This document was produced for the 125th anniversary of the Society. It contains short accounts of about 200 (mostly) early members of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society mainly taken from the 1929 membership list. Click the link to go to the biography in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.

A pdf file of the booklet is available at THIS LINK

A list ordered by date of election to the Society is available at THIS LINK

Edwin P Adams
Born 1878 at Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary (now Czech Republic); Died 1956
EMS membership: 1915
Edwin Adams studied at Harvard, Göttingen and Cambridge and became Physics Professor at Princeton. He is best known for his translations of some of Einstein's lectures.
Longer biography

John Airey
Born 1868 at Hunslet, Leeds; Died 1937
EMS membership: 1913
John Airey graduated from Cambridge and became Principal of the West Ham Technical Institute. He is best known for his work in producing tables of mathematical functions.
Longer biography

Alec Aitken
Born 1895 at Dunedin, New Zealand; Died 1967
EMS membership: 1923 1967 (Hon)
Alec Aitken served at Gallipoli and in France with the New Zealand army. His experiences here affected him for the rest of his life. He studied at Edinburgh University after World War I and was then given a post there. He had a prodigious memory and calculating ability. He worked in Statistics, Numerical Analysis and Algebra and made important contributions in all these areas. He became President of the EMS in 1931 and 1951 and an honorary member in 1967.
Longer biography

V Ramaswami Aiyar
Born 1871 at Coimbatore district, India; Died 1936
EMS membership: 1895
Ramaswami Aiyar was an enthusiastic amateur mathematician who worked as a civil servant in India. He was a founder of the Indian Mathematical Society.
Longer biography

John Alison
Born 1861 at Kirkcaldy, Fife; Died 1952
EMS membership: 1884
John Alison graduated from Edinburgh University and taught at George Watson's College in Edinburgh, He became head of the Glasgow United Free Church Training College and later returned to George Watson's as headmaster. He became Treasurer of the EMS in 1885 and President in 1892.
Longer biography

Robert Allardice
Born 1862 at Edinburgh; Died 1928
EMS membership: 1883
Robert Alladice studied at Edinburgh University and was then appointed assistant to Professor Chrystal there. He was a founder member of the EMS and became President in 1890. He left Edinburgh to become Professor at Stanford University in California. He worked in Geometry.
Longer biography

James Archibald
Born 1862 at Edinburgh; Died 1925
EMS membership: 1889
James Archibald graduated from Edinburgh University and eventually became headmaster of Dalry School Edinburgh. He became Treasurer of the EMS in 1899 and President in 1906.
Longer biography

Raymond Archibald
Born 1875 at Stewiacke, Colchester County, Nova Scotia, Canada; Died 1955
EMS membership: 1909
Raymond C Archibald studied in Canada, at Harvard and at Strasbourg. He spent most of his career at Brown University in Rhode Island. His main interests were in the History of Mathematics.
Longer biography

William Arthur
Born 1894 at Fergushill, near Kilwinning, Ayrshire; Died 1979
EMS membership: 1920
William Arthur graduated from the University of Glasgow and after serving in World War I became a lecturer at Glasgow. He became President of the EMS in 1928.
Longer biography

Michael Atiyah
Born 1929 at London
EMS membership: 1979 (Hon)
Michael Atiyah studied at Cambridge and became a Fellow of Trinity College there. He held professorships at Princeton and Oxford and became Master of Trinity College Cambridge. He works in Topology and Geometry and is best known for his work on K-theory and the Atiyah-Singer Index Theorem. He was awarded a Fields Medal in 1966. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1979.
Longer biography

A A Krishnaswami Ayyangar
Born 1892 at Attipattu, Chingleput district, Tamil Nadu, India; Died 1953
EMS membership: 1923
Krishnaswami Ayyangar was an Indian mathematician who worked in Mysore. He produced important work on the history of Hindu mathematics.
Longer biography

Bevan Braithwaite Baker
Born 1890 at Edinburgh; Died 1963
EMS membership: 1920
Bevan Braithwaite Baker graduated from University College London. After service in World War I he became a lecturer at Edinburgh University and was Secretary of the EMS from 1921 to 1923. He left to become Professor at Royal Holloway College London.
Longer biography

Henry Baker
Born 1866 at Cambridge; Died 1956
EMS membership: 1926 (Hon)
Henry Baker spent his whole life in Cambridge and worked on Geometry and Analysis and inspired a younger generation of geometers.. He was made an honorary member of the EMS in 1926.
Longer biography

Andrew Jeffrey Gunion Barclay
Born 1849 at Hawick, Roxburghshire; Died 1943
EMS membership: 1883
Andrew Barclay graduated from Edinburgh University and then taught at George Watson's College in Edinburgh. With Fraser and Knott he was one of the writers who originally proposed the founding of the EMS. He was the third EMS president in 1884.
Longer biography

Charles Glover Barkla
Born 1877 at Widnes, Lancashire; Died 1944
EMS membership: 1913
Charles Barkla was an influential English physicist who became professor of Natural Philosophy in Edinburgh. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1917 for his work on X-ray spectroscopy.
Longer biography

Frederick Bath
Born 1900 at Islington, London; Died 1982
EMS membership: 1928
Frederick Bath graduated from Bristol and Cambridge and held posts at King's College London, University College Dundee, St Andrews and Edinburgh. He worked in Geometry. He was president of the EMS in 1938 and 1939.
Longer biography

Carruthers Beattie
Born 1866 at Waterbeck, Dumfriesshire; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1891
John Carruthers Beattie graduated from Edinburgh University and studied at Munich, Vienna, Berlin and Glasgow. He became Professor of Applied Mathematics and Experimental Physics at the University of Cape Town and was later Vice Chancellor and Principal of the University. He was knighted in 1920.
Longer biography

Robert J T Bell
Born 1876 at Falkirk, Stirlingshire; Died 1963
EMS membership: 1899
Robert Bell graduated from Glasgow University. He was appointed to a professorship at the University of Otago in New Zealand. He worked in Geometry and was editor of the EMS Proceedings for several years.
Longer biography

William Berwick
Born 1888 at Dudley Hill (near Bradford); Died 1944
EMS membership: 1919
William Berwick studied at Cambridge and lectured at Bristol, Bangor and Leeds before returning to Cambridge and eventually became Professor at Bangor. He worked in algebraic number theory. His widow endowed the Berwick prizes of the London Mathematical Society in his name.
Longer biography

George Birkhoff
Born 1884 at Overisel, Michigan, USA; Died 1944
EMS membership: 1926 (Hon)
George Birkhoff was an American mathematician who was educated at Chicago and Harvard. He became a Professor at Harvard. His most important work was the Ergodic Theorem he discovered in 1931. He spoke at the EMS Colloquium in St Andrews in 1926 and was elected an honorary member of the society.
Longer biography

F F P Bisacre
Born 1885 at Tunbridge, Kent; Died 1954
EMS membership: 1925
F F P Bisacre was an engineer who was educated at Cambridge and worked for the Edinburgh publishers Blackie with whom he published a Calculus textbook. He wrote some research papers on X-ray diffraction.
Longer biography

Edward Blades
Born 1875 at Armadale, West Lothian; Died 1953
EMS membership: 1905
Edward Blades graduated from Edinburgh University. He held posts at Moray House Training College, at Heriot Watt College and at George Watson's Ladies' College, all in Edinburgh. He became Director of Education for West Lothian. After he retired he made contributions to Army Education.
Longer biography

