Search Results for poverty


Biographies

  1. Mollie Orshansky (1915-2006)
    • Mollie Orshansky's parents, Samuel and Fannie Orshansky, lived in the Ukraine but poverty had encouraged them to seek a better life and they had emigrated to the United States, settling in the Bronx.
    • There she worked on topics that meant a lot to her given the poverty of her own childhood, namely biometric studies of child health, growth, and nutrition.
    • It was at this time she did the work for which she is best known, in particular devising in 1963 the Orshansky index, which is the official measure of poverty used by the U.S.
    • Poverty Thresholds - Brief Overview, Newsletter of the Government Statistics Section and the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (Winter 1997), 6-7.','3] (see also [',' G M Fisher, The Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds, Social Security Bulletin 55 (4) (Winter 1992), 3-14.','4]):- .
    • The poverty thresholds were originally developed in 1963 - 1964 by Mollie Orshansky of the Social Security Administration.
    • She published an analysis of the poverty population using these thresholds in a January 1965 Social Security Bulletin article.
    • Orshansky based her poverty thresholds on the economy food plan - the cheapest of four food plans developed by the Department of Agriculture.
    • The actual combinations of foods in the food plans, devised by Agriculture Department dietitians using complex procedures, constituted nutritionally adequate diets; the Agriculture Department described the economy food plan as being "designed for temporary or emergency use when funds are low." (Orshansky also developed a second set of poverty thresholds based on the Agriculture Department's somewhat less stringent low-cost food plan, but relatively little use was ever made of these higher thresholds.) .
    • Orshansky developed the index as a research tool, not an instrument of policy of a criterion for determining eligibility for anti-poverty programs.
    • Over the following years until her retirement in 1982, Orshansky continued to apply statistics to measures of poverty.
    • For example she wrote Children of the Poor (1963), Counting the Poor: Another Look at the Poverty Profile (1965), Who's Who Among the Poor: A Demographic View of Poverty (1965), How poverty is measured (1969), History of the Poverty Line (1970), and was a joint author of Measuring Poverty: A Debate (1978) and Improving the Poverty Definition (1979).

  2. Niels Abel (1802-1829)
    • Niels Abel's life was dominated by poverty and we begin by putting this in context by looking briefly at the political problems which led to economic problems in Norway.
    • An economic crisis in Norway followed with the people suffering hunger and extreme poverty.
    • Sometimes he lived in the past, talking about his poverty and about Fru Hansteen's goodness.

  3. al-Kashi (1390-1450)
    • While Timur was undertaking his military campaigns, conditions were very difficult with widespread poverty.
    • al-Kashi lived in poverty, like so many others at this time, and devoted himself to astronomy and mathematics while moving from town to town.

  4. William of Ockham (about 1288-1348)
    • He had been studying the pronouncements made by popes regarding collective poverty, in particular the poverty of Christ and the apostles.

  5. Abraham de Moivre (1667-1754)
    • Despite de Moivre's scientific eminence his main income was as a private tutor of mathematics and he died in poverty.
    • He did so in 1710 explaining to Leibniz that de Moivre was living a miserable life of poverty.

  6. Petre Sergescu (1893-1954)
    • As all their belongings were lost when they refused to acknowledge the new communistic regime in Romania, they were very poor but were never ashamed of their poverty.
    • We all know people who try to puff themselves up by speaking contemptuously of others; he was the opposite of that and was genuinely great in his simplicity and poverty.

  7. Jan-Karel della Faille (1597-1652)
    • I have found Madrid so changed that I scarcely recognise it: such is the need and poverty of the people.
    • It is a shame to have to see things as they are: those persons who were once rich are suffering poverty today, and these wars destroy us.

  8. Norman Levinson (1912-1975)
    • Norman's mother was illiterate but, despite the poverty, she managed to feed Norman and his sister Pauline.
    • Despite a childhood of desperate poverty, and an education that consisted of attending rundown vocation schools, Norman said of his childhood:- .

  9. Tartaglia (1500-1557)
    • From being a child in a poor family, he was suddenly plunged into total poverty.
    • He died in poverty in his house in the Calle del Sturion near the Rialto Bridge (not the present one which was constructed about 30 years later) in Venice.

  10. Louis Carré (1663-1711)
    • Quite often people become priests to escape poverty but Carre preferred to fall into indigence rather than become a priest.
    • However, he was fortunate for he managed to avoid poverty by becoming an amanuensis to the philosopher Nicolas Malebranche who was professor of mathematics at the Congregation of the Oratory in Paris.

