In 1854 he entered the Physics and Mathematics faculty of St Petersburg University where he was taught by Bunyakovsky, Somov and Chebyshev.
    • He submitted an essay to the Faculty of St Petersburg in 1856 on the set topic On greatest and least quantities which investigated properties of local extrema of both explicitly and implicitly defined differentiable functions of one or severable variables.
    • He taught there until 1861 and during this time he took his Master's examinations at St Petersburg and undertook research under Chebyshev for his Master's thesis (equivalent in standard to a Ph.D.).
    • In 1861 and 1862 revolutionary leaflets were distributed in St Petersburg, ranging from the demand for a constituent assembly to a passionate appeal for insurrection.
    • There was student unrest and St Petersburg University was closed.
    • During this time he worked on his doctoral thesis (equivalent in standard to the German habilitation) and he returned to his teaching role in St Petersburg in September 1864.
    • In May 1868 Korkin was appointed by the Council of St Petersburg University as an extraordinary professor in the Department of Mathematics.
    • Delone writes in [',' B N Delone, The St Petersburg school in the theory of numbers (American Mathematical Society, London Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I.

  55. Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovskii biography
    • Died: 12 December 1889 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • In 1826 Bunyakovskii left Paris and returned to St Petersburg.
    • Bunyakovskii studied and taught in St Petersburg for many years.
    • He taught at a number of different institutions in St Petersburg, including the First Cadet Corps, the Communications Academy and later the Naval Academy.
    • He was a professor at the University in St Petersburg from 1846 until 1880.
    • His scientific research work, however, was not done at these institutions, but was carried out at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
    • Two years after his return to St Petersburg from Paris, Bunyakovskii became an adjunct in mathematics at the Academy, then he was named an extraordinary academician in 1830 (here extraordinary means the same as in the German system, the equivalent of an associate professor in the present American system).
    • In 1864 he became vice-president of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, a post which he held until his death.
    • He then attempted his own proof, unaware that Lobachevsky had invented non-euclidean geometry 25 years before and, although it was published, it had been rejected by Ostrogradski when it had been submitted for publication in the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
    • A medal and prize was instituted by the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1875 for outstanding mathematical work.

  56. Lev Arkad'evich Kaluznin biography
    • During the revolution of 1917 and the civil war which followed, mother and son lived in Petrograd (now St Petersburg).

  57. Lipman Bers biography
    • Lipa's family went to Petrograd, the name that St Petersburg had been given in 1914 when there was strong anti-German feeling in Russia, but Lipa was too young to understand the difficulties that his parents went through at this time.

  58. Anders Lexell (1740-1784)
    • Died: 11 December 1784 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • In 1768 Lexell was invited to St Petersburg.
    • The St Petersburg Academy of Sciences had been founded by Catherine I, the wife of Peter the Great, in 1725 and Euler had worked there since 1727.
    • In 1771 Lexell was appointed professor of astronomy at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences and a few years later he was approached by the Swedish government trying to persuade him to return to Sweden.
    • He would be appointed to a chair at the University of Abo immediately (this was in 1775) but since he was so involved at work being undertaken at the St Petersburg Academy he would be allowed to remain there for five years to complete the work before returning to Abo.
    • Despite the attractive proposition, Lexell was having none of it and turned it down in favour of staying permanently in St Petersburg.
    • Despite wanting to remain in St Petersburg after 1780, Lexell did in fact spend two years travelling through to the mathematical centres of excellence throughout Europe, in particular visiting Germany, France and England.
    • He returned to St Petersburg in 1782 and, following Euler's death in 1783, Lexell was appointed to succeed him to the chair of mathematics at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

  59. Nikolai Fuss (1755-1826)
    • Died: 4 January 1826 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • By 1772 Daniel Bernoulli was an old man, as was Euler, but the two had kept in contact over the many years after Bernoulli had left St Petersburg, where he had worked with Euler, and had returned to Basel.
    • Fuss arrived in St Petersburg in Russia in May 1773 to take up this post and he spent the rest of his life in Russia.
    • In 1774, the year after Fuss arrived in St Petersburg to work with Euler, he published Instruction detaillee pour porter les lunettes de toutes les differentes especes au plus haut degre de perfection dont elles sont susceptibles tiree de la theorie dioptrique de Mr Euler le pere et mise a la portee de tous les ouvriers en ce genre.
    • In 1776, in addition to his other duties, Fuss became an assistant at the St Petersburg Academy and, in 1783, academician in higher mathematics.
    • From 1790 Fuss was professor of mathematics at the Marine Corps in Petersburg, then from 1800 to 1826 he was permanent secretary to the Academy of Sciences in Petersburg.
    • 4 (1977), 37-41.','3] contains Gauss's reply to Fuss written on 4 April 1803, in which he declines employment in St Petersburg and discusses his observations of the asteroid Pallas.

  60. Jacob(II) Bernoulli biography
    • Died: 15 August 1789 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • However, he was soon given the chance of another academic post when he received an offer from St Petersburg.
    • He went to St Petersburg and began to write important works on mathematical physics which he presented to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
    • Despite the rather harsh climate, the city of St Petersburg had great attractions for Jacob(II) Bernoulli since his uncle Daniel Bernoulli had worked there with Euler.
    • In fact Jacob(II) married a granddaughter of Euler in St Petersburg but, tragically, the city was to lead to his death.
    • St Petersburg is located on the delta of the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland.
    • St Petersburg, built on 42 islands in the Neva River, is a city of waterways and bridges and because of this it is called the "Venice of the North." This has great attraction but Jacob (II) Bernoulli drowned, while still only 29 years of age, in the Neva River while he was swimming.

  61. Charles Sims biography
    • Died: 23 October 2017 in St Petersburg, Florida, USA .
    • Sims retired from Rutgers University in 2007 and, with his wife Annette, went to live in St Petersburg, Florida [',' Charles Coffin Sims 1937-2017, Anderson McQueen Obituaries.','2]:- .
    • After retirement, Charles continued to help students learn mathematics by tutoring local children in St Petersburg.
    • Sims and his wife lived at 2824 Coffee Pot Boulevard Northeast in St Petersburg, a house with a balcony, palm trees in the garden, and a wonderful view looking over the water of Coffee Pot Bayou.
    • Sims died at the Marion and Bernard L Samson Nursing Center in St Petersburg, Florida.
    • His funeral was held on Saturday, 11 November 2017, at the Anderson McQueen Funeral Home located at 2201 Dr Martin Luther King Street North, St Petersburg, Florida.
    • It was followed by a committal service at The Church of the Beatitudes in St Petersburg.

  62. Pafnuty Chebyshev biography
    • Died: 8 December 1894 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Times were hard and Moscow had no suitable positions available for Chebyshev but, in 1847, he was appointed to the University of St Petersburg submitting his thesis On integration by means of logarithms.
    • Between arriving in St Petersburg and this 1853 publication Chebyshev published some of his most famous results on number theory.
    • Chebyshev was promoted to extraordinary professor at St Petersburg in 1850.
    • Chebyshev retired from his professorship at St Petersburg University in 1882; he had been appointed to this particular post 22 years earlier.
    • He became a junior academician of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1853 with the chair of applied mathematics, an extraordinary academician in 1856 and an ordinary academician in 1859, again with the chair of applied mathematics.
    • In addition every Russian university elected him to an honorary position, he became an honorary member of the St Petersburg Artillery Academy and the was awarded the French Legion d'Honneur.

  63. Georg Cantor biography
    • Born: 3 March 1845 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Georg Cantor's father, Georg Waldemar Cantor, was a successful merchant, working as a wholesaling agent in St Petersburg, then later as a broker in the St Petersburg Stock Exchange.
    • After early education at home from a private tutor, Cantor attended primary school in St Petersburg, then in 1856 when he was eleven years old the family moved to Germany.
    • Cantor's father had poor health and the move to Germany was to find a warmer climate than the harsh winters of St Petersburg.

  64. Osip Somov (1815-1876)
    • Died: 26 April 1876 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • In 1841 Somov was invited to teach at the University of St Petersburg, and he accepted this invitation and spent the rest of his life living in St Petersburg.
    • After the award of his doctorate, he was appointed professor of applied mathematics at the University of St Petersburg where he continued to work for the next 25 years.
    • Somov was elected as an associate of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1857, becoming an academician in 1862 on the death of Mikhail Ostrogradski.

  65. Dmitry Aleksandrovich Grave (1863-1939)
    • The family, consisting of Dmitry Aleksandrovich, his parents and his sister, lived in the town of Kirillov, about 500 km east of St Petersburg.
    • After this sad event which also left the family in some financial difficulty, his mother left Kirillov, taking the young boy and his sister to live in St Petersburg.
    • In the same year, he began his studies in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at the University of St Petersburg.
    • Grave graduated with his first degree in 1885, having written a dissertation On minimal surfaces, which was published in the Notes of the Physics and Mathematics Association of St Petersburg University Students.
    • He obtained his masters degree in 1889 (equivalent to a Ph.D.) for his thesis On the Integration of Partial Differential Equations of the First Order (Russian) and, in the autumn of that year, began teaching at the University of St Petersburg.
    • At St Petersburg he taught analytic geometry, algebra, calculus I and a special course on the theory of surfaces.
    • While undertaking research at the University, in 1890 he began teaching higher mathematics at the Institute of Railway Engineers and in 1892 at the Women's University in St Petersburg where he taught until 1896.
    • However, his health was poor at this time and he was advised by his doctors to move to a place with a milder climate than St Petersburg, preferably in the south.
    • Now we mentioned that, when he had been in St Petersburg, Grave had been advised to move south for health reasons.

  66. Mikhail Vasilevich Ostrogradski (1801-1862)
    • Ostrogradski presented this theorem again in a paper in Paris on 6 August 1827, and finally in St Petersburg on 5 November 1828.
    • Ostrogradski left France and went to St Petersburg, arriving in the spring of 1828.
    • Although he came to St Petersburg full of enthusiasm looking to create a research environment like he had experienced in Paris, nevertheless he was looked at with suspicion and distrust by the local police who put him under surveillance.
    • However, he was greeted with enthusiasm by the St Petersburg mathematicians.
    • In St Petersburg, he presented three important papers on the theory of heat, double integrals and potential theory to the Imperial (St Petersburg) Academy of Sciences.
    • He submitted Memoire sur le Calcul des Variations des Integrales Multiples Ⓣ to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences on 24 January 1834.
    • He wrote many fine textbooks and established the conditions which allowed Chebyshev's school to flourish in St Petersburg.
    • For this reason, both mathematicians who were members of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Ostrogradski and Bunyakovsky, were included in the committee charged with drawing up a charter of the fund.