James Bolam
Born 1839 at Newcastle; Died 1930
EMS membership: 1883 1923 (Hon)
James Bolam was educated at Newcastle. He became head of the Government Navigation School (later the Leith Nautical College). He was a founder member of the EMS and became an honorary member in 1923.
Longer biography

Max Born
Born 1882 at Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland); Died 1970
EMS membership: 1938
Max Born had a distinguished career as a mathematician in Germany before he was forced to leave in 1933 to avoid the Nazis. He became a lecturer in Cambridge before being appointed Professor of Applied Mathematics in Edinburgh where he assembled a distinguished research group mainly of European refugees. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1954 for his work on Quantum Mechanics.
Longer biography

Margaret E Boyle
Born 1905 at Kirkden Manse, Angus; Died 1995
EMS membership: 1926
Margaret Boyle graduated from St Andrews and taught mathematics at Dalkeith High School.
Longer biography

William Brash
Born 1888 at West Calder; Died 1962
EMS membership: 1912
William Brash graduated from Edinburgh University and went on to teaching posts at Stirling, Aberdeen and Inverness.
Longer biography

Raymond Brink
Born 1890 at Newark, New Jersey, USA; Died 1973
EMS membership: 1919
Raymond Brink was an American mathematician who studied at Kansas State University, Harvard and Paris. He taught at the University of Minnesota though he spent a year in Edinburgh in 1919. He worked on the convergence of series.
Longer biography

Selig Brodetsky
Born 1888 at Olviopol (near Odessa), Ukraine; Died 1954
EMS membership: 1915
Selig Brodetsky was educated at Cambridge and Leipzig. He became a lecturer at Bristol and later lecturer and professor at Leeds. He worked on fluid flow with particular emphasis on aerodynamics. He was President of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem for a short time.
Longer biography

Thomas Bromwich
Born 1875 at Wolverhampton; Died 1929
EMS membership: 1902
Thomas Bromwich grew up in South Africa and then graduated from Cambridge. He was Professor of Mathematics in Galway before returning to Cambridge. He made important contributions in both pure and applied mathematics.
Longer biography

L E J Brouwer
Born 1881 at Overschie (now a suburb of Rotterdam), Netherlands; Died 1966
EMS membership: 1954 (Hon)
L E J Brouwer was a Dutch mathematician best known for his topological fixed point theorem. He founded the doctrine of mathematical intuitionism, which views mathematics as the formulation of mental constructions that are governed by self-evident laws. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1954.
Longer biography

Alexander Brown
Born 1877 at Dalkeith, near Edinburgh; Died 1947
EMS membership: 1898
Alexander Brown studied at Edinburgh and later at Cambridge. He became Professor of Applied Mathematics at the South African College which later became the University of Cape Town. His main contributions were to Geometry.
Longer biography

Thomas Arnold Brown
Born 1893 at Edinburgh; Died 1965
EMS membership: 1915
Thomas Brown studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge Universities. He lectured at University College London and became Professor at the University College of the South West which later became the University of Exeter.
Longer biography

Walter Brown
Born 1886 at Glasgow; Died 1957
EMS membership: 1911
Walter Brown graduated from Glasgow University and took up a post at Hong Kong University. He was interned by the Japanese in World War II and on his release he returned to Scotland and posts at Glasgow Technical College and Glasgow University. On retirement he travelled extensively in South America and Africa.
Longer biography

Alexander Buchan
Born 1904 at Edinburgh; Died 1976
EMS membership: 1927
Alexander Buchan graduated from Edinburgh University and worked as a teacher at the Royal High School and Gillespie's High School for Girls in Edinburgh. In World War II he was the Commandant of the Air Training Corps in Scotland. He went on to become a lecturer at Moray House College of Education.
Longer biography

Alexander Burgess
Born 1872 at Wishaw, Lanarkshire; Died 1932
EMS membership: 1900
Alexander Burgess graduated from Edinburgh and taught at Merchiston Castle School Edinburgh and at Rothesay Academy. He became Rector of the latter school. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1908 and President in 1912 and was responsible for organising the first EMS Colloquium in 1913.
Longer biography

Raymond Butchart
Born 1888 at Dundee; Died 1930
EMS membership: 1914
Raymond Butchart graduated from University College Dundee. He was badly wounded in World War I and afterwards returned to Dundee as a lecturer. He was appointed Professor of Mathematics at Raffles College Singapore but died of malaria on his way home on his first leave.
Longer biography

J Watt Butters
Born 1863 at Edinburgh; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1886
J Watt Butters graduated from Edinburgh and taught at George Heriot's School and James Gillespie's School in Edinburgh. He became Rector of Ardrossan Academy. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1896 and President in 1900.
Longer biography

Nora Calderwood
Born 1896 at Blairgowrie, Perthshire
EMS membership: 1919
Nora Calderwood graduated from Edinburgh University and went on to a lectureship at Birmingham University. A prize in algebra at Birmingham is named after her.
Longer biography

George Carse
Born 1880 at Edinburgh; Died 1950
EMS membership: 1902
George Carse studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge and went on to become a Reader in Physics at Edinburgh.
Longer biography

Horatio Carslaw
Born 1870 at Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire; Died 1954
EMS membership: 1897
Horatio Carslaw studied at Glasgow and Cambridge. He lectured at the University of Glasgow before moving to a professorship in Sydney, Australia. He worked on a variety of topics in both pure and applied mathematics.
Longer biography

James Cassels
Born 1891 at Ayr
EMS membership: 1927
James Cassels graduated from Edinburgh University and became a teacher at Ayr Academy.
Longer biography

Bernard Childs
Born 1895 at Edinburgh; Died 1956
EMS membership: 1923
Bernard Childs studied at Birmingham University and then became a lecturer in Physics at Edinburgh University. He was active in adult education.
Longer biography

Charles Chree
Born 1860 at Lintrathen, Angus; Died 1928
EMS membership: 1885
Charles Chree studied in Aberdeen and Cambridge. He became Superintendent of Kew Observatory and worked on terrestrial magnetism.
Longer biography

George Chrystal
Born 1851 at Old Meldrum (near Aberdeen); Died 1911
EMS membership: 1883 (Hon)
George Chrystal is best remembered today for Algebra: a two volume work which was completed by 1889. He was also involved in educational reform throughout his career and was a major figure in setting up an educational system in Scotland. He became one of the first honorary members of the EMS in 1883.
Longer biography

John Clark
Born 1861 at West Linton, Peebleshire; Died 1947
EMS membership: 1885
John Clark graduated from Edinburgh University and became a teacher at George Heriot's School in Edinburgh. He went on to become Rector of this school. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1891 and President in 1897.
Longer biography

Peter Comrie
Born 1868 at Muthill, near Crieff, Perthshire; Died 1944
EMS membership: 1905
Peter Comrie graduated from St Andrews and after a series of teaching posts became Rector of Leith Academy. He was much involved in the EMS, becoming Secretary in 1911 and President in 1916 and 1917.
Longer biography

Edward Copson
Born 1901 at Coventry; Died 1980
EMS membership: 1922 1979 (Hon)
Edward Copson graduated from Oxford and was appointed a lecturer at Edinburgh. He later held posts at the Royal Naval College in Greenwich and Queen's College Dundee before being appointed Regius Professor at St Andrews. He was an expert on Complex Analysis and contributed many papers on this subject. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1924, President in 1930 and 1954 and an honorary member in 1979.
Longer biography

