The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus was founded in Minsk on 1 January 1929 (as the Belarusian Academy of Sciences), the date being chosen as it was the tenth anniversary of the founding of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. An earlier organisation, the Institute of Belarusian Culture, had been established in 1922 and a decree made on 13 October 1928 set up the Belarusian Academy of Sciences by reorganising the Institute. In 1936 the name of the Academy was changed to the Academy of Sciences of Byelorussian SSR. Russia and ten other former Soviet republics declared themselves independent on 21 December 1991 and founded the Commonwealth of Independent States. The USSR legally ceased to exist on 31 December 1991. In 1991 the Academy of Sciences of Byelorussian SSR became the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, adopting its present name in 1997.
The Academy had a staff of 128 when it was first established but by 1941 this had risen to about 750 with nine Institutes. However, the Academy suffered during World War II, both through the loss of staff who were drafted into the army and staff who were sent to other parts of the USSR. By the end of the war the staff was less than half of the 1941 total with around 360 staff in post. The war had also taken its toll on the Academy's buildings, which were damaged as were laboratories, equipment and libraries.
Following the end of World War II the Academy was rebuilt, with eight Institutes beginning work in 1945 increasing to 29 by 1951. The Institute of Mathematics of the Academy was founded in Minsk in 1959. It has Divisions of: algebra; number theory; control processes theory; differential equations; mathematical cybernetics; mathematical theory of systems; non-linear analysis; numerical methods of mathematical physics; numerical modelling; parallel computational processes; and stochastic analysis.
The Academy publishes important mathematics journals. Their journal Doklady Akademii Nauk BSSR was renamed in 1951 Akademiya Nauk Belarusi. Doklady, which then became Doklady Akademii Nauk Belarusi in 1996, finally adopting its present name Doklady Natsional'noi Akademii Nauk Belarusi in 1998. Similarly Vesci Akadèmii Navuk BSSR. Seryja Fizika-Matèmatycnyh Navuk became Vestsi Akadèmii Navuk BSSR. Seryya Fizika-Matèmatychnykh Navuk which again was renamed Akadèmiya Navuk Belarusi. Vestsi. Seryya Fizika-Matèmatychnykh Navuk in1992. For the year 1996-97 it was called Vestsi Akadèmii Navuk Belarusi. Seryya Fizika-Matèmatychnykh Navuk. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Belarusi. Seriya Fiziko-Matematicheskikh Nauk becoming Vestsi Natsyyanal'nai Akadèmii Navuk Belarusi. Seryya Fizika-Matèmatychnykh Navuk. Izvestiya Natsional'noi Akademii Nauk Belarusi. Seriya Fiziko-Matematicheskikh Nauk for the years 1998-2000, finally adopting its present name Vestsi Natsyyanal'nai Akadèmii Navuk Belarusi. Seryya Fizika-Matèmatychnykh Navuk. Izvestiya Natsional'noi Akademii Nauk Belarusi. Seriya Fiziko-Matematicheskikh Nauk in 2001.
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