  67. Ladislaus Bortkiewicz biography
    • Born: 7 August 1868 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Bortkiewicz studied law at St Petersburg, graduating in 1890 and then went on to study political economy and statistics for a year of postgraduate work.
    • After lecturing in statistics and actuarial science from 1895 to 1897 as a privatdozent in Strasbourg he went to St Petersburg where he was a clerk in the Railway Office from 1897 until 1901.

  68. Nicolaus(II) Bernoulli biography
    • Died: 31 July 1726 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • He died only 8 months after taking up an appointment in St Petersburg at a young age when his talents promised so much for the future.
    • With his brother Daniel he travelled in France and Italy, where both received appointments to the St Petersburg Academy.

  69. Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (1857-1918)
    • He graduated in 1876 and, like his friend Markov, entered the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at St Petersburg University.
    • At St Petersburg University he was taught by Chebyshev who, as we shall see below, had a strong influence on him.
    • Lyapunov graduated in 1880 and remained at St Petersburg to undertake research.
    • He presented the thesis On the stability of ellipsoidal forms of equilibrium of a rotating liquid in 1884 and defended it at St Petersburg University in the following year.
    • In 1901 Lyapunov was elected to the Russian Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg and in the following year became an academician in applied mathematics of the Academy.
    • In St Petersburg, Lyapunov devoted himself completely to scientific work.
    • In 1917 Lyapunov left St Petersburg to take up a post at the university in Odessa, on the Black Sea coast.
    • He was also given honorary membership of the universities of St Petersburg, Kharkov and Kazan.

  70. Jakob Hermann (1678-1733)
    • But in 1724 Peter the Great called him to Russia to found, together with a number of others, the St Petersburg Scientific Academy.
    • He went to Russia in 1725, meeting Christian Goldbach in Konigsberg while on the journey, and held a chair of higher mathematics in the St Petersburg Academy until 1731.
    • While in St Petersburg, Hermann gave tuition in mathematics to Peter the Great's grandson, Peter Aleksevevich who was crowned Peter II in 1727.
    • Hermann worked on trajectory problems, algebraically squarable curves, and attraction; results on all of these topics he published in papers while in St Petersburg.
    • In 1726, the St Petersburg Academy began to publish a journal under the title Commentarii Academiae Petropolitanae Ⓣ.
    • He had a substitute carry out the duties involved until his contract in St Petersburg came to an end in 1731 at which time he returned to Basel to take up the chair he had formally held for four years.
    • He had hoped that a chair of mathematics would become vacant in Basel before his contract at the St Petersburg Academy came to an end but this did not happen.

  71. Nikolai Mitrofanovich Krylov (1879-1955)
    • Born: 29 November 1879 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Nikolai Mitrofanovich Krylov graduated from the St Petersburg Institute of Mines in 1902.

  72. Emanuels Grinbergs biography
    • Born: 1911 in St Petersburg, Russia .
    • Emanuels Grinbergs was born in St Petersburg into a family which included artists and diplomats.

  73. Christian Goldbach (1690-1764)
    • The charge arose through his association with the philosopher Christian Wolff, who had then helped arrange that Bilfinger should be involved in setting up the Imperial Academy of Sciences (later called the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences) which was to be organised (at Leibniz's suggestion) along the lines of the Berlin Academy of Sciences.
    • He was on his way to St Petersburg when he met Goldbach, and Jakob Hermann was also on his way to take part of this new exciting venture.
    • After an initial rejection, Goldbach was offered the positions of professor of mathematics and historian at St Petersburg.
    • He and his wife Catherine were the driving force behind setting up the Academy and it was set up in St Petersburg because that was the Russian capital at this time.
    • After Peter the Great died, his wife Catherine ruled from St Petersburg from 1725 to 1727.
    • Euler had arrived in St Petersburg on 17 May 1727 and after Goldbach moved to Moscow he began a correspondence with Euler in 1729.
    • In 1732 Anna moved the court back to St Petersburg and Goldbach returned there and again became active in the Academy as well as being heavily involved with the Russian government.

  74. Franz Aepinus biography
    • Before this work was published, however, Aepinus had moved to St Petersburg.
    • In October 1756 he was offered a chair at the Academy in St Petersburg and he requested Frederick to release him from his contract in Berlin so that he could accept the post.
    • Euler supported his request to Frederick and by early 1757 Frederick had agreed that Aepinus could end his duties in Berlin and accept the appointment in St Petersburg.
    • Aepinus was to continue working in St Petersburg until he retired in 1798.
    • Aepinus certainly began his appointment in St Petersburg with the publication of his masterpiece and was held in high esteem by the scientists there [',' Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.','2]:- .
    • 15 (1) (1988), 9-31.','4] relate that in 1763 Aepinus published in Latin in the Commentaries of the St Petersburg Academy a proof of the binomial theorem for real values of the exponent.

  75. Tatiana Alexeyevna Afanassjewa biography
    • However, while she was still quite young, her father died and after that she was brought up in St Petersburg by her uncle Peter Afanassjev, a professor at the Polytechnic Institute, and his wife Sonya.
    • Tatiana studied at the normal school in St Petersburg, specialising in mathematics and science.
    • After graduating from the normal school, Afanassjewa entered the Women's University in St Petersburg where she studied mathematics and physics under Orest D Chvolsou.
    • In 1907 the Ehrenfests went to St Petersburg.
    • The Ehrenfests spent five years in St Petersburg during which time they organised an informal physics colloquium which met:- .
    • From 1907 to 1912 the Ehrenfest's lived and worked in St Petersburg.

  76. Arthur Cayley (1821-1895)
    • Arthur Cayley's father Henry Cayley (1768-1850), although from a family who had lived for many generations in Yorkshire, England, worked as a merchant in St Petersburg, Russia.
    • The connection with St Petersburg was more than just where Henry Cayley's job had taken him for his father, Arthur Cayley's paternal grandfather, John Cayley (1730-1795), had served as Consul General in St Petersburg.
    • The family, although living in St Petersburg, returned to England for the summers and it was on such a summer visit in 1821 that Arthur Cayley was born.
    • Arthur spent the first seven years of his life in St Petersburg where he came in contact with several languages, particularly Russian, English and French - the international business language there was French.
    • He was an honorary foreign member of the French Institute and was elected a fellow of the academies of Berlin, Gottingen, St Petersburg, Milan, Rome, Leyden, Upsala, and Hungary.

  77. Paul Ehrenfest biography
    • In 1907 Ehrenfest went to St Petersburg.
    • Once in St Petersburg he made contact with Tamarkin, Friedmann, Steklov and other mathematicians and physicists.
    • The Ehrenfests spent five years in St Petersburg.
    • In the hope that this might lead to an academic post Ehrenfest, despite holding a doctorate, took the degree of Master of Physics at St Petersburg.
    • Ehrenfest returned to St Petersburg saddened that Poincare's paper had been published before he could point out his own contribution to him -- he was paying the price for being isolated from mainstream research in St Petersburg.

  78. Gabriel Lamé (1795-1870)
    • In line with this policy, the Russian government made a request to France who responded by sending Lame and Clapeyron to St Petersburg.
    • Lame was appointed professor and engineer at the Institut et Corps du Genie des Voies de Communication in St Petersburg.
    • Petersburg (on the history of Cauchy’s conception of mathematical analysis) (Russian), Voprosy Istor.
    • (1) (1985), 83-85.','6] an interesting episode which occurred during Lame's time in St Petersburg is related.
    • Another side to Lame's work in St Petersburg was his involvement in helping with plans that were being drawn up for building bridges and roads around the city.

  79. Lev Landau (1908-1968)
    • In 1924, after two years at Baku University, he moved to the Leningrad State University, graduating in 1927 [',' E M Lifshitz, Lev Davidovich Landau (1908-1968), Soviet Physics Uspekhi 12 (1) (1969), 135-145.','66]:- .
    • In Leningrad - that main centre of Soviet physics at the time - he first made the acquaintance of genuine theoretical physics, which was then going through a turbulent period.
    • He continued research at the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute.
    • While in Zurich he wrote the paper On the theory of stars but did not submit it for publication until he had returned to Leningrad [',' K Hufbauer, Landau’s youthful sallies into stellar theory: Their origins, claims, and receptions, Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 37 (2) (2007), 337-354.','44]:- .
    • In 1931 Landau returned to Leningrad to work at the Physical Technical Institute, but in the following year he was appointed as head of the Theory Division of the Ukrainian Technical Institute in Kharkov and he was also appointed to the chair of theoretical physics at the Kharkov Institute of Mechanical Engineering.

  80. Alexander Pell biography
    • Degaev studied at Mikhailovsky's Artillery Academy at St Petersburg and there, in 1878, he came in contact with members of the revolutionary movement.
    • He had been heavily involved in the assassination for he had been one of a group who had dug a tunnel under Malaia Sadovaia Street in St Petersburg with the intention of planting a bomb there.
    • They travelled to St Petersburg in November of 1881 where they were married.
    • The Head of the secret police in St Petersburg at that time was Lieutenant Colonel Grigory Sudeikin who had recently been appointed there after being very successful in Kiev at countering the revolutionary movements.
    • Certainly after this meeting Degaev left for Tbilisi to work on the Tbilisi-Baku railway while Sudeikin was able to arrest large numbers of the Narodnaia Volia in St Petersburg.

  81. Emanuel Lasker biography
    • He had a famous win in St Petersburg in 1895-96 and in a tournament in Nuremberg in the summer of 1896.
    • He only played in one tournament during these years, coming first equal with Akiba Rubinstein in St Petersburg in 1909.
    • In that great roll-call of tournaments, St Petersburg 1896, St Petersburg 1914 and New York 1924, Emanuel Lasker always won.