Charles Coulson
Born 1910 at Dudley, near Birmingham; Died 1974
EMS membership: 1940
Charles Coulson graduated from Cambridge in a variety of subjects and then lectured at Queen's College Dundee. He held a variety of senior posts at London and Oxford. His main area of interest was molecular physical chemistry, but he contributed to many other areas.
Longer biography

William B Coutts
Born 1885 at Kinghorn, Fife; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1913
William Coutts graduated from Edinburgh University and after a period in the Army in World War I he became interested in the mathematical theory of artillery. He became a Professor at the Military College of Science at Shrivenham.
Longer biography

Tom Cowling
Born 1906 at Hackney, London; Died 1990
EMS membership: 1938
Tom Cowling graduated from Oxford and worked at Imperial College London. He lectured at Swansea, Dundee and Manchester and became a professor at Bangor and Leeds. He worked on theoretical astronomy and stellar physics.
Longer biography

Donald Coxeter
Born 1907 at London; Died 2003
EMS membership: 1959 (Hon)
Donald Coxeter graduated from Cambridge and worked most of his life in Canada. His work was mainly in geometry. In particular he made contributions of major importance in the theory of polytopes, non-euclidean geometry, group theory and combinatorics. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1959.
Longer biography

James Craig
Born 1868 at Buckhaven, Fife; Died 1952
EMS membership: 1886
James Craig graduated from Edinburgh and Cambridge. He taught at Eton and Winchester and then went to work on the Nile Survey for the Egyptian government. He made some significant inventions in map projections. He was killed when a mob attacked the Turf Club in Cairo.
Longer biography

Lawrence Crawford
Born 1867 at Glasgow; Died 1951
EMS membership: 1885
Laurence Crawford graduated from Glasgow University. After a period at Birmingham University he became Professor of Pure Mathematics at South African College which later became the University of Cape Town.
Longer biography

Leslie Cunningham
Born 1895 at Edinburgh; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1925
Leslie Cunningham graduated from Edinburgh University though the First World War interrupted his studies. He worked for the RAF as an education officer but returned to Edinburgh to complete his doctorate. He worked on various problems of air warfare.
Longer biography

Charles Galton Darwin
Born 1887 at Newnham Grange, Cambridge; Died 1962
EMS membership: 1923
Charles G Darwin was the grandson of the famous biologist and graduated from Cambridge. He lectured on Physics at Manchester and after service in World War I and a period back at Cambridge he became Professor of Physics at Edinburgh. He left eventually to become head of a Cambridge college. He worked in Quantum Mechanics and had controversial views on Eugenics.
Longer biography

E T Davies
Born 1904 at Pencader, Carmarthenshire; Died 1973
EMS membership: 1935
E T Davies graduated from the University of Wales at Aberystwyth and then studied in Rome and Paris. After lecturing at King's College London he was appointed to a professorship in Southampton. He worked in Differential Geometry and the Calculus of Variations.
Longer biography

Winifred Deans
Born 1901 at New Milton, Hampshire; Died 1990
EMS membership: 1928
Winifred Deans graduated from Aberdeen and Cambridge. After a period in teaching she joined a Scottish publishing company and translated many important German scientific texts for them. After World War II she worked at the Commonwealth Bureau of Animal Nutrition in Aberdeen.
Longer biography

Alfred Dixon
Born 1865 at Northallerton, Yorkshire; Died 1936
EMS membership: 1905
Alfred Dixon graduated from London and Cambridge and then had professorial appointments in Galway and Belfast. He worked on ordinary and partial differential equations.
Longer biography

John Dougall
Born 1867 at Kippen, Stirlingshire; Died 1960
EMS membership: 1885
John Dougall graduated from Glasgow. He taught at Glasgow University before joining a publishing firm. He wrote a number of papers on both pure and applied mathematics.
Longer biography

David Drysdale
Born 1877 at Dunfermline, Fife; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1899
David Drysdale graduated from Edinburgh University and then taught at George Heriot's School Edinburgh, at the Royal Academy Irvine and at Arbroath High School.
Longer biography

Robert Dunbar
Born 1889 at Broughty Ferry, Angus
EMS membership: 1914
Robert Dunbar graduated from Edinburgh University. After service in World War I he lectured in Physics at Edinburgh. He later moved to University College Cardiff and became Professor of Physics there.
Longer biography

George Samuel Eastwood
Born 1878 in England; Died 1953
EMS membership: 1923
George Eastwood attended the University of London. He taught at Arbroath High School and Beath Secondary School in Cowdenbeath.
Longer biography

William Edge
Born 1904 at Stockport; Died 1997
EMS membership: 1932 1983 (Hon)
William Edge graduated from Cambridge and lectured at Edinburgh University. He wrote many papers in Geometry. He became President of the EMS in 1944 and an honorary member in 1983.
Longer biography

Arthur Erdélyi
Born 1908 at Budapest, Hungary; Died 1977
EMS membership: 1940
Arthur Erdélyi studied in Brno and Prague and came to Scotland before the Second World War to avoid the Nazi invasion of Czechoslovakia. He became a lecturer at Edinburgh and after a period in the USA he returned to Edinburgh as a Professor. He was an expert on Special Functions. He became President of the EMS in 1971.
Longer biography

Robert Ferguson
Born 1828 at Airdrie, Lanarkshire; Died 1912
EMS membership: 1883
Robert Ferguson studied at Edinburgh and Heidelberg. He was a founder member of the EMS and became the fifth President in 1885. He was partner and headmaster of the Edinburgh Institution in George Street where many of the early meetings of the EMS were held.
Longer biography

Bill Ferrar
Born 1893 at Bristol; Died 1990
EMS membership: 1924
Bill Ferrar graduated from Oxford after an undergraduate career interrupted by World War I. He lectured at Bangor and Edinburgh before moving back to Oxford. He worked in college administration and eventually became Principal of Hertford College. He worked on the convergence of series.
Longer biography

Lester R Ford
Born 1886 at Missouri, USA; Died 1967
EMS membership: 1914
Lester Ford was an American mathematician who lectured for several years in Edinburgh before moving back to the USA. He wrote some important text-books and is best known for his contributions to the Mathematical Association of America and the American Mathematical Monthly.
Longer biography

Alexander Yule Fraser
Born 1857 at Cargill, near Perth; Died 1890
EMS membership: 1883
Alexander Yule Fraser graduated from the university of Aberdeen and taught at George Watson's College Edinburgh. He became headmaster of Allen Glen's Institute in Glasgow though his time there was dogged by ill-health. With Barclay and Knott he was one of the writers who originally proposed the founding of the EMS. He became Secretary and Treasurer in 1883 and President in 1889.
Longer biography

David Kennedy Fraser
Born 1888 at Edinburgh; Died 1962
EMS membership: 1908
David Kennedy Fraser studied at Glasgow, Leipzig and Cornell Universities. He returned to Edinburgh as a Lecturer in Education before moving to Jordanhill Training College.
Longer biography

Maurice Fréchet
Born 1878 at Maligny, Yonne, Bourgogne, France; Died 1973
EMS membership: 1938 (Hon)
Maurice Fréchet was a French mathematician who made major contributions to the topology of point sets and defined and founded the theory of abstract spaces. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1938.
Longer biography