  11. Raphael Robinson (1911-1995)
    • Indeed he suffered great hardship for two years and as a result of the poverty he suffered from tuberculosis.

  12. Lodovico Ferrari (1522-1565)
    • Having transferred all her possessions to her new husband, he promptly left her and she died in poverty.

  13. George Airy (1801-1892)
    • Things had taken a turn for the worse at home since his father lost his tax collectors job in 1813 and the family were, from that time, living in poverty.

  14. René Baire (1874-1932)
    • In 1886, when he was twelve years old, Rene won a scholarship to enable him to have a good education despite his family's poverty.

  15. Edward Waring (1736-1798)
    • This last statement may partly explain the strange fact that although Waring was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1763 and had the great distinction of being awarded its Copley Medal in 1784, he resigned from the Society in 1795 claiming poverty.

  16. Luigi Berzolari (1863-1949)
    • At the time when Luigi was born, Naples, the city of his birth, was the largest in Italy but it was a city of poverty and disease.

  17. Emmy Noether (1882-1935)
    • This was a time of extreme difficulty and she lived in poverty during these years and politically she became a radical socialist.

  18. Loo-Keng Hua (1910-1985)
    • There Hua and his family remained through the World War II years, until 1945, in circumstances of poverty, physical privation, and intellectual isolation.

  19. Werner Rogosinski (1894-1964)
    • Werner and Erna wanted to marry but had to wait until he was earning a salary, rather than living in relative poverty which was the position of a Privatdocent.

  20. Li Zhi (1192-1279)
    • For over 15 years Li Zhi lived in poverty as a hermit in the Shansi province.

  21. Robert May (1936-)
    • Henry went from a well-off middle class upbringing in Northern Ireland to poverty in Newcastle, Australia.

  22. Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792-1856)
    • Lobachevsky was an impractical manager who jeopardised his financial position by purchasing the estate while living on a pension; that he had no time to look after the estate and took little interest in it; that he was left in poverty and ignored by the local officials, etc.

  23. Robert Murphy (1806-1843)
    • Robert was only seven years old at this time and the death of his father meant that from that time on the family were in extreme poverty.

  24. Hyman Levy (1889-1975)
    • strongly influenced by poverty and degradation he saw around him in childhood, ..

  25. Leopold Schmetterer (1919-2004)
    • His mother was Gisela Busch and it was mainly through her efforts that Leopold survived when a baby during a period of extreme hardship and poverty.

  26. Leo Zippin (1905-1995)
    • What they found in Russia was extreme poverty, illness and a civil war.

  27. Juan de Ortega (1480-1568)
    • Juan de Ortega had no university education and, as a Dominican with a vow of poverty, needed little in the way of an income as a Friar.

  28. Maria Agnesi (1718-1799)
    • Agnesi spent all her money on this charitable work and she died in total poverty in the poorhouse of which she had been the director.

  29. Kurt Reidemeister (1893-1971)
    • Against this background of hunger and poverty, Reidemeister studied algebraic number theory working on his doctorate advised by Hecke.

  30. Carl Schoy (1877-1925)
    • In his earlier years handicapped by poverty, and later by an insidious and incurable disease, Schoy's career compels our admiration for his never-failing courage and indomitable will, no less than for his scientific achievements.

  31. Peter Turner (1586-1652)
    • He lived out his final years in total poverty.

  32. Jan Tinbergen (1903-1994)
    • Together with others, such as Tjalling Koopmans, they engaged in small discussion groups evaluating the poverty of contemporary economics and the need for a more rigorous approach.

  33. James Glenie (1750-1817)
    • He died in poverty.

  34. Robert Haldane (1772-1854)
    • Indeed he only published one work which was a pamphlet on poverty in St Andrews (1841).

  35. Caspar Wessel (1745-1818)
    • Despite his poverty, he refused to accept payment for maps which he had been commissioned to make.

  36. Lazarus Fuchs (1833-1902)
    • He did get very minimal support from a distant wealthy relative but he lived in extreme poverty.

  37. Frank Levin (1927-2011)
    • When the younger child, Julie, was born, their father deserted the family, leaving their mother the difficult task of bringing up two children, in some considerable poverty.

  38. Benoit Mandelbrot (1924-2010)
    • The war, the constant threat of poverty and the need to survive kept him away from school and college and despite what he recognises as "marvellous" secondary school teachers he was largely self taught.