  82. Samuil Osipovich Shatunovsky (1859-1929)
    • Shatunovsky wanted a university education, but the rules did not permit him to follow that route so he went to St Petersburg where he enrolled at the Institute of Technology, and then at the Institute of Communications.
    • At this time Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev led an important school of mathematics at St Petersburg which included several other outstanding younger mathematicians such as Aleksandr Nikolaevich Korkin, Egor Ivanovich Zolotarev and Yulian Vasilievich Sokhotsky.
    • After the remarkable research environment in Chebyshev's school of mathematics at St Petersburg, Shatunovsky found the mathematical environment in Switzerland to be rather disappointing.
    • The school of mathematics at Odessa was not quite the quality of the St Petersburg school, but nevertheless it was excellent with leading mathematicians such as the geometer Benjamin Fedorovich Kagan, Ivan Vladislavovich Śleszyński whose main work was on continued fractions, least squares and axiomatic proof theory based on mathematical logic, S P Yaroshenko, and the mathematical historian I Yu Timchenko.

  83. Oskar Anderson biography
    • Anderson spent one year studying mathematics at the University of Kazan before going to St Petersburg where he studied economics at the Polytechnic Institute.
    • While studying at the Polytechnic Institute of St Petersburg, and acting as assistant to Chuprov, he took on further duties in 1912 when he began lecturing at a commercial school in St Petersburg.
    • In 1917 Anderson left St Petersburg and moved to Kiev.

  84. Nikolai Dmetrievich Brashman biography
    • Two years later, in 1823, with several letters of recommendation and a small amount of money, Brashman went to St Petersburg in Russia.
    • In St Petersburg, Brashman was supported by Princess Evdokia Ivanovna Golitsyna (nee Izmailova) (1780-1850).
    • In January 1824 Brashman was appointed to teach mathematics and physics at Saint Peter and Saint Paul's School in St Petersburg.
    • Brashman was honoured for his contributions with election to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1855.

  85. Louis Arbogast biography
    • While at the College de Colmar Arbogast entered a mathematical competition which was run by the St Petersburg Academy.
    • The particular mathematical dispute which prompted the question set by the St Petersburg Academy in 1787, however, concerned the arbitrary functions which appeared when a differential equation was integrated.
    • The actual question the St Petersburg Academy posed was:- .
    • Arbogast submitted an essay to the St Petersburg Academy in which he came down firmly on the side of Euler.

  86. Ferdinand Minding (1806-1885)
    • In 1864 Minding and the other members of his family became Russian citizens and, in the same year, he was elected to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
    • This work won Minding the Demidov prize of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1861.
    • As we mentioned above, Minding was awarded the prestigious Demidov Prize by the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1861.
    • He was further honoured by the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1879 when they made him an honorary member.Article by: J J O'Connor and E F RobertsonClick on this link to see a list of the Glossary entries for this page .

  87. Alexander Ostrowski biography
    • Ostrowski (1893-1986)’, (Russian) Algebra i Analiz 2 (1) (1990), 242-243','6] (see also [',' D K Faddeev, On R Jeltsch-Fricker’s paper ’In memoriam: Alexander M Ostrowski (1893-1986)’, Leningrad Math.
    • 43 (2) (1988), 33-38.','9] (or see [',' R Jeltsch-Fricker, In memoriam A M Ostrowski (1893-1986), Leningrad Math.
    • Despite the quantity of his works it is the remarkable quality which stands out [',' D K Faddeev, On R Jeltsch-Fricker’s paper ’In memoriam: Alexander M Ostrowski (1893-1986)’, Leningrad Math.
    • Faddeev ends his artice [',' D K Faddeev, On R Jeltsch-Fricker’s paper ’In memoriam: Alexander M Ostrowski (1893-1986)’, Leningrad Math.

  88. Ilya Vekua biography
    • Vekua graduated from the Tbilisi State University in 1930 and became a postgraduate student at the USSR Academy of Sciences in Leningrad.
    • Strangely enough, I really got to know Vekua only in 1930 in Leningrad, where he had been sent on my recommendation along with a group of other young mathematicians to the graduate school in the Physics and Mathematics Institute.
    • Some time after arriving in Leningrad (I often go there to give lectures and work with graduate students), I went to the Director of the Institute, the leading naval architect and outstanding specialist in applied mathematics Academician Aleksei Nikolaevich Krylov, to ask how the postgraduates we had sent were coping with the work.
    • Advised by Aleksei Krylov, Niko Muskhelishvili and Vladimir Smirnov, Vekua undertook research on the equations of mathematical physics at the USSR Academy of Sciences in Leningrad for his Candidate's Degree (equivalent to a Ph.D.) [',' N N Bogoljubov, M A Lavrent’ev and A V Bicadze, Ilja Nestorovic Vekua (on the occasion of his seventieth birthday) (Russian), Complex analysis and its applications (Russian) 664 (’Nauka’, Moscow, 1978), 3-21.','7]:- .

  89. Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716)
    • He was involved in moves to set up academies in Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, and St Petersburg.
    • Similarly he did much of the work to prompt the setting up of the St Petersburg Academy, but again it did not come into existence until after his death.
    • Russian/St Petersburg Academy .

  90. Zeno of Elea (about 490 BC-about 425 BC)
    • Diogenes Laertius [',' V Ya Komarova, The teachings of Zeno of Elea : An attempt to reconstruct a system of arguments (Russian) (Leningrad, 1988).','10] gives further details of Zeno's life which are generally thought to be unreliable.
    • Anaxagoras and the followers of Pythagoras, with their development of incommensurables, are also thought by some to be the targets of Zeno's arguments (see for example [',' V Ya Komarova, The teachings of Zeno of Elea : An attempt to reconstruct a system of arguments (Russian) (Leningrad, 1988).','10]).
    • We commented above that Diogenes Laertius in [',' V Ya Komarova, The teachings of Zeno of Elea : An attempt to reconstruct a system of arguments (Russian) (Leningrad, 1988).','10] describes a cosmology that he believes is due to Zeno.

  91. Alexis Clairaut biography
    • Euler still felt he did not properly understand what Clairaut had done so he tried to tempt him to write it up properly by having the St Petersburg Academy set the problem of the moon's apogee as the prize topic for 1752.
    • Clairaut improved his results when he used a different method in his prize winning paper submitted to the St Petersburg Academy for the 1762 prize.
    • He had been elected to the Royal Society of London, the Academy of Berlin, the Academy of St Petersburg and the Academies of Bologna and Uppsala.

  92. Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1677-1750)
    • He clearly made a good impression on people during these visits since he was later elected to membership of a number of scientific societies including the Berlin Academy, the German Academy of Scientists Leopoldina (the Kaiserlich Leopoldinische Akademie der Naturforscher) in Halle (1715), the Royal Society (6 December 1733), and the St Petersburg Academy (1740).
    • In 1723 he was honoured with the offer of the chair of mechanics at the Academy of St Petersburg.
    • Indeed Bernoulli did accept the chair at the Academy of St Petersburg.

  93. Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777)
    • In 1760 Euler recommended Lambert for the position of Professor of Astronomy at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences to fill a vacancy which, due to a reorganization of the Academy and political changes, remained unfilled for several years.
    • It may well be that these differences contributed to Euler's decision to leave Berlin for St Petersburg in 1766.

  94. Anton Dimitrija Bilimovic biography
    • He completed his training in 1896 before moving to St Petersburg where he studied Latin and Greek at the Nikolayevsky engineering academy, named after Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia.
    • He left St Petersburg, returning to Kiev where he studied at the University.

  95. Aleksei Vasilevich Pogorelov biography
    • Pogorelov's interests were in geometry and his postgraduate studies at Moscow State University were jointly supervised by Nikolai Vladimirovich Efimov in Moscow and Aleksandr Danilovic Aleksandrov who was based in Leningrad.
    • It was Pogorelov's choice to teach at Kharkov University for he received, but rejected, offers of positions in both Leningrad State University and Moscow State University.

  96. Jacopo Riccati (1676-1754)
    • Among his reading material was the scientific journals of the day, in particular the Commentari dell' Accademia delle Scienze di Bologna, the Acta Eruditorum Lipsiae, and the Proceedings of the Imperial Academy of Sciences based in St Petersburg.
    • He soon attained fame and turned down an offer from Peter the Great to become President of the St Petersburg Academy of Science in around 1725, an offer of the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua, as well as other tempting offers such as Advisor to the Court in Vienna.

  97. Timofei Fedorovic Osipovsky biography
    • Osipovsky studied first at the seminary in Vladimir until 1783, then for three years at the St Petersburg Pedagogical Institute leaving in 1786.
    • After graduating from the St Petersburg Teachers Seminary, Osipovsky taught mathematics and physics in Moscow.

  98. Jerzy Supecki biography
    • Stanisław Słupecki was actually born in Podolia and studied engineering in St Petersburg.
    • Helena, the daughter of the metallurgist Alfons Jan Kapiston Rzeszotarski who was a professor at St Petersburg, had operated a girls' school for poor families in Warsaw since before World War I.

  99. Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin biography
    • The St Petersburg Academy of Sciences awarded him their Gold Medal for this outstanding work.
    • In 1899 he was awarded the Gold Medal of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences:- .

  100. Eustachy yliski biography
    • In September 1916 he was sent to St Petersburg where he attended the Electrotechnical University.
    • He was promoted to second lieutenant at the time of unrest which began in St Petersburg near the end of February and led eventually to the Russian Revolution.

  101. Lyudmila Vsevolodovna Keldysh biography
    • They were in Helsinki in 1905 and St Petersburg in 1907.
    • She continued working in Luzin's research group and also began working at the V A Steklov Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences as soon as it moved from St Petersburg to Moscow around 1934.

  102. Felix Browder biography
    • Raissa Berkmann, born in St Petersburg in 1897, graduated with a law degree from the University of St Petersburg in 1917.

  103. Ferdinand Rudio (1856-1929)
    • When the city of Basel commemorated Euler's 200th birthday in 1907, Rudio delivered a thrilling speech in which he appealed to Swiss patriotism and to international solidarity in favour of an edition of Euler's works: "Switzerland will always be grateful to the academies of Berlin and St Petersburg for having given our Euler, to whom his native country was too narrow, the opportunity to perform his outstanding work".
    • He addressed his speech in particular to the representatives of the Swiss Naturalist Society (Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, SNG, now the Swiss Academy of Natural Science, SCNAT) and to the representatives of the academies of Berlin and St Petersburg who assisted at the ceremony.

  104. William Browder biography
    • Raissa Berkmann, born in St Petersburg in 1897, graduated with a law degree from the University of St Petersburg in 1917.