Finlay Freundlich
Born 1885 at Biebrich, Germany; Died 1964
EMS membership: 1940
Finlay Freundlich was a distinguished German astronomer who worked with Einstein on measurements of the orbit of Mercury to confirm the general theory of relativity. He left Germany to avoid Nazi rule and became the Napier Professor of Astronomy at St Andrews.
Longer biography

G Leslie Frewin
Born 1902 at Glasgow
EMS membership: 1923
Leslie Frewin graduated from the University of Edinburgh and taught at George Watson's College before moving to Inverness.
Longer biography

William Gentle
Born 1877 at Dundee, Angus; Died 1964
EMS membership: 1903
William Gentle graduated from the University of Edinburgh and taught at George Heriot's School Edinburgh. After being wounded in World War I he returned to George Heriot's and eventually became headmaster there.
Longer biography

David Gibb
Born 1883 at Methil, Fife; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1910
David Gibb graduated from Edinburgh University and went on to become a lecturer and reader there. He became President of the EMS in 1920.
Longer biography

George Gibson
Born 1858 at Greenlaw, Berwickshire; Died 1930
EMS membership: 1884 1902 (Hon)
George Gibson graduated from Glasgow University and went on to become Professor there. He published several important textbooks and was an enthusiast for the History of Mathematics. He became President of the EMS in 1888 and an honorary member in 1902.
Longer biography

Robert Gillespie
Born 1903 at Johnstone, Renfrewshire; Died 1977
EMS membership: 1925
Robert Gillespie studied at Glasgow and Cambridge and then lectured at Glasgow University. His main interests were in analysis. He became President of the EMS in 1946 and 1967.
Longer biography

Archibald Goldie
Born 1888 at Glenisla, Angus; Died 1964
EMS membership: 1926
Archibald Goldie studied at the universities of St Andrews and Cambridge. He served in the Meteorological Service of the British Army in World War I and continued to work in various branches of the Meteorological Office.
Longer biography

Andrew Gray
Born 1847 at Lochgelly, Fife; Died 1925
EMS membership: 1922
Andrew Gray graduated from Glasgow University and was appointed assistant and secretary to Lord Kelvin. He became Professor of Physics at University College Bangor and then returned to Glasgow as Kelvin's successor. He produced many books and papers in both mathematics and physics.
Longer biography

James Gray
Born 1875 at Glasgow; Died 1934
EMS membership: 1909
James Gray was the son of Andrew Gray. He graduated from University College Bangor and occupied a series of posts in Glasgow University, finishing as Professor of Applied Physics.
Longer biography

Marion Gray
Born 1902 at Ayr; Died 1979
EMS membership: 1922
Marion Gray graduated from Edinburgh University and then went to Bryn Mawr College in the USA. She completed her doctorate there and returned to posts at Edinburgh and Imperial College London. She returned to the USA and worked for AT&T for the rest of her career. The Gray graph is named after her.
Longer biography

William Greaves
Born 1897 at Barbados, West Indies; Died 1955
EMS membership: 1940
William Greaves graduated from Cambridge and then worked at the Royal Observatory Greenwich. He became Professor of Astronomy in Edinburgh. He worked on both theoretical and practical astronomy.
Longer biography

George Greenhill
Born 1847 at London; Died 1927
EMS membership: 1908 (Hon)
George Greenhill graduated from Cambridge and became Professor of Mathematics at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. His main work was on Elliptic Functions but he published widely on applications of mathematics to practical problems. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1908.
Longer biography

William J Greenstreet
Born 1861 at Milton, Kent; Died 1930
EMS membership: 1895
William J Greenstreet graduated from Cambridge and became headmaster of Marling School Stroud. He is best-known as the long-running editor of the Mathematical Gazette.
Longer biography

Alexander Barrie Grieve
Born 1886 at Aberfeldy; Died 1952
EMS membership: 1923
Barrie Grieve graduated from Edinburgh. He continued to research in Geometry and gained a DSc for this work. He became an HM Inspector of Schools.
Longer biography

William Guthrie
Born 1905 at Cowdenbeath, Fife; Died 1978
EMS membership: 1926
William Guthrie graduated from Cambridge and gained an appointment at the University of St Andrews. He moved to become a professor at Magee College in Londonderry and eventually became Principal of the College.
Longer biography

Richard Gwilt
Born 1901 at Edinburgh; Died 1972
EMS membership: 1925
Richard Gwilt was an actuary who worked for various Edinburgh insurance companies. He was a Fellow of the Faculty of Actuaries and of the Institute of Actuaries.
Longer biography

Patrick Hardie
Born 1873 at Edinburgh; Died 1943
EMS membership: 1900
Patrick Hardie graduated from Edinburgh University. He spent most of his career teaching in Egypt at Alexandria and Cairo.
Longer biography

Robert Hardie
Born 1864 at Edinburgh; Died 1942
EMS membership: 1883
Robert Hardie graduated from Oxford and occupied various posts in the Philosophy department of Edinburgh University. He was a founder member of the EMS.
Longer biography

William Hodge
Born 1903 at Edinburgh; Died 1975
EMS membership: 1954 (Hon)
William Hodge studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge Universities. After some time at Bristol and in the USA he returned to Cambridge and became Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry. His main interests were in Algebraic Geometry and Differential Geometry. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1954. He was knighted in 1959.
Longer biography

Ellice Horsburgh
Born 1870 at Kelso, Roxburghshire; Died 1935
EMS membership: 1906 1935 (Hon)
Ellice Horsburgh graduated from Edinburgh and became a lecturer in Technical Mathematics at the University. He became Treasurer of the EMS in 1915 and an honorary fellow in 1935.
Longer biography

Pierre Humbert
Born 1891 at Paris, France; Died 1953
EMS membership: 1914
Pierre Humbert graduated from the École Polytechnique in Paris and then moved to Edinburgh to do research under Whittaker. He spent most of his career in the University of Montpellier. He worked on Special Functions.
Longer biography

Edward Ince
Born 1891 at Amblecote, Staffordshire; Died 1941
EMS membership: 1914
Edward Ince graduated from Edinburgh and researched at Edinburgh and Cambridge. He worked at universities in Leeds, Liverpool, Cairo, Edinburgh and Imperial College London before moving back to Edinburgh as Head of Technical Mathematics. He worked on Special Functions.
Longer biography

David Jack
Born 1896 at Scarfskerry, Caithness; Died 1975
EMS membership: 1920
David Jack studied at Edinburgh though his studies were interrupted by war service. He took up a post teaching Physics at St Andrews.
Longer biography

William Jack
Born 1834 at Stewarton, Ayrshire; Died 1924
EMS membership: 1902 (Hon)
William Jack graduated from Glasgow and Cambridge. He became an HM Inspector of Schools for SW Scotland and was then appointed Professor of Mathematics at Owen's College Manchester. He left there for the editorship of the Glasgow Herald. After this he became Professor of Mathematics at Glasgow University and held this post for 30 years. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1902.
Longer biography

John Jackson
Born 1887 at Paisley, Renfrewshire; Died 1958
EMS membership: 1908
John Jackson graduated from Glasgow and Cambridge. He went to the Royal Observatory at Greenwich but his career there was interrupted by World War I. He was then appointed HM Astronomer at the University of Cape Town.
Longer biography

David Johnstone
Born 1877 at Edinburgh
EMS membership: 1900
David Johnstone graduated from Edinburgh University and taught at Spier's School Beith and George Heriot's School Edinburgh before moving to the Provincial Training College in Edinburgh.
Longer biography