  39. Elizabeth Fennema (1928-)
    • Elizabeth's mother had been born in 1889 and had overcome familial pressures and extreme poverty, common in the southern United States at that time, to attend Valparaiso University.

  40. Georg Simon Ohm (1789-1854)
    • He could not see how he could attain a better status at Erlangen as prospects there were poor while he essentially lived in poverty in the lecturing post.

  41. Francesco Severi (1879-1961)
    • It was a childhood of considerable poverty and hard work and Severi said in later life that he had been [',' B Segre, Francesco Severi (13 aprile 1879-8 dicembre 1961), Ann.

  42. Denis Papin (1647-1712)
    • In 1707 Papin built the first paddle boat and that same year he returned to London where he lived in obscurity and poverty until his death.

  43. Wilhelm Fiedler (1832-1912)
    • Although his parents had to pay for this school, it cost very little and, despite their poverty, they were able to afford it.

  44. Thymaridas (about 400 BC-about 350 BC)
    • He was apparently a rich man but, for some reason we are not told about, he fell into poverty.

  45. Edmund Stone (about 1700-1768)
    • Following the death of the Duke of Argyll in 1743, Stone's situation deteriorated and he spent the latter part of his life in poverty.

  46. Douglas Jones (1922-2013)
    • Despite the poverty, it was a happy childhood for the four children.

  47. Bibhutibhushan Datta (1888-1958)
    • He had been a vegetarian all his life but now he lived in total poverty, accepting no gifts, and having no material possessions or emotional attachments.

  48. Stefan Cohn-Vossen (1902-1936)
    • The Social Democratic government collapsed in 1930 and fears of poverty led many to support the Nazi party.

  49. Hans Blichfeldt (1873-1945)
    • Looking for a better life and to escape the poverty which they lived in, Hans's family decided to emigrate to the United States when he was 15 years of age.

  50. Mauro Picone (1885-1977)
    • However, the industry declined towards the end of the century with the discovery of rich sulphur mines in America and, as a result, Alfonso's family were reduced to poverty.

  51. Al-Biruni (973-1048)
    • He writes that he was without a patron when in Rayy, and lived in poverty.

  52. Adrien-Marie Legendre (1752-1833)
    • As a result of Legendre's refusal to vote for the government's candidate in 1824 his pension was stopped and he died in poverty.

  53. Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846)
    • It was only after some considerable thought that Bessel left the affluence that was guaranteed in his commercial job choosing instead the near poverty of the Observatory post.


History Topics

  1. African women 1
    • She has written many books and articles such as Comparison of estimators of interclass and intraclass correlations from familial data (1986), Estimation of interclass and intraclass correlation in multivariate familial data(1988), A test of hypothesis on familial correlations (1993), Gender differences in school performance: Evidence from the National form IV examination results and implications for poverty (1999), Gender Statistics in the United Republic of Tanzania (2002), and A comparison of female and male headed households in Tanzania and poverty implications (2004).
    • She has held many senior management roles including Associate Dean Research in a large faculty at Southampton; Deputy Head of School; University Lead for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion; Director of Public Policy, and Director of the Centre for Global Health, Population, Poverty, and Policy at Southampton.
    • She has published around 70 papers including Determinants of infant mortality in Malawi: an analysis to control for death clustering within families (1995), Child malnutrition and feeding practices in Malawi (1997), Variations in antenatal care between women of different communities in Kenya (1999), Frequency and timing of antenatal care in Kenya: explaining the variations between women of different communities (2000), Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya (2007), Food security in a perfect storm: using the ecosystem services framework to increase understanding (2014), and How does poverty affect children's nutritional status in Nairobi slums? A qualitative study of the root causes of undernutrition (2017).

  2. African women I
    • She has written many books and articles such as Comparison of estimators of interclass and intraclass correlations from familial data (1986), Estimation of interclass and intraclass correlation in multivariate familial data (1988), A test of hypothesis on familial correlations (1993), Gender differences in school performance: Evidence from the National form IV examination results and implications for poverty (1999), Gender Statistics in the United Republic of Tanzania (2002), and A comparison of female and male headed households in Tanzania and poverty implications (2004).
    • She has held many senior management roles including Associate Dean Research in a large faculty at Southampton; Deputy Head of School; University Lead for Equality, Diversity, and Inclusion; Director of Public Policy, and Director of the Centre for Global Health, Population, Poverty, and Policy at Southampton.