  105. Jonas Kubilius biography
    • He held this position for the two years 1946-48, after which he went to Leningrad to undertake postgraduate studies at the University.
    • At Leningrad University he was advised by Yuri Vladimirovich Linnik and began undertaking research in number theory.

  106. Naum Il'ich Feldman biography
    • Naum Il'ich Feldman graduated from middle school in 1936 and entered the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics at the University of Leningrad.
    • His studies, specialising in number theory and supervised by R O Kuz'min, were completed by 1941 when he graduated from Leningrad.

  107. Igor Rostislavovich Shafarevich biography
    • Igor's mother, Yulia Yacovlevna, had a degree in philology from the Bestuzhev Institute for Women in St Petersburg.
    • Delone was a classical representative of the Petersburg school.

  108. Stefan Cohn-Vossen biography
    • Later, still in 1934, he emigrated to Russia and under his influence a school of "geometry in the large" was set up in Moscow and Leningrad.
    • Cohn-Vossen had been appointed as a professor at Leningrad University in 1935, working at the Steklov Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

  109. Eugène Catalan biography
    • He was a corresponding member of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, the Turin Academy of Sciences, the Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei, the Mathematical Society of Amsterdam, the National Institute of Geneva, the Societe Havraise d'Etudes Divers and the Societe d'Agriculture de la Marne.
    • His retirement was marked on 7 December of that year by a celebration attended by many of his friends (including Chebyshev who had come from St Petersburg especially for the occasion), colleagues and former students.

  110. Louis Castel biography
    • By 1742 the fame of Castel and of his invention had reached as far as St Petersburg and had been brought to the attention of the empress.

  111. Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh biography
    • But this was not the only research that Keldysh was undertaking at the time, for Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov invited him to undertake research for a doctorate at the V A Steklov Mathematical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences after the Institute had moved from Leningrad to Moscow in 1934.

  112. Stanisaw Zaremba biography
    • Zaremba attended secondary school in St Petersburg then, after graduating, he studied engineering at the Institute of Technology in that city.

  113. Louis Benjamin Francoeur biography
    • He was elected to the many other Academies including St Petersburg, Lisbon, Edinburgh, Rouen, Lyon, Cambra, and Toulouse.

  114. Frederick Justin Almgren biography
    • He was an Alfred P Sloan Fellow in 1968-70, an Exchange Visitor at the Steklov Mathematical Institute in Leningrad in 1970, a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellow in 1974-75, and Earle Raymond Hedrick Lecturer for the Mathematical Association of America in1975.

  115. Rudolf Peierls biography
    • After six months of intense correspondence by letter, Rudolf Peierls travelled to Leningrad again in March 1931, and during his brief stay - much to the dismay of his surprised family - married Genia.

  116. Alfreds Meders biography
    • In 1906 Meders was awarded his masters degree from the University of St Petersburg.

  117. John Couch Adams (1819-1892)
    • He was elected to the Royal Society, the St Petersburg Academy, and to the Academy of Sciences.

  118. Louis de Branges biography
    • So is the generous reception of the Leningrad mathematicians to the efforts of de Branges to explain it and their help in the composition of the eminently readable 'Acta' paper.

  119. Georgii Vasilovich Pfeiffer biography
    • He also attended a mathematical conference in Moscow (1929), the first All Union Congress of Mathematicians in Kharkov (July 1930) and the second All Union Congress of Mathematicians in Leningrad (June 1934).

  120. Michael Artin biography
    • Natalie, known as Natascha, had been born in St Petersburg, Russia, but her family had fled because of the Bolsheviks and, after many adventures, arrived in Europe after taking a boat to Constantinople.

  121. Charles Bossut biography
    • The academies of Lyons and Toulouse awarded him prizes, and he was elected to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences as well as the academies at Turin and Bologna.

  122. Nikolai Vladimirovich Efimov biography
    • Under his influence a school of "geometry in the large" was set up in Moscow and in Leningrad and Efimov's meeting with Cohn-Vossen, who had worked closely with Hilbert, was a major influence on setting the direction of his future research.

  123. Eduard Study (1862-1930)
    • Eduard's talent for mathematics was probably inherited from his mother for his great grandfather Karl Christian von Langsdorff had been a professor of mathematics at Heidelberg from 1806 to 1834 while his grandfather Wilhelm Gustav von Langsdorff (1803-1847) had taught applied mathematics at St Petersburg and Mannheim.

  124. Pavel Aleksandrov biography
    • 2.nSt Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Membern .

  125. Lazar Matveevich Gluskin biography
    • The examiners, in addition to Kurosh, were E S Lyapin (Leningrad) and V V Vagner (Saratov).

  126. Charles S Peirce (1839-1914)
    • He infuriated Charlotte Angas Scott by contributing to the New York Evening Post an unsigned obituary of Arthur Cayley in which he stated upon no grounds, except that Cayley's father had for a time resided in Russia, that Cayley had inherited his genius from a Russian whom his father had married in St Petersburg.

  127. Arnold Walfisz biography
    • Some Poles had already found positions in the USSR, such as Chaim (Hermann) Muntz, who had left Berlin to take up a chair for analysis at Leningrad in 1929.

  128. Adolph Pavlovich Yushkevich biography
    • Born into a Jewish family containing scholars in philosophy and literature, he attended the high school in St Petersburg, then continued his education in Odessa.

  129. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (1900-1979)
    • However, she went by train to Leningrad and then on to Pulkova.

  130. Tadeusz Banachiewicz biography
    • After spending a year at Gottingen, Banachiewicz went to the Pulkovo Observatory which was situated 19 km south of St Petersburg on the Pulkovo Heights.

  131. Émile Clapeyron biography
    • Clapeyron and Lame went to St Petersburg where the Ecole des Travaux Publics had been set up and these they taught both pure and applied mathematics.

  132. Charles Babbage (1791-1871)
    • I thus acquired a distaste for the routine of the studies of the place, and devoured the papers of Euler and other mathematicians scattered through innumerable volumes of the academies of St Petersburg, Berlin, and Paris, which the libraries I had recourse to contained.

  133. Julius Weisbach (1806-1871)
    • Among the honours Weisbach received for his contributions to science were honorary degrees from Leipzig, and election to membership of various learned societies such as the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Accademia dei Lincei.

  134. Boris Yakovlevic Bukreev biography
    • In 1925, Bukreev travelled to Leningrad, as a delegate from the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, to deliver his address on 200th anniversary of the founding of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

  135. Albrecht Fröhlich biography
    • His brother Herbert, after going to Physico-Technical Institute in Leningrad in 1934, found that the political situation again forced him to escape.

  136. Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813)
    • By March 1766 d'Alembert knew that Euler was returning to St Petersburg and wrote again to Lagrange to encourage him to accept a post in Berlin.

  137. Tom Whiteside (1932-2008)
    • He embarked on another major project, this time making an in depth study of the papers of Johannes Kepler held in the Soviet Academy of Sciences in Leningrad.

  138. Paul Dirac biography
    • In 1973 and 1975 Dirac lectured in the Physical Engineering Institute in Leningrad.

  139. Louis Mordell (1888-1972)
    • He attended a number theory conference in Moscow in September of that year, went on an Asian tour following the conference, then received an invitation from Linnik to lecture in Leningrad before returning home.

  140. Anton Kazimirovich Suschkevich biography
    • He studied at St Petersburg University, graduating in 1913.

  141. Johann Bernoulli biography
    • He was elected a fellow of the academies of Paris, Berlin, London, St Petersburg and Bologna.

  142. Boris Yakovlevich Levin biography
    • They were taught by Dmitry Dmitrievich Morduhai-Boltovskoi (1876-1952) who had been awarded his doctorate from St Petersburg State University in the year Levin was born.

  143. Nikolai Chebotaryov biography
    • He became professor at Kazan University in 1928 having been offered posts at both Kazan and Leningrad.

  144. Martin Bartels biography
    • He was honoured with election to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

  145. Benjamin Fedorovich Kagan (1869-1953)
    • In 1892 Kagan received a degree from Kiev University, then in 1895 he was awarded a Master's Degree by St Petersburg University.

  146. Mark Aleksandrovich Krasnosel'skii biography
    • At first the war had relatively little effect on Krasnosel'skii's university studies but in June 1941 German troops invaded and rapidly advanced towards Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev.

  147. Andrei Andreevich Bolibrukh biography
    • 45, was attached to Leningrad State University and was staffed by very fine teachers.

  148. Kazimierz Zorawski biography
    • Hipolit was a professor of applied mathematics at St Petersburg and had a major text The Theory of Elasticity published posthumously in Warsaw in 1910.

  149. Gabriel Cramer biography
    • He headed straight away for Basel where many leading mathematicians were working, spending five months working with Johann Bernoulli, and also Euler who soon afterwards headed off to St Petersburg to be with Daniel Bernoulli.

  150. Isaac Schoenberg biography
    • Vera Myller-Lebedev (1880-1970), born Vera Myller, studied at St Petersburg and then undertook research at Gottingen where she met Alexandru Myller; they later married.

  151. Guillaume Bigourdan biography
    • In 1883, he left for St Petersburg, stopping in Krakow in Poland, visited Berlin and Vienna.

  152. Nicolai Vasilievich Bugaev biography
    • He graduated four years later and went to St Petersburg to study at the Engineering Academy there.

  153. Michel Chasles biography
    • He was also a member of academies in Brussels, Copenhagen, Naples, Stockholm, St Petersburg, and the United States.

  154. Wassily Hoeffding biography
    • Wassily Hoeffding's parents lived in Tsarskoye Selo (meaning the Tsar's Village, and now named Pushkin) which is 22 kilometres south of St Petersburg.

  155. André Weil (1906-1998)
    • There was also a letter in Russian, from Pontryagin, I believe, in response to a letter I had written at the beginning of the summer regarding a possible visit to Leningrad; and a packet of calling cards belonging to Nicolas Bourbaki, member of the Royal Academy of Poldavia ..

  156. James Stirling (1692-1770)
    • Euler wrote to Stirling on 8 June 1736 from St Petersburg.

  157. Mark Krein biography
    • 3.nSt Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Membern .

  158. Axel Harnack biography
    • Theodosius, born in St Petersburg, Russia, was appointed as a docent in church history at the University of Dorpat in 1843 and, by the time Axel was born, he was Professor of Practical and Systemic Theology there.