Lord Kelvin (William Thomson)
Born 1824 at Belfast, Ireland; Died 1907
EMS membership: 1883 (Hon)
William Thomson graduated from Glasgow and Cambridge showing precocious ability in Mathematics and Physics. He became Professor of Natural Philosophy at Glasgow at a very young age. He made important contributions to many areas of Physics including electricity, magnetism and thermodynamics. He was created Lord Kelvin for his work on the first transatlantic cable. He became one of the first honorary members of the EMS in 1883.
Longer biography

Cargill Knott
Born 1856 at Penicuik, Midlothian; Died 1922
EMS membership: 1883
Cargill Knott graduated from Edinburgh University and was then an assistant in the Physics department. With Barclay and Fraser he was one of the writers who originally proposed the founding of the EMS. He went to the Imperial University in Tokyo as Professor. He returned to a lectureship in Edinburgh and eventually became a Reader in Applied Mathematics. He became Secretary and Treasurer of the EMS in 1883 and President in 1893 and 1918.
Longer biography

Scott Lang
Born 1850 at Edinburgh; Died 1926
EMS membership: 1887
Peter Scott Lang graduated from Edinburgh University and after a period as assistant in Edinburgh he became Regius Professor of Mathematics at St Andrews. He held this position for 42 years.
Longer biography

George Lawson
Born 1870 at Culross, Fife; Died 1941
EMS membership: 1887
George Lawson graduated from St Andrews and became assistant to the professor. He left to teach at George Watson's School in Edinburgh and eventually became Rector of Waid Academy Anstruther. He became President of the EMS in 1937.
Longer biography

Walter Ledermann
Born 1911 at Berlin, Germany
EMS membership: 1935
Walter Ledermann graduated from Berlin but was forced to leave Germany in 1933 to avoid Nazi persecution. He came to St Andrews and studied under Turnbull. He worked at Dundee and St Andrews until after World War II when he moved to Manchester and then to the University of Sussex. He is especially known for his work in homology, group theory and number theory.
Longer biography

Tullio Levi-Civita
Born 1873 at Padua, Veneto, Italy; Died 1941
EMS membership: 1930 (Hon)
Tullio Levi-Civita was an Italian mathematician who is best known for his work on the absolute differential calculus. He published the theory of tensors in a form which was used by Einstein in his theory of relativity. He had problems later in his life with the rise of Fascism in Italy. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1930.
Longer biography

Hyman Levy
Born 1889 at Edinburgh; Died 1975
EMS membership: 1911
Hyman Levy graduated from Edinburgh and went on to study in Göttingen. He was forced to leave Germany on the outbreak of World War II and returned to work at Oxford and at the National Physical Laboratory. He held various posts in Imperial College London, finishing as Head of the Mathematics department. His main work was in the numerical solution of differential equations.
Longer biography

George Lidstone
Born 1870 at London; Died 1952
EMS membership: 1918
George Lidstone was an actuary who worked for various Edinburgh insurance companies. He wrote papers on various numerical and statistical topics.
Longer biography

Balfour Lockhart
Born 1886 at Cambuslang, Lanarkshire; Died 1969
EMS membership: 1920
Balfour Lockhart graduated from Edinburgh University, his studies being interrupted by war service. He taught for most of his career at Edinburgh Academy, finishing as Head of Mathematics. He became Treasurer of the EMS in 1927.
Longer biography

Thomas Lumsden
Born 1895 at Edinburgh; Died 1944
EMS membership: 1919
Thomas Lumsden graduated from Edinburgh University. He became a lecturer in Mathematics at Birmingham University. He was killed in action in World War II.
Longer biography

James Macdonald
Born 1868 at Portsoy; Died 1937
EMS membership: 1896
James Macdonald graduated from Edinburgh University. he was appointed the first Rector of Leith Academy and went on to become an HM Inspector of Schools.
Longer biography

Hector Macdonald
Born 1865 at Edinburgh; Died 1935
EMS membership: 1887
Hector Macdonald graduated from Aberdeen and Cambridge Universities. He stayed on at Cambridge and won the Adams prize. He returned to Aberdeen as Professor. He did important work on electromagnetic waves.
Longer biography

William James Macdonald
Born 1851 at Huntly, Aberdeenshire; Died 1941
EMS membership: 1883
William James Macdonald graduated from the University of St Andrews. He taught at Madras College St Andrews, at Merchiston Castle School and at Donald Stewart's College in Edinburgh. He was a pioneer of the introduction of modern geometry to the mathematical curriculum. He was a founder member of the EMS and became the sixth President in 1887.
Longer biography

John S Mackay
Born 1843 at Auchencairn near Kirkudbright, Kirkcudbrightshire; Died 1914
EMS membership: 1883 1894 (Hon)
John S Mackay graduated from St Andrews University and taught at Perth Academy and Edinburgh Academy. He was a founder member of the EMS and became the first President in 1883 and an honorary member in 1894. He published numerous papers on Geometry in the EMS Proceedings.
Longer biography

Gladys Mackenzie
Born 1903 at Edinburgh
EMS membership: 1925
Gladys Mackenzie graduated from the University of Edinburgh and became an assistant in the Natural Philosophy department. She moved to Newnham College Cambridge and late to Bristol University and Queen Elizabeth College London. She published papers on X-ray spectroscopy.
Longer biography

John Mackie
Born 1888 at Leith, near Edinburgh; Died 1955
EMS membership: 1921
John Mackie graduated from Edinburgh University and went on too teach at Leith Academy eventually becoming Rector. He became President of the EMS in 1945.
Longer biography

Chrystal Macmillan
Born 1872 at Edinburgh; Died 1937
EMS membership: 1897
Chrystal Macmillan was the first female science graduate at Edinburgh University and the first female honours graduate in Mathematics. She went on to study at Berlin. She was the first woman to plead a case before the House of Lords. She became active in the Women's Suffrage Movement and went on to become a lawyer.
Longer biography

Donald Macmillan
Born 1857 at Kintail
EMS membership: 1887
Donald Macmillan graduated from Aberdeen University and became Principal of Clifton Bank School in St Andrews.
Longer biography

Thomas MacRobert
Born 1884 at Dreghorn, Ayrshire; Died 1962
EMS membership: 1911
Thomas MacRobert studied at Glasgow and Cambridge universities. He returned to Glasgow to a series of posts culminating in the professorship. He worked on Complex Analysis. He became President of the EMS in 1921 and was a founder member of the Glasgow Mathematical Association.
Longer biography

Mohammed Reda Madwar
Born 1893 at Alexandria, Egypt; Died 1973
EMS membership: 1925
Mohammed Reda Madwar graduated from Edinburgh University and after a period in Egypt returned to Edinburgh to gain his doctorate in Astronomy. He went back to Egypt and became Professor of Astronomy at Cairo University.
Longer biography

Artemas Martin
Born 1835 at Stuben County, New York, USA; Died 1918
EMS membership: 1885
Artemas Martin was a self-taught mathematician and book-collector whose output covered a wide range of mathematical problems.
Longer biography

Neil McArthur
Born 1883 at West Loch Tarbert, Argyll; Died 1951
EMS membership: 1906
Neil McArthur graduated from Glasgow University and apart from a period of war service spent his whole career at the University. He became President of the EMS in 1919.
Longer biography