  3. African men 1
    • Has published papers including Blocs equilibres d'une suite aleatoire de variables statistiques (1987), Nonparametric estimation of the density of a point process (1990), Repartition ponctuelle aleatoire des revenus et estimation de l'indice de pauvrete (2005), Estimation of a regression function on a point process and its application to financial ruin risk forecast (2010), and Bidimensional non-parametric estimation of well-being distribution and poverty index (2014).


Societies etc

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Honours

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References

  1. References for Mollie Orshansky
    • Poverty Thresholds - Brief Overview, Newsletter of the Government Statistics Section and the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association (Winter 1997), 6-7.
    • G M Fisher, The Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds, Social Security Bulletin 55 (4) (Winter 1992), 3-14.


Additional material

  1. Saitoti addresses
    • These problems include balance of trade deficits, domestic fiscal crisis, a lack of investment capital, unemployment, poverty, and environmental degradation.
    • Kenya decries coercive methods of fertility control and labels simplistic the argument that fertility control would solve the problems of poverty and environmental degradation.
    • Introduction: Africa has entered the twenty-first century with a multitude of development problems: economic stagnation, widespread poverty, malnutrition and disease, destructive ethnic mobilization, and a wide range of social ills.
    • - Poverty - 57% of the population live in poverty .
    • n - Poverty .
    • - poverty and impact of HIV/AIDS .

  2. Herschel Museum
    • However the stakes were high as the difference between success and failure on a provincial concert platform might well mean the difference between moderate affluence and real poverty.
    • At the age of 26, Elizabeth was betrothed by her father to wealthy local landowner Walter Long who was aware that Elizabeth was deeply in love with Richard Brinsley Sheridan, an Anglo-Irish playwright of respectable birth whose profession ensued that he lived in an even more acute state of genteel poverty than the Linleys themselves.

  3. Ashour autobiography
    • There were degrees of exemption: exemption from one quarter of the fees or half or three quarters or full exemption, but it was a "defect." The supervisor or agent asked us outside the class to inform us that we had received the exemption so as our colleagues would not know, because poverty was a stain.

  4. More Smith History books
    • "Life in the country village was, however, by no means easy, and the Cauchy family felt the pinch of poverty as did most of France.

  5. Phillip Griffiths Looks at 'Two Cultures' Today
    • Without it, he said, most of society would be condemned to the drudgery of manual farm labour and to its partners of poverty, illiteracy, and poor health.

  6. Communist May
    • All these experiences convinced me that the Communist Party is the greatest force for good in the world and that only through Socialism can the people of the United States solve the problem of unemployment, poverty, oppression and war.

  7. Olds' teaching articles
    • Perhaps it is not fitting to dwell longer on this painful subject but the observation might be made that, while ignorance, like poverty, is no disgrace, it is quite unnecessary for a young and normal person in a land of plenteous opportunities.

  8. Asia in 1984
    • Many Chinese in Malaya still refrain from eating bean sprouts which are cheap, plentiful and very nutritious, and this only because its low price is such as to associate it with poverty.

  9. Centenary of John Leslie
    • Compared with England her poverty was deplorable.

  10. Mathematicians and Music 2.1
    • Thus it may be understood that Orpheus' lyre, notwithstanding its poverty, was well suited to a sort of musical declamation.

  11. Baumslag on Wiegold
    • It was an extraordinary event in his poverty stricken village.

  12. Halsted Beltrami
    • For, though the University was still open to him, and though he had the great good fortune to attend certain lectures of Francesco Brioschi, yet the poverty of his family constrained him to return home before having passed the examination which precedes the doctorate.

  13. Speiser books
    • The poverty of Hegel's own contribution to the foundations of mathematics was due, Speiser considers, to the lack of interest in mathematics in Germany at the time; France's Lagrange, Laplace, Legendre, Carnot, Dupin, Lame, Monge, Poncelet, Lacroix and Cauchy were challenged in Germany only (but outstandingly) by Gauss.


Quotations

  1. Quotations by Franklin Benjamin
    • Laziness travels so slowly that poverty soon overtakes him.


Famous Curves

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Chronology

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EMS Archive

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BMC Archive

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Gazetteer of the British Isles

  1. Teddington, Middlesex
    • When it became apparent that William might succeed to the kingdom, he dumped Mrs Jordan in c1812, who had supported him for twenty years - she had to flee her creditors and died in poverty near Paris in 1816.

  2. London individuals H-M
    • He was Master of Mechanics to Charles II, but died in poverty.


Astronomy section

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JOC/BS August 2001