  159. Aleksei Alekseevich Dezin biography
    • Aleksei Alekseevich Dezin's father, also named Aleksei Alekseevich Dezin, was an economist who had graduated from St Petersburg, and his mother was Alisa Eduardovna; both parents were of German descent.

  160. Mikhail Krawtchouk biography
    • In 1917 the Bolsheviks seized power in St Petersburg and fighting broke out in Moscow.

  161. Joseph Raabe biography
    • The first cholera pandemic to hit Europe started in 1829 in Moscow and St Petersburg and, over the next couple of years, spread through Poland, Germany and Austria.

  162. Boris Vladimirovich Gnedenko biography
    • He discusses the founding of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, paying particular attention to the life and work of Euler.

  163. Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz biography
    • In 1939 Lifshitz's thesis for the DSc examination of Leningrad State University was accepted.

  164. Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762)
    • He was elected a member of the Science Academies of St Petersburg, Berlin, Stockholm, London, Gottingen and Bologna.

  165. Paul Cohen biography
    • On a cruise from Stockholm to Leningrad, following the Congress, Cohen met Christina Karls from Malung, Sweden.

  166. Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao biography
    • He has been awarded thirty-three honorary degrees by universities in eighteen countries, in six continents, including: Andhra University, India (1967), Leningrad University, USSR (1970), Delhi University, India (1973), University of Athens, Greece (1976), Osmania University, Hyderabad, India (1977), Ohio State University, Columbus, USA (1979), Universidad Nacional de San Marcos, Lima, Peru (1982), University of the Philippines, Manila (1983), University of Tampere, Finland (1985), Indian Statistical Institute, India (1989), Universite de Neuchatel, Switzerland (1989), Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA (1990), University of Hyderabad, India (1991), Agricultural University of Poznań, Poland (1991), Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia (1994), University of Barcelona, Spain (1995), University of Munich, Germany (1995), Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India (1996), University of Guelph, Canada (1996), University of Calcutta, India (2003), University of Pretoria, South Africa (2004), University of Rhode Island, Kingston, USA (2007), and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada, India (2011).

  167. Johann Castillon biography
    • In the summer of 1751 he received offers of positions at St Petersburg and also at Utrecht.

  168. Heinrich Bruns biography
    • After graduating he was employed as a calculator at the Observatory in Pulkovo, near St Petersburg, Russia.

  169. Johann Segner (1704-1777)
    • He was made a member of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, the Berlin Academy and the Royal Society in London.

  170. Nikolai Nikolaevich Krasovskii biography
    • Nikolai Nikolaevich's mother, Mariya Fedorovna, had studied at the Bestuzhev Courses in St Petersburg.

  171. Jean-Victor Poncelet (1788-1867)
    • Many academies and learned societies elected him to membership including the Royal Society of London, the Berlin Academy of Science, the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg and Academy of Sciences in Turin.

  172. Paolo Frisi (1728-1784)
    • His scientific work continued to be recognised internationally and he was elected to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1757, the Royal Society of London in 1757 and the Berlin Academy of Science in 1758.

  173. Mikhail Alekseevich Lavrent'ev biography
    • The Steklov Mathematical Institute, together with some other institutions of the USSR Academy of Sciences, had been moved from Leningrad to Moscow in 1933.

  174. Nikolai Grigor'evich Chudakov biography
    • He held this post until his death but he spent ten years, from 1962 to 1972, working in Leningrad in the Mathematical Institute of the Academy of Sciences there, at the invitation of Linnik.

  175. Olli Lehto biography
    • The Soviet Union clearly did not trust their German allies, for they demanded territory from Finland to improve the security of Leningrad.

  176. James Bradley (1693-1762)
    • With his work on, and announcement of, nutation, he began to receive international recognition; 1746 saw him become a member of the Royal Academy of Berlin; in July 1748 he was made a foreign associate of the Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris; in 1750, he became a corresponding member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg, becoming a full member in 1754; in 1757 was when he was elected to become a member of the Academy of Sciences of Bologna Institute.

  177. Sir James Lighthill (1924-1998)
    • Many universities have awarded Lighthill honorary doctorates including Liverpool (1961), Leicester (1965), Strathclyde (1966), Essex (1967), Princeton (1967), East Anglia (1968), Manchester (1968), Bath (1969), St Andrews (1969), Surrey (1969), Cranfield (1974), Paris (1975), Aachen (1975), Rensselaer (1980), Leeds (1983), Brown (1984), Southern California (1984), Lisbon (1986), Rehovot (1987), London (1993), Compiegne (1994), Kiev (1994), St Petersburg (1996), and Tallahassee (1996).

  178. Samuel König (1712-1757)
    • In 1731 Hermann left the chair of mathematics at St Petersburg to return to Basel where he was appointed to the chair of ethics and natural law.

  179. David Crighton biography
    • When they met in the breakfast queue at a Leningrad hotel they struck up a friendship that lasted until her death in 1993.

  180. Sofia Kovalevskaya (1850-1891)
    • Petersburg, and joined her family's social circle which included the author Dostoevsky.

  181. Ernst Öpik biography
    • Moscow remained relatively quiet for much of 1917 but, after the Bolsheviks seized power in St Petersburg in October, fighting began in Moscow.

  182. Sof'ja Aleksandrovna Janovskaja biography
    • The current purge of the Leningrad Mathematical Society, where the idea of establishing a popular mathematical society was met with an organized rebuff by almost all mathematicians, demonstrates the complexity of the task at hand and shows that the goal of stratifying mathematicians and defining the truly Soviet components is a difficult and urgent problem.

  183. Naum Il'ich Akhiezer biography
    • He was appointed to the Chair of the Theory of Functions in 1933 and, two years later, was appointed director of the Mathematical and Mechanical Research Institute after Sergei Bernstein moved to Leningrad.

  184. Karl Sundman biography
    • The Observatory, 19 km south of St Petersburg on the Pulkovo Heights, was founded in 1839.

  185. Israel Gohberg biography
    • After graduating from University of Kishinyov, Gohberg went to the University of Leningrad to study for his doctorate which he received in 1954.

  186. Humphrey Lloyd (1800-1881)
    • Of these eleven (including Cambridge and Dublin) are established in Britain and her dependencies; and ten have been founded and equipped by the Russian Government, viz., at Petersburg, Catherineburg, and Kazan, in Russia proper; at Helsingfors, in Finland; at Nicolajeff, in the Crimea; at Tiflis, in Georgia; at Barnaoul and Nertchinsk, in Siberia; at Sitka, in North America, and at Pekin in China.

  187. Édouard Benjamin Baillaud biography
    • He later became a corresponding member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Saint Petersburg (1913) and an associate member of the Accademia dei Lincei (1918).

  188. Thomas Clausen biography
    • He was elected to the Royal Astronomical Society of London in 1848, the Gottingen Academy of Sciences (at that time called Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen) in 1854, and the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1856.

  189. Simon Lhuilier (1750-1840)
    • He enjoyed many academic honours too, being elected a corresponding member of the Berlin Academy, of the Gottingen Academy, of the St Petersburg Academy, and of the Royal Society of London.

  190. Nicolaus(I) Bernoulli biography
    • From Montmort's work we can see that Nicolaus formulated certain problems in the theory of probability, in particular the problem which today is known as the St Petersburg problem.

  191. Samuel Dickstein (1851-1939)
    • He also continued publication of Circle of Polish Mathematicians which had begun publishing in St Petersburg in 1880.

  192. Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800)
    • He was elected to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1794.

  193. August Yulevich Davidov biography
    • Before leaving the topic of Davidov's two theses on fluids we note that the quality of these can be judged by the fact that they were both awarded the Demidov Prize by the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

  194. Yurii Alekseevich Mitropolskii biography
    • His father, Aleksei Savvich Mitropolskii, had attended St Petersburg University but was called up for military duty in 1914.


History Topics

  1. References for Abstract linear spaces
    • A E Malykh, Development of the general theory of determinants up to the beginning of the nineteenth century (Russian), Mathematical analysis (Leningrad, 1990), 88-97.

  2. References for Burnside problem
    • I N Sanov, Solution of Burnside's problem for n = 4, Leningrad State University Annals (Uchenyi Zapiski) Math.

  3. References for Matrices and determinants
    • A E Malykh, Development of the general theory of determinants up to the beginning of the nineteenth century (Russian), Mathematical analysis (Leningrad, 1990), 88-97.

  4. Burnside problem
    • 1940Sanov [','I N Sanov, Solution of Burnside’s problem for n = 4, Leningrad State University Annals (Uchenyi Zapiski) Math.


Societies etc

  1. Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society
    • The Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society was founded in 1890 on the initiative of V G Imshenetskii.
    • The history of that Society from the time of its founding until 1921 when the Society began to function again under the name Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society is described in the article: .
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society.
    • Note that St Petersburg had been renamed Petrograd by 1921 which partly explains the different names.
    • Vassiliev was President of the Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society from the time of its founding in 1921 until 1923 when N M Gyunter was elected to this role.
    • At last, with the Society flourishing, he achieved in aims in 1926 when the Journal of the Leningrad Physical and Mathematical Society was founded (by this time St Petersburg or Petrograd had been renamed Leningrad).
    • The president of the Society was N M Gyunter [',' A M Vershik, The St Petersburg Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 10 (December, 1993), 21-23.','2]:- .
    • This was almost certainly done to save Gyunter from the fate which befell others, and in this it was successful since Gyunter was able to continue his mathematical work in Leningrad until his death in 1941.
    • In 1953 he organised the Leningrad Mathematical Seminar which, until 1959, operated as the unofficial Leningrad Mathematical Society.
    • It met fortnightly, with Smirnov as president, and particularly Smirnov and Aleksandr Aleksandrov (the Rector of the University of Leningrad) continued to work towards official recognition.
    • In 1959 it became possible to formally reconstitute the Leningrad Mathematical Society and, on 13 April 1959, the Ministry of Higher Education accepted the constitution of the Society.
    • In 1990 the name of the Society was changed from the Leningrad Mathematical Society back to the St Petersburg Mathematical Society.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/Petrograd.html .

  2. References for St Petersburg
    • References for St Petersburg Mathematical Society .
    • N S Ermolaeva, On the so-called Leningrad Mathematical Front, Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society V, Amer.
    • N S Ermolaeva, On the history of the St Petersburg and Petrograd mathematical societies (Russian), Trudy S.-Peterburg.
    • A M Vershik, On the Leningrad Mathematical Society (Russian), Trudy Leningrad.
    • A M Vershik, The St Petersburg Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 10 (December, 1993), 21-23.