James McBride
Born 1868 at Broughshane, Co. Antrim, Ireland; Died 1949
EMS membership: 1905
James McBride studied at Queen's College Belfast and then taught at various Glasgow schools finishing as Rector of Queen's Park School. He published a number of papers in Geometry and was a founder member of the Euclidean Club.
Longer biography

Donald McIntosh
Born 1868 at Kirkmichael, Banffshire; Died 1957
EMS membership: 1895
Donald McIntosh graduated from the University of Aberdeen and taught at George Watson's Ladies College in Edinburgh. He was appointed a Director of Education. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1899 and President in 1905.
Longer biography

Anderson McKendrick
Born 1876 at Edinburgh; Died 1943
EMS membership: 1926
Anderson McKendrick trained as a medical doctor in Glasgow and came to Edinburgh as Superintendent of the College of Physicians Laboratory. He made some significant mathematical contributions to biology.
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Dougald McQuistan
Born 1879 at Inverkip, Renfrew; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1908
Dougald McQuistan studied at Glasgow and Cambridge. He became Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Royal Technical College in Glasgow.
Longer biography

George McVittie
Born 1904 at Smyrna, Turkey (now Izmir); Died 1988
EMS membership: 1927
George McVittie studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge. He then held posts at Leeds, Edinburgh and London and became Professor of Astronomy at the University of Illinois. His main work was in Relativity and Cosmology.
Longer biography

John McWhan
Born 1885 at Cambuslang, Glasgow; Died 1943
EMS membership: 1908
John McWhan studied at Glasgow and Göttingen. He returned to a post at Glasgow University.
Longer biography

John Meiklejohn
Born 1872 at Weydale, Thurso, Caithness; Died 1951
EMS membership: 1926
John Meiklejohn graduated from Edinburgh and taught at Dundee High School.
Longer biography

Alexander Merriles
Born 1880 at North Berwick; Died 1950
EMS membership: 1905
Alexander Merriles graduated from Edinburgh University and afterwards taught at Edinburgh Provincial Training College and George Watson's Ladies' College in Edinburgh.
Longer biography

William Metzler
Born 1863 at Odessa, Ontario, Canada; Died 1943
EMS membership: 1918
William Metzler was a Canadian mathematician who graduated from Toronto University and taught at Syracuse University and Albany Teachers Training College, both in New York State. He published papers on the theory of matrices and determinants, several of them in the Proceedings of the EMS.
Longer biography

John Miller
Born 1871 at Glasgow; Died 1956
EMS membership: 1899
John Miller studied at Glasgow and Göttingen. He returned to Glasgow to the Royal College of Science and Technology (the precursor to Strathclyde University). He became President of the EMS in 1913.
Longer biography

Archibald Milne
Born 1875 at Edinburgh; Died 1958
EMS membership: 1898
Archibald Milne graduated from Edinburgh University and taught at the Church of Scotland Training College in Edinburgh. He was an Editor of the EMS Proceedings and became President of the EMS in 1923.
Longer biography

William P Milne
Born 1881 at Longside, Aberdeenshire; Died 1967
EMS membership: 1910
William P Milne studied at Aberdeen and Cambridge universities. He taught at Clifton College and then became Professor of Mathematics at Leeds. He published papers in Geometry including many in the Proceedings of the EMS.
Longer biography

James Mitchell
Born 1871 at Edinburgh; Died 1959
EMS membership: 1894
James Mitchell studied at Edinburgh and Berlin. He taught at Waid Academy, at Nairn Academy and Lochgilphead School Argyll where he became headmaster.
Longer biography

George Moffat
Born 1872 at Leith (near Edinburgh); Died 1934
EMS membership: 1897
George Moffat graduated from Edinburgh University and taught at Dumfries Academy and Glasgow Academy where he became Head of Mathematics.
Longer biography

Alexander Morgan
Born 1860 at Leith, Edinburgh; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1897
Alexander Morgan graduated from Edinburgh University and lectured in Mathematics at the Church of Scotland Training College in Edinburgh. He was appointed Principal of the College. He had an important influence on the development of education in Scotland. He became President of the EMS in 1898.
Longer biography

John Morrison
Born 1863 at Muthill, Perthshire; Died 1944
EMS membership: 1883
John Morrison graduated from Edinburgh University and took up a Physics post at Heriot-Watt College. He was a founder member of the EMS. He was appointed Professor of Physics at Victoria College Stellenbosch in South Africa. He did important work on the magnetic survey of South Africa.
Longer biography

Thomas Muir
Born 1844 at Stonebyres, Falls of Clyde, Lanarkshire; Died 1934
EMS membership: 1883
Thomas Muir graduated from the University of Glasgow and after working at St Andrews and Glasgow universities he taught at Glasgow High School. He then went to the Cape Colony in South Africa as Superintendent General of Education. He is best known for his 5 volume History of Determinants. He was a founder member of the EMS and became the second President in 1883.
Longer biography

Robert Muirhead
Born 1860 at Shawlands, Glasgow; Died 1941
EMS membership: 1884 1912 (Hon)
Robert Muirhead studied at Glasgow, Cambridge and Göttingen. He taught in various schools and founded the Glasgow Tutorial College. He became President of the EMS in 1899 and 1909 and an honorary member in 1912 and published many papers in the Proceedings.
Longer biography

Jason J Nassau
Born 1893 at Smyrna, (now Izmir) Turkey; Died 1965
EMS membership: 1919
Jason J Nassau studied at Columbia and Syracuse Universities in New York State. After service in World War I he spent some time in Edinburgh. He became Professor of Astronomy at Case Institute of Technology in Cleveland Ohio. He published papers in both mathematics and astronomy.
Longer biography

Charles Niven
Born 1845 at Peterhead; Died 1923
EMS membership: 1883 (Hon)
Charles Niven studied at Aberdeen and Cambridge universities and became Professor of Mathematics at Cork. He returned to Aberdeen as Professor of Natural Philosophy and held this post for 42 years. He became one of the first honorary members of the EMS in 1883.
Longer biography

Annie Hutton Numbers
Born 1897 at Edinburgh; Died 1988
EMS membership: 1917
Annie Hutton Numbers graduated from Edinburgh University and worked in the Chemistry department in Edinburgh. She taught in schools in Ipswich and High Wycombe.
Longer biography

Eleanor Pairman
Born 1896 at Broomieknowe, Lasswade, near Edinburgh
EMS membership: 1917
Eleanor Pairman graduated from Edinburgh. She went to London where she worked with Karl Pearson and then went to the USA where she gained a doctorate from Radcliffe College.
Longer biography

James Paton
Born 1903 at Cowdenbeath, Fife; Died 1973
EMS membership: 1929
James Paton graduated from Edinburgh and spent most of his career at the University finishing as head of the Department of Meteorology.
Longer biography

William Peddie
Born 1861 at Papa Westray, Orkney; Died 1946
EMS membership: 1883
William Peddie graduated from Edinburgh University and then lectured in Physics. He was appointed Professor of Physics at Queen's College Dundee and held this post for 37 years. He was a founder member of the EMS and became President in 1895 and 1932.
Longer biography

Robert Philip
Born 1854 at St Andrews, Fife; Died 1913
EMS membership: 1885
Robert Philip graduated from St Andrews and became a teacher at Madras College St Andrews. He moved to Hutcheon's School Glasgow and eventually became headmaster there.
Longer biography

H T H Piaggio
Born 1884 at London; Died 1967
EMS membership: 1912
H T H Piaggio graduated from Cambridge and then worked at the University of Nottingham. He is best known for his text-book on Differential Equations.
Longer biography