  3. St Petersburg Mathematical Society
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society .
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society was founded in 1890 on the initiative of V G Imshenetskii who had earlier founded the Kharkov Mathematical Society in 1879.
    • The next President was Yu-K Sokhotsky who had studied at the Physics and Mathematics Faculty at the University of St Petersburg, becoming a professor there in 1883.
    • Vershik writes in [',' A M Vershik, The St Petersburg Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 10 (December, 1993), 21-23.','4]:- .
    • It looks strange that in St Petersburg, which was undoubtedly the main mathematical centre of Russia in the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries, a mathematical society was created that late and played, apparently, a nonessential role, being less known than its counterpart in Moscow, for example.
    • However, one should keep in mind that the Academy of Sciences, and most of its members, resided in the then capital [St Petersburg], and essentially performed the functions of a mathematical society, such as conducting scientific meetings, evaluation of papers, awarding prizes etc.
    • In [',' N S Ermolaeva, On the history of the St Petersburg and Petrograd mathematical societies (Russian), Trudy S.-Peterburg.
    • In March 1918, in the middle of the civil war that followed the Revolution of 1917, St Petersburg stopped being the Russian capital and Moscow took on that role.
    • However, efforts were soon made to restart the St Petersburg Mathematical Society.
    • Steklov had arrived in St Petersburg in 1906 to take up the Chair of Mathematics at the University.
    • They succeed in 1921 when the Society began to function again under the name Petrograd Physical and Mathematical Society (St Petersburg had been renamed Petrograd by this time).
    • The Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society.
    • https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Societies/St_Petersburg.html .

  4. References for Petrograd
    • References for Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .
    • N S Ermolaeva, On the history of the St Petersburg and Petrograd mathematical societies (Russian), Trudy S.-Peterburg.
    • A M Vershik, The St Petersburg Mathematical Society, European Mathematical Society Newsletter 10 (December, 1993), 21-23.

  5. Russian/St Petersburg Academy
    • The Russian/St Petersburg Academy of Sciences .
    • Krzemie'nska writes in [',' B Krzemie’nska, The founding of the Academy of Sciences and Arts in St Petersburg in 1724-1725 (some remarks on the 250th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences in the USSR) (Czech), DVT - Dejiny Ved.
    • In [',' M D Gordin, The importation of being earnest : the early St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Isis 91 (1) (2000), 1-31.','3] Gordin:- .
    • The Academy started as the The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences and was based in St Petersburg.
    • The name varied over the years, becoming The Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts 1747-1803), The Imperial Academy of Sciences (1803- 1836), and finally, The Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (from 1836 and until the end of the empire in 1917).
    • In 1934 it moved from Leningrad (which is what St Petersburg had been renamed) to Moscow.

  6. Kharkov Mathematical Society
    • Imshenetskii left Kharkov and went to St Petersburg where he succeeded in founding the St Petersburg Mathematical Society in 1890.
    • However Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov, a former student of Chebyshev, moved from St Petersburg to Kharkov in 1885 and he remained there for 17 years.
    • He held this position for four years until 1906 when he moved to St Petersburg to take up the Chair of Mathematics at the University.
    • At around this time due to arguments between Bernstein and the Communist Party leader in Kharkov, Bernstein had little option but to leave which he did, moving to Leningrad.

  7. Alphabetical List of Mathematical Societies and Academies
    • Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .
    • Russian/St Petersburg Academy .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society .

  8. List of societies by date of foundation
    • 1724 Russian/St Petersburg Academy .
    • 1890 St Petersburg Mathematical Society .
    • 1921 Petrograd Physico-Mathematical Society .

  9. References for Russian
    • References for Russian/St Petersburg Academy .
    • M D Gordin, The importation of being earnest : the early St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Isis 91 (1) (2000), 1-31.
    • A T Grigoryan and N I Nevskaya, J H Lambert and the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Russian), Istor.-Mat.
    • Petersburg Academy of Sciences, active and honored (Russian), in Development of the ideas of Leonhard Euler and modern science (Russian) (Moscow, 1988), 47-59.
    • B Krzemie'nska, The founding of the Academy of Sciences and Arts in St Petersburg in 1724-1725 (some remarks on the 250th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences in the USSR) (Czech), DVT - Dejiny Ved.

  10. Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
    • Vilnius Academy of Medicine and Surgery was closed in 1842, and the Theological Academy was moved to St Petersburg.
    • One of them was Jonas Kubilius who graduated from the post-graduate courses at St Petersburg University and defended his thesis for a Candidate's degree in physics and mathematics in 1961.

  11. Georgian Mathematical Union
    • He went to Leningrad in 1930 undertaking research at the Steklov Mathematical Institute advised by Aleksei Nikolaevich Krylov and Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov.

  12. Slovenian Academy of Sciences
    • The Slovene Society reached its first peak at the beginning of the 20th century when the books it published were in high circulation and it maintained contact with universities and academies from London to St Petersburg.

  13. Moscow Mathematical Society
    • Only one member, Chebyshev from St Petersburg, lived outside Moscow.

  14. Warsaw Scientific Society
    • He also continued publication of Circle of Polish Mathematicians which had begun publishing in St Petersburg in 1880.

  15. Macedonian Academy of Sciences
    • For example, the Macedonian Scientific and Literary Society was established in St Petersburg on 28 October 1902.

  16. Berlin Academy of Science
    • However, once it was known that Euler was returning to St Petersburg, Frederick II wrote again in April making a generous offer, and Lagrange finally accepted.


Honours

  1. St Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Members
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Members .
    • The following have been elected Honorary Members of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society: .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Prizes, etc: .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Young Mathematician Prize .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Members .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Web site .

  2. St Petersburg Abramov Prize
    • St Petersburg Abramov Prize .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Abramov Prize .
    • Since 2007, the St Petersburg Mathematical Society awards the "Abramov Prize" sponsored by the St Petersburg mathematician and antiquary Professor Yury Abramov.
    • The candidates for this award are St Petersburg mathematicians not older than 35.

  3. Young Mathematician prize
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society Young Mathematician prize .
    • The St Petersburg Mathematical Society makes an annual award to a young mathematician for work of outstanding promise.
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Prizes, etc: .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Young Mathematician Prize .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Honorary Members .
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society Web site .

  4. Kemmer
    • Birth place: St Petersburg, Russia .

  5. Sobolev
    • Birth place: St Petersburg, Russia .


References

  1. References for Dmitrii Konstantinovich Faddeev
    • Z I Borevich, S M Ermakov, A I Skopin and A V Yakovlev, Dmitrii Konstantinovich Faddeev (on the occasion of his 80th birthday) (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.
    • Dmitrii Konstantinovich Faddeev, Leningrad Math.
    • V N Kublanovskaya, The contribution of V N Faddeeva and D K Faddeev in the development of computational methods in linear algebra, Leningrad Math.
    • I R Shafarevich, Dmitrii Konstantinovich Faddeev, Leningrad Math.
    • V V Voevodin, A Yu Kuznetsov and E E Tyrtyshnikov, A tribute to goodness, intelligence and talent, Leningrad Math.
    • A V Yakovlev, D K Faddeev and St Petersburg algebraic school (Russian), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo Universiteta.
    • A V Yakovlev, D K Faddeev and St Petersburg algebraic school, Vestnik St.
    • Petersburg Univ.

  2. References for Aleksandr Nikolaevich Korkin
    • B N Delone, The St Petersburg school in the theory of numbers (Russian) (Moscow-Leningrad, 1947).
    • B N Delone, The St Petersburg school in the theory of numbers (American Mathematical Society, London Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I.
    • N S Ermolaeva, The reasons for the interest of mathematicians from St Petersburg in problems of cartography (Russian), Istor.-Mat.
    • R I Galcenkov, Mathematics in the Leningrad (St Petersburg) University in the 19th century (Russian), Istor.-Mat.
    • I I Markus and E P Ozigova, The St Petersburg school of mathematics in the beginning of the twentieth century (Russian), Voprosy Istor.

  3. References for Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin
    • I R Shafarevich, Reminiscences of V A Rokhlin (Russian), Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society 7 (1999), 269-273.
    • I R Shafarevich, Reminiscences of V A Rokhlin, Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society 7 (Amer.
    • V N Sudakov, An unfinished project of V A Rokhlin, Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society 7 (Amer.
    • A M Vershik, Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin 1919-1984 (on the 70th anniversary of his birth), Leningrad Math.
    • A M Vershik, V A Rokhlin's work in ergodic theory, Leningrad Math.
    • O Ya Viro and V M Kharlamov, V A Rokhlin's work in topology, Leningrad Math.

  4. References for Yuri Vladimirovich Linnik
    • Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 1975).
    • Some of his work from the 1950s, St Petersburg Math.
    • A M Kagan, How important it is to understand sufficient statistics: the history of my acquaintance with Yurii Vladimirovich Linnik (on the 90-th anniversary of the birth of Yu V Linnik), Vestnik St Petersburg Univ.
    • Yu V Nesterenko and Ya Yu Nikitin, Scientific conference dedicated to the memory of academician Yu V Linnik, Vestnik St Petersburg Univ.
    • S V Vallander, I A Ibragimov, O A Ladyzenskaja, S M Lozinskii, G I Petrasen, V V Petrov, I V Romanovskii, V I Smirnov and D K Faddeev, Jurii Vladimirovii Linnik (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.

  5. References for Alexander Ivanovich Skopin
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • A I Skopin, Realization of computer calculations in transmetabelian groups (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.
    • Translation in Vestnik Leningrad Univ.
    • Z I Borevich, S M Ermakov, A I Skopin and A V Yakovlev, Dmitrii Konstantinovich Faddeev (on the occasion of his 80th birthday) (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Translation in Leningrad Math.
    • Translation in Leningrad Math.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.

  6. References for Georgy Voronoy
    • B N Delone, The St Petersburg School of the Theory of Numbers (Moscow-Leningrad, 1947).

  7. References for Gabriel Lamé
    • 1795-1870 'Nauka' (Leningrad, 1987).
    • Petersburg (on the history of Cauchy's conception of mathematical analysis) (Russian), Voprosy Istor.

  8. References for Charles Hermite
    • E P Ozhigova, Charles Hermite : 1822-1901 (Russian) 'Nauka' (Leningrad, 1982).
    • E P Ozhigova, Hermite and the St Petersburg mathematicians (Russian), Voprosy Istor.

  9. References for Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovskii
    • F P Otradnyh, V Ya Bunyakovskii - professor in the Petersburg university (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.

  10. References for Vladimir Smirnov
    • V M Babich, S G Mikhlin, and N N Ural'tseva, Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (on the 100th anniversary of his birth) (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.
    • V S Buslaev O A Ladyzhenskaya S P Merkur'ev and L D Faddeev, Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.
    • Leningrad.
    • O A Ladyjzenskaya and G M Fihtengolz, Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (on the 70th anniversary of his birth) (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.
    • O A Ladyzenskaja, Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (Russian), Collection of articles dedicated to the memory of Academician V I Smirnov, Vestnik Leningrad.
    • N A Lebedev and S M Lozinskii, Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov and mathematics in Leningrad University during 1917-1967 (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.
    • S G Mikhlin, Development of dynamic elasticity theory in the works of V I Smirnov (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.
    • G I Petrasen', V I Smirnov - founder of the Leningrad school of wave propagation and diffraction (Russian), Collection of articles dedicated to the memory of Academician V I Smirnov, Vestnik Leningrad.
    • Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (1887-1974) (Russian), Vestnik Leningrad.

  11. References for Mikhail Alekseevich Lavrent'ev
    • Mathematical works of M A Lavrent'ev, in Some Problems in Mathematics and Mechanics (Russian) (Nauka, Leningrad, 1970), 13-30.
    • 'Nauka', Leningrad, 1970), 7-13.
    • 'Nauka', Leningrad, 1970), 13-30.
    • 'Nauka', Leningrad, 1970), 44-67.

  12. References for Aleksei Krylov
    • S Y Shtraykh, Aleksei Nikolaevich Krylov, His Life and Work (Moscow-Leningrad, 1950).
    • 'Nauka', Leningrad.
    • Otdel, Leningrad, 1969).
    • (Moscow-Leningrad, 1950).

  13. References for Rufus Isaacs
    • M H Breitner, Rufus Philip Isaacs and the Early Years of Differential Games: A Survey and Discussion Paper, in L A Petrosyan and N A Zenkevich (eds.), Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Dynamic Games and Applications, St Petersburg, Russia, 8-11 July 2002 (St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia, 2002), 113-128.

  14. References for Alexander Ostrowski
    • R Jeltsch-Fricker, In memoriam A M Ostrowski (1893-1986), Leningrad Math.
    • D K Faddeev, On R Jeltsch-Fricker's paper 'In memoriam: Alexander M Ostrowski (1893-1986)', Leningrad Math.

  15. References for Sergei Bernstein
    • I A Ibragimov, The works of S N Bernstein in probability theory (Russian), Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society 8 (2000), 96-120.
    • V V Zhuk and G I Natanson, S N Bernstein and direct and inverse theorems in constructive function theory (Russian), Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society 8 (2000), 70-95.

  16. References for Vera Nikolaevna Faddeeva
    • V N Kublanovskaya, The contribution of V N Faddeeva and D K Faddeev in the development of computational methods in linear algebra, Leningrad Math.
    • V V Voevodin, A Yu Kuznetsov and E E Tyrtyshnikov, A tribute to goodness, intelligence and talent, Leningrad Math.

  17. References for Vladimir A Steklov
    • I Ya Depman, V A Steklov at Petersburg University (Russian), Istor.-Mat.
    • I I Markus, The establishment of the St Petersburg school of mathematical physics by V A Steklov (Ukrainian), Narisi Istor.

  18. References for Solomon Grigoryevich Mikhlin
    • M Anolik, Perfect scientific style (Russian), St Petersburg University 8 (3775) (2008), 32-33.
    • G Z Mikhlin, Some words about my father (Russian), St Petersburg University 8 (3775) (2008), 29-30.

  19. References for Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock
    • Leningrad.
    • Univ., Leningrad, 1975), 176-178.

  20. References for George G Lorentz
    • R A Lorentz (ed.), George G Lorentz, Mathematics from Leningrad to Austin Vol 1 (Birkhauser Boston, Inc., Boston, MA, 1997).
    • R A Lorentz (ed.), George G Lorentz, Mathematics from Leningrad to Austin Vol 2 (Birkhauser Boston, Inc., Boston, MA, 1997).

  21. References for Yakov Davydovich Tamarkin
    • I I Markush and G V Filippova, Ya D Tamarkin's investigations on asymptotic methods in the theory of ordinary linear differential equations that contain a large parameter (Russian), in Mathematical analysis (Russian), (Leningrad.
    • Inst., Leningrad, 1990), 82-88.

  22. References for Sophus Lie
    • E M Polishchuk, Sophus Lie (1842 - 1899) (Russian), Scientific-Biographic Literature, 'Nauka' Leningrad.
    • (Leningrad, 1983).

  23. References for Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky
    • B V Fedorenko, New documents for the biography of N I Lobachevskii (Russian) (Leningrad, 1988).
    • V F Kagan, Lobachevsky (Moscow- Leningrad, 1948).

  24. References for Vito Volterra
    • 'Nauka' Leningrad.
    • (Leningrad, 1977).

  25. References for Wilhelm Bessel
    • K K Lavrinovich, Bessel materials in the Leningrad Section of the Archives of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Russian), Istor.-Astronom.

  26. References for Aleksandr Nekrasov
    • Aleksandr Ivanovich Nekrasov (Moscow- Leningrad, 1950).

  27. References for Nikolai Fuss
    • V V Bobynin, Fuss, Nikolai, Entsiklopedichesky slovar 36A (St Petersburg, 1902), 913-914.

  28. References for Yulian Vasilievich Sokhotsky
    • N S Ermolaeva, Julian Vasil'evich Sokhotskii (1842-1927), Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society, Vol IV, Amer.

  29. References for Pafnuty Chebyshev
    • Vestnik Leningrad.

  30. References for Pythagoras
    • L Ya Zhmud', Pythagoras and his school (Russian), From the History of the World Culture 'Nauka' (Leningrad, 1990).

  31. References for Leonhard Euler
    • R Calinger, Leonhard Euler: The first St Petersburg years (1727-1741), Historia Mathematica 23 (1996), 121-166.

  32. References for Lev Landau
    • E L Andronikashvili, The Leningrad period in the life of young Professor Landau, in I M Khalatnikov (ed.), Landau : the physicist and the man: recollections of L D Landau (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1989), 60-62.

  33. References for Jérôme Lalande
    • G Pavlova, Lalande, 1732-1807 (Russian) (Leningrad, 1967).

  34. References for Johann Heinrich Lambert
    • A T Grigor'yan and N I Nevskaya, J H Lambert and the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Russian), Istor.-Mat.

  35. References for Pierre Fermat
    • P N Remorov, On the conceptual direction of the works of P de Fermat (Russian), in Mathematical analysis (Leningrad, 1988), 76-82.

  36. References for Nikolai Evgrafovich Kochin
    • P Ya Polubarinova-Kochina, Life and Work of N Y Kochin (Leningrad, 1950).

  37. References for Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov
    • Bibliografia (Moscow-Leningrad, 1953).

  38. References for Leonid Vital'evich Kantorovich
    • I K Daugavet, V M Ryabov and B A Samokish, Leonid Vital'evich Kantorovich, in Proceedings of the St Petersburg Mathematical Society X (Amer.

  39. References for Archimedes
    • S Ya Lur'e, Archimedes (Russian) (Moscow-Leningrad, 1945).

  40. References for Zeno of Elea
    • V Ya Komarova, The teachings of Zeno of Elea : An attempt to reconstruct a system of arguments (Russian) (Leningrad, 1988).

  41. References for Ferdinand Minding
    • R I Galchenkova, Ju G Lumiste, E P Ozhigova and I B Pogrebysskii, Ferdinand Minding 1806-1885 (Nauka, Leningrad, 1970).

  42. References for Dmitry Aleksandrovich Grave
    • N G Chebotaryov, Akademik Dmitry Aleskandrovich Grave, in Collected Articles in Memory of Academician D A Grave (Russian) (Moscow-Leningrad, 1940), 3-14.

  43. References for Andrei Andreyevich Markov
    • B N Delone, The St Petersburg school of number theory (American Mathematical Socity, Providence, RI, 2005).

  44. References for Jean-Victor Poncelet
    • Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Russian), Izv.

  45. References for Nikolay Sonin
    • 'Nauka' (Leningrad 1967).

  46. References for Osip Somov
    • T R Nikiforova, Osip Ivanovich Somov (Moscow-Leningrad, 1964).

  47. References for Christian Goldbach
    • P P Pekarskii, Christian Goldbach, Istoria imperatorskoi akademii nauk v Peterburge I (St Petersburg, 1870), 155-172.


Additional material

  1. Who was who 1852
    • Euler spent over twenty years in Russia but, beyond filling the memoirs of the Saint Petersburg Academy (for which purpose he had been imported), there is little trace of his activities.
    • Around 1850 we would have found at least three prominent mathematicians in Russia: Victor Yakovlevich Bunyakovskii (1804-1889), Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (1821-1894), both in St Petersburg (= Petrograd = Leningrad), and Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792-1856) in Kazan.

  2. The 1936 Luzin affair
    • Russkii Khristianskii Gumanitarnyi Institut, St Petersburg, 1999.
    • The Egorov affair alarmed Luzin, who had only recently returned from a long trip abroad; he gave up his university work, took refuge in the Central Aero-Hydrodynamics Institute in Leningrad, and worked in the Steklov Institute there.
    • The Academy and the Steklov Institute were both moved from Leningrad to Moscow in 1934, with the intention of giving the Academy a leading role in the development of Soviet science, making it a world leader, under the control of the Party and the Government.

  3. Muskhelishvili Academy President
    • After completing his studies at the Tbilisi classical gymnasium (in 1909), N I Muskhelishvili entered the mathematical faculty of St Petersburg University, after which, in 1914, he remained at the Department of Mechanics to prepare for the title of professor.
    • In the years 1931-1932, N I Muskhelishvili was specially invited to lecture to postgraduates at a number of scientific research institutes in Leningrad.