David Picken
Born 1879 at Dennistoun, Glasgow; Died 1956
EMS membership: 1903
David Picken studied at Glasgow and Cambridge universities. After a period as a lecturer at Glasgow he became Professor of Mathematics at Victoria College, Wellington New Zealand. He later moved to the University of Melbourne in Australia.
Longer biography

Peter Pinkerton
Born 1870 at Kilmarnock; Died 1930
EMS membership: 1893
Peter Pinkerton studied at Glasgow and Dublin. After teaching at various schools he became Rector of Glasgow High School. He became President of the EMS in 1908.
Longer biography

John Pullar
Born 1860 at Caputh, Perthshire; Died 1940
EMS membership: 1898
John Pullar graduated from St Andrews and taught at Madras College St Andrews, at Hamilton Academy and at Montrose Academy.
Longer biography

Peter Ramsay
Born 1879 at Glasgow; Died 1926
EMS membership: 1905
Peter Ramsay graduated from Glasgow University and taught at George Watson's School in Edinburgh. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1916 and President in 1922.
Longer biography

Robert Rankin
Born 1915 at Garlieston, Wigtownshire; Died 2001
EMS membership: 1954 (probably) 1990 (Hon)
Robert Rankin studied at Cambrige University. His fellowship there was interrupted by his wartime work on rockets. He became Professor of Mathematics at Birmingham before moving to the professorship at Glasgow, a post he held for 27 years. His most important work was on Number Theory. He became President of the EMS in 1957 and 1978 and an honorary member in 1990.
Longer biography

Archibald Richardson
Born 1881 at London; Died 1954
EMS membership: 1940
Archibald Richardson graduated from Imperial College London and thentaught at the college. He was badly wounded in World War I. He became Professor of Mathematics at Swansea. His main interests were in algebra.
Longer biography

Herbert Richmond
Born 1863 at Tottenham, Middlesex; Died 1948
EMS membership: 1915 1930 (Hon)
Herbert Richmond studied at Cambridge and spent his whole career there, His main interest was in Algebraic Geometry. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1930.
Longer biography

Richard Robb
Born 1901 at Glasgow; Died 1977
EMS membership: 1925
Richard Robb studied at Glasgow and Michigan universities. Most of his career was spent at Glasgow University lecturing on Mathematics and Statistics. He became President of the EMS in 1934.
Longer biography

Howard Percy Robertson
Born 1903 at Hoquiam, Washington, USA; Died 1961
EMS membership: 1938
Howard Percy Robertson studied at Washington University and California Institute of Technology. He spent some time in Germany and was appointed to a post in Princeton. He spent much of the period of World War II in Britain. He made important contributions to Differential Geometry and Relativity.
Longer biography

Edward Ross
Born 1881 at Maud, Aberdeenshire; Died 1947
EMS membership: 1903
Edward Ross studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge universities. After working with Karl Pearson in London he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Christian College in Madras India. Ill health forced him to retire back to Scotland.
Longer biography

Harold Ruse
Born 1905 at Hastings; Died 1974
EMS membership: 1927
Harold Ruse graduated from Oxford and held a position at Edinburgh University. he later became a professor at Southampton and Leeds. He worked on Harmonic Spaces. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1930 and President in 1935.
Longer biography

Daniel Rutherford
Born 1906 at Stirling; Died 1966
EMS membership: 1930
Dan Rutherford studied at St Andrews and Amsterdam. He spent most of his career in St Andrews becoming Gregory Professor of Applied Mathematics. In spite of this title most of his research was in pure mathematics and in particular in algebra. He became President of the EMS in 1940 and 1963.
Longer biography

Alexander Durie Russell
Born 1872 at Edinburgh; Died 1955
EMS membership: 1897
Alexander Durie Russell graduated from Edinburgh University at taught at Morelands School Edinburgh, at Stranraer High School and at Falkirk High School where he spent 38 years. He became Treasurer of the EMS in 1909 and President in 1915.
Longer biography

Robert Schlapp
Born 1899 at Edinburgh; Died 1991
EMS membership: 1923
Robert Schlapp studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge universities. He spent his whole career at Edinburgh University teaching mathematics and Physics. He was also interested in the History of Mathematics. He became President of the EMS in 1942 and 1943.
Longer biography

Agnes Scott
Born 1894 at Jersey
EMS membership: 1917
Agnes Scott graduated from Edinburgh University. She went on to teach at Raffles' Girls School in Singapore.
Longer biography

Charlotte Angas Scott
Born 1858 at Lincoln; Died 1931
EMS membership: 1897
Charlotte Angas Scott studied at Cambridge but was not allowed to take her degree. After graduate work at Cambridge she became the first Head of Mathematics at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania USA.
Longer biography

Robert Scott
Born 1849 at Leith, near Edinburgh; Died 1933
EMS membership: 1884
Robert Scott studied at Cambridge and was elected to a fellowship. After a short time teaching he studied to be a barrister. He spent most of his career as Bursar and Master of St John's College Cambridge. He published a book on Determinants.
Longer biography

T J J See
Born 1866 at Montgomery City, Missouri; Died 1962
EMS membership: 1916
T J J See was an American astronomer who studied in the University of Missouri and in Berlin. He fell out with his astronomical colleagues and was eventually banned from publishing. He spend the last part of his life arguing against Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
Longer biography

John Semple
Born 1904 at Belfast, Ireland; Died 1985
EMS membership: 1930
John Semple studied at Queen's University Belfast and Cambridge. He held a post in Edinburgh for a year before becoming Professor of Pure Mathematics at Queen's College Belfast. He moved to King's College London where he spent the rest of his career. His most important work was in Algebraic geometry.
Longer biography

William Sheppard
Born 1863 at Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Died 1936
EMS membership: 1926
William Sheppard read Mathematics at Cambridge and then went on to study Law. He was appointed to the Department of Education. His mathematical interests were mainly in Statistics.
Longer biography

Mary Simpson
Born 1901 at Gateshead-on-Tyne
EMS membership: 1923
Mary Simpson graduated from Edinburgh and then took up a post at Queen's College Dundee.
Longer biography

Glenny Smeal
Born 1890 at Australia
EMS membership: 1914
Glenny Smeal studied at Melbourne University and Imperial College London. After some time in Edinburgh he moved to a post in Statistical Methods and Computation at Leeds.
Longer biography

John Smith
Born 1905 at Kilmarnock; Died 1962
EMS membership: 1928
John Smith graduated from Glasgow University and then stayed on as a lecturer. He taught at Campbeltown Grammar School and Dollar Academy and then became an HM Schools Inspector.
Longer biography

Duncan Sommerville
Born 1879 at Beawar, Rajasthan, India; Died 1934
EMS membership: 1903
Duncan Sommerville studied at St Andrews and then had a post as a lecturer there. He left to become Professor of Pure and Applied mathematics at Victoria College, Wellington New Zealand. He worked on non-Euclidean geometry and the History of Mathematics. He became President of the EMS in 1911.
Longer biography

Thomas Bond Sprague
Born 1830 at London; Died 1920
EMS membership: 1884
Thomas Bond Sprague studied at Cambridge and went on to become the most important actuary of the late 19th Century. He wrote more than 100 papers including many in the Proceedings of the EMS.
Longer biography

Catherine Steele
Born 1903 at West Calder, West Lothian
EMS membership: 1925
Catherine Steele graduated from the University of St Andrews. She went on to a doctorate in Chemistry and studied at the University of Illinois and at Harvard. She taught for some time at a Horticultural College in Kent before returning to the USA.
Longer biography

John Steggall
Born 1855 at London; Died 1935
EMS membership: 1888
John Steggall graduated from Cambridge and then taught at Clifton College Bristol and Owens College Manchester. He was appointed to be the first Professor of Mathematics at the newly-formed University College Dundee: soon to become Queen's College and part of the University of St Andrews. He held this post for 50 years. He became President of the EMS in 1891 and 1924.
Longer biography

P G Tait
Born 1831 at Dalkeith, Midlothian; Died 1901
EMS membership: 1883 (Hon)
Peter Guthrie Tait was a fellow-pupil of Maxwell at Edinburgh Academy and both of them went on to study at Edinburgh University and Cambridge. Tait became Professor of Mathematics at Queen's College Belfast and then moved to the Chair of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh which he occupied for more than 40 years. With his collaborations with Maxwell, Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and Hamilton he made important contributions in both mathematics and physics. He became one of the first honorary members of the EMS in 1883.
Longer biography

J A Third
Born 1865 at St Nicholas, Aberdeen; Died 1948
EMS membership: 1897
J A Third graduated from Aberdeen and became Rector of Campbeltown Grammar School and later headmaster of Spier's School in Beith. He went on to become Director of Education for Ayrshire. A prize at the University of Aberdeen is named after him. He became President of the EMS in 1902.
Longer biography

George Thom
Born 1842 at Forgue near Huntly; Died 1916
EMS membership: 1883
George Thom graduated from Aberdeen and then became Principal of Doveton College in Madras, India. He returned to Scotland as Vice-Principal of Chanonry School Aberdeen and then became Rector of Dollar Institution (later to become Dollar Academy). He held this post for 24 years. He was a founder member of the EMS and became the fifth President in 1886.
Longer biography

D'Arcy Thompson
Born 1860 at Edinburgh; Died 1948
EMS membership: 1933 (Hon)
D'Arcy Thompson graduated from Cambridge University in Zoology. He was a appointed Professor of Biology at Dundee and later Professor of Natural History at St Andrews. He combined skills in a way that made him unique. He was a Greek scholar, a naturalist and a mathematician. He was the first biomathematician. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1933.
Longer biography

William Thomson
Born 1856 at Kirkton of Mailler, Perthshire; Died 1947
EMS membership: 1888
William Thomson graduated from Edinburgh University and then became assistant to Chrystal there. He was appointed Professor of Mathematics at Victoria College Stellenbosch in South Africa. He became Registrar at the University of the Cape of Good Hope and later at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. He finished his career as Principal of the University of South Africa in Pretoria.
Longer biography

William Leslie Thomson
Born 1868 at Selkirk; Died 1951
EMS membership: 1897
William Leslie Thomson studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge. He taught at Kirkwall, at Kilmarnock and at George Heriot's School in Edinburgh. He became President of the EMS in 1904.
Longer biography

Geoffrey Timms
Born 1903 at Bradford, Yorkshire; Died 1982
EMS membership: 1929
Geoffrey Timms studied at Leeds and Cambridge and then took up a post at St Andrews. During World War II he served at Bletchley Park and Cheltenham and joined the Foreign Office afterwards. He became President of the EMS in 1941.
Longer biography

John Todd
Born 1908 at Liverpool; Died 1994
EMS membership: 1935
John Todd graduated from Cambridge and stayed on to do research under Baker. After a period at Manchester and Princeton he returned to Cambridge where he spent the rest of his career. He worked on invariant theory, group theory and canonical systems.
Longer biography

Herbert Turnbull
Born 1885 at Tettenhall, Wolverhampton; Died 1961
EMS membership: 1922 1954 (Hon)
Herbert Turnbull graduated from Cambridge and then taught at Cambridge, Liverpool and Hong Kong. After a period as a schoolteacher in England and as a Schools Inspector he went to Oxford before being appointed Regius Professor of Mathematics at St Andrews. He held this post for nearly 30 years. He was interested in Invariant Theory and in the History of Mathematics. He became President of the EMS in 1933 and 1950 and an honorary member in 1954.
Longer biography

John Turner
Born 1871 at Kilbarchan, Ayrshire; Died 1948
EMS membership: 1894
John Turner graduated from the university of Edinburgh and taught at the Royal High School of Edinburgh. He was an active member of the EMS. He was editor of the Proceedings and became Treasurer of the EMS in 1905.
Longer biography

Charles Tweedie
Born 1868 at Swinton, Berwickshire; Died 1925
EMS membership: 1892 1915 (Hon)
Charles Tweedie studied at Edinburgh, Göttingen and Berlin. He returned to Edinburgh as assistant to Chrystal. He served as a Schools Inspector and published works on the History of Mathematics. He became President of the EMS in 1903 and an honorary member in 1915.
Longer biography

David Tweedie
Born 1865 at Swinton, Berwickshire
EMS membership: 1892
David Tweedie graduated from Edinburgh University and taught at George Watson's College in Edinburgh. He spent more than 30 years teaching in various institutions in Egypt. He became Treasure of the EMS in 1895.
Longer biography

David J Tweedie
Born 1870 at Edinburgh; Died 1926
EMS membership: 1897
David J Tweedie graduated with an Ordinary degree from Edinburgh University and then taught at George Heriot's Hospital School in Edinburgh. He became headmaster of the school at Kilconquhar in Fife.
Longer biography

Geoffrey Walker
Born 1909 at Watford, Hertfordshire; Died 2001
EMS membership: 1931
Geoffrey Walker studied at Oxford and Edinburgh. He taught at Imperial College London, Liverpool and Sheffield before returning to Liverpool as Professor of Pure Mathematics. He worked on Differential Geometry, Relativity and Cosmology.
Longer biography

G Neville Watson
Born 1886 at Westward Ho!, Devon; Died 1965
EMS membership: 1914
Neville Watson studied at Cambridge, and then taught at Cambridge and University College London before becoming Professor at Birmingham. He is best known as the joint author with Whittaker of one of the standard text-books on Analysis.
Longer biography

William Watson
Born 1884 at Musselburgh, East Lothian; Died 1952
EMS membership: 1913
William Watson graduated in Mathematics and Physics from Edinburgh University. He became head of the Physics department at Heriot Watt College in Edinburgh.
Longer biography

James Watt
Born 1863 in Scotland; Died 1945
EMS membership: 1927
James Watt was an Edinburgh lawyer and actuary. He was interested in science, being a member of the Scottish Meteorological Society and the Royal Scottish Geographical Society as well as the EMS.
Longer biography

James Wattie
Born 1862 at Aberdeen; Died 1943
EMS membership: 1889
James Wattie studied at Aberdeen and Oxford. He taught for a while at George Watson's College in Edinburgh and the Church of Scotland Training College in Aberdeen before becoming a Schools Inspector.
Longer biography

K K Weatherhead
Born 1898 at Glasgow; Died 1979
EMS membership: 1925
K K Weatherhead graduated from Edinburgh University although his studies were interrupted by service in World War I. He became an actuary, working for various Edinburgh insurance companies.
Longer biography

Joseph Wedderburn
Born 1882 at Forfar, Angus; Died 1948
EMS membership: 1902 1946 (Hon)
Joseph Wedderburn studied at Edinburgh