  4. Muskhelisvili Academy President
    • After completing his studies at the Tbilisi classical gymnasium (in 1909), N I Muskhelishvili entered the mathematical faculty of St Petersburg University, after which, in 1914, he remained at the Department of Mechanics to prepare for the title of professor.
    • In the years 1931-1932, N I Muskhelishvili was specially invited to lecture to postgraduates at a number of scientific research institutes in Leningrad.

  5. Rudio's Euler talk
    • Two years previously, the two brothers Daniel and Nikolaus Bernoulli, sons of Johann Bernoulli and friends of Euler, had been appointed to posts at the St Petersburg Academy then founded by Catherine I of Russia.
    • Before they had left Basel, they had promised their young friend that if at all possible they would get him a position at the St Petersburg Academy, too.
    • "Come to St Petersburg as soon as you can and show the Academy that, although I have told them many good things about you, I have not told them everything by far.
    • Upon his arrival in St Petersburg he was appointed assistant at the mathematical institute at the Academy straightaway.
    • Daniel Bernoulli returned to Basel in 1733 since he could not tolerate the climate in St Petersburg, to which his brother Nikolaus had fallen victim already a few years previously.
    • The following anecdote gives us an impression of the pressure under which Euler must have lived during his last months in St Petersburg: The Queen Mother once wondered about Euler's conspicuous reticence, which he had no reason for whatsoever as she had always treated him most kindly.
    • After having returned to St Petersburg later on, Euler claimed on several occasions that he would be able to write so many mathematical papers that they would last the Memoirs of the Academy for 20 years after his death.
    • And he did more than he had promised: His papers adorned the Memoirs of the St Petersburg Academy until 1823, i.e.
    • in the 60th year of his life, and returned to St Petersburg.
    • Having barely arrived in St Petersburg, he was taken severely ill.
    • He himself would have died in the fire had it not been for a man called Grimm, who was from Basel but lived in St Petersburg.
    • He knew more about medicine and the sciences than most people; we have heard that he was appointed a physiologist at the St Petersburg Academy at the mere age of twenty.
    • You might also be interested to learn that Euler never stopped being a Swiss, for although he lived in Berlin for 25 years and in St Petersburg for 31 years, he always used the genuine Basel vernacular with all its peculiarities, often to the amusement of those around him.
    • At the St Petersburg cemetery, a mighty block made from Finnish granite, with the inscription "Leonardo Eulero Academia Petropolitana", reminds the wanderer that he is at the same place where the mortal remains of this outstanding mathematician are buried.

  6. Eulogy to Euler by Fuss
    • Read at the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Saint Petersburg 23 October 1783.
    • Leonhard Euler, Professor of Mathematics, member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Saint Petersburg, former Director of the Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences of Prussia, Foreign associate of the Royal Academy of Science of Paris, of the Royal Society of London, etc, was born in Basel on 4/15 April 1707 of Paul Euler, then the pastor of Reihen and of Marguerite Brucker, who was of a distinguished family whose name was well recognized in the republic of letters of which there were several scientists who shared the same name.
    • It is this bond, based on a similarity of interests that prompted the Saint Petersburg Academy to hire him.
    • Happily for our Academy, fate which had as much to do in deciding municipal seats in Basel as at the university was not favorable to him and a few days after the rejection he left his country for Saint Petersburg where he found a stage more suited to the important role that he was to play in the republic of letters.
    • Petersburg with his family in June of 1741 to provide the brilliance to an academy which would be born under the auspices of a crowned philosopher.
    • Euler continued to supply papers to the Saint Petersburg Academy which began the payment of a pension to him in 1742 and the Commentarii are half-filled with his amazing productivity.
    • In a paper on floating bodies published in the Memoires of the Paris Academy of Sciences and Beaux-Arts of April 1735 and forwarded to the Academie of Saint Petersburg through its author Mr.
    • Which have been included in to the collections of the Saint Petersburg, Paris and Berlin Academies as well as principally in the two memoires in the way in which to compensate for the wind and the effects of pitching and rolling of which the latter was awarded the prize of the Paris Academy in 1759.
    • Euler sensed the obstacle and after frequent meetings with Admiral Knowles that he had after his return to Saint Petersburg, he was determined to separate from the theory all that was non-essential to naval science and everything that was not easily grasped and in 1773 he published this complete theory concerning the construction and navigation of ships which was within the grasp of everyone who applied themselves to navigation.
    • We have assembled here the principal works of our geometer which are all part of the same object and even though this last part was completed well after his return to Saint Petersburg, it becomes interesting to see within a single glimpse the extent of his contribution to navigation that is to say of the most useful and applicable knowledge known to man.
    • Euler never ceased to provide very important services to the Saint Petersburg Imperial Academy, either by offering the greater and most important part of his literary works, by looking after its economic interests or by assuming the education of his students.
    • Once again he saw Saint Petersburg, after his long absence, 17 July 1766.
    • The eldest who has for a very long time followed in the footsteps of his illustrious father, is equally famous due to the prizes that he was awarded by the Academies of Saint Petersburg, Paris, Munich and Gšttingen.

  7. ELOGIUM OF EULER
    • Leonhard Euler, Director of the Mathematics Class at the Academy of Petersburg, and prior to that of Berlin, of the Royal Society of London, the Academies of Turin, Lisbon and Basel, Foreign member to all the scientific academies, was born in Basel on 15 April 1707 to Paul Euler and Marguerite Brucker.
    • Euler left Saint Petersburg to go to Berlin where the Prussian king had called him.
    • Euler as a foreigner, and a portion of his salary was always paid to him in spite of his absence and when the Empress recalled him in 1766 he consented to return to Saint Petersburg.
    • In 1771 Saint Petersburg was struck by a terrible fire the flames of which reached all the way to Euler's house.
    • When the Royal Prussian Prince went to Saint Petersburg, he stopped to pay his respect to M.
    • Daniel Bernoulli, who has shown himself worthy of his works and justified Bernoulli's choice and learned from Euler's lessons and who after having delivered the public eulogy at the Saint Petersburg Academy had just married one of his grand-daughters.
    • Of the sixteen professors attached to the Saint Petersburg Academy eight were trained under him and all are known through their works and have been awarded various academic distinctions and are proud to add the title of Euler's disciples.
    • The Saint Petersburg Academy solemnly mourned his passing and will install a marble bust at their expense to be placed in the assembly hall which had already provided an already singular honor.

  8. Julia Robinson: Hilbert's 10th Problem
    • Finally - on February 15, 1970 - Martin telephoned me from New York to say that John Cocke had just returned from Moscow with the report that a 22-year-old mathematician in Leningrad had proved that the relation n = F2m , where F2m is a Fibonacci number, is diophantine.
    • In 1971 Raphael and I visited Leningrad and became acquainted with Matijasevic and with his wife, Nina, a physicist.

  9. Napier Tercentenary
    • Hekloff, St Petersburg; Professor Hobson, Cambridge; Mrs Isaac-Roberts; Professor Melikoff, St Petersburg; Professor Dr Conrad Muller; Professor and Mrs Normand, Bombay; Dr Ogilvie, London: Sheriff R L Orr, K.C.; Sir David Paulin; Professor Putnam, University of California; the Right Hon.

  10. Barlow Numbers
    • The former, besides what is contained in the second volume of his "Elements of Algebra," and his "Analysis Infinitorum" has several papers in the Petersburg Acts, in which are given the demonstrations of many of Fermat's theorems.

  11. Perelman's Fields Medal
    • Petersburg State University.

  12. Pulkovo Observatory
    • He wrote: "Indeed, L'vov knows quite well that for many years I made numerous declarations to various organisations (e.g., the Leningrad Committee of the Communist Party) in which I asked that the Gerasimovich gang's disorganising role in Soviet science be investigated.

  13. Weil on history
    • Petersburg, an adjunct of the newly founded Academy of Sciences; his friend and patron Goldbach was in Moscow.

  14. Collected Papers of Paul Ehrenfest' Preface
    • Thus Paul Ehrenfest, who had been born in Vienna on January 18, 1880, had studied in Vienna and Gottingen, had obtained his doctor's degree under Boltzmann in 1904 and who since 1907 had been living at St Petersburg with his Russian-born wife and collaborator, Tatiana Afanassjewa (whom he had married in Vienna in 1904), became a full professor at Leyden.

  15. De Montmort: 'Essai d'Analyse
    • He does, however, also set out the problem which later was to become famous as the St Petersburg problem, and he also sets out his uncle's "golden theorem" as if it were his own, adding "I recall that my uncle has demonstrated a similar thing in his treatise Ars Conjectandi now being printed at Basel".

  16. Charles Bossut on Leibniz and Newton Part 2
    • In 1726 Catharine I, the widow of Peter the Great, founded the Academy of St Petersburg.

  17. Otto Neugebauer - a biographical sketch
    • For purposes of scientific research he had previously (spring, 1924) spent some time with Harald Bohr in Copenhagen, with Father Deimel in Rome on Sumerian, and in the fall of 1928 with W W Struve and B A Turajeff in Leningrad.

  18. Footnote 7
    • He provided them with lessons and it was for them that he wrote during his stay at the Marburg Court the letters concerning various subjects of physics and philosophy which he had published after his return to Saint Petersburg.


Quotations

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Famous Curves

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Chronology

  1. Mathematical Chronology
    • Academy of Sciences is founded in St Petersburg.
    • Euler is appointed to St Petersburg.
    • When it was submitted for publication in the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences Ostrogradski rejects it.
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society is founded.

  2. Chronology for 1720 to 1740
    • Academy of Sciences is founded in St Petersburg.
    • Euler is appointed to St Petersburg.

  3. Chronology for 1890 to 1900
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society is founded.

  4. Chronology for 1820 to 1830
    • When it was submitted for publication in the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences Ostrogradski rejects it.

  5. Chronology for 1880 to 1890
    • St Petersburg Mathematical Society is founded.


EMS Archive

  1. Napier Tercentenary
    • Hekloff, St Petersburg; Professor Hobson, Cambridge; Mrs Isaac-Roberts; Professor Melikoff, St Petersburg; Professor Dr Conrad Muller; Professor and Mrs Normand, Bombay; Dr Ogilvie, London: Sheriff R L Orr, K.C.; Sir David Paulin; Professor Putnam, University of California; the Right Hon.


BMC Archive

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Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. Widecombe in the Moor, Devon
    • pp.12 & 16',2)">Whitfield], and then the St Petersburg example.


Astronomy section

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JOC/BS August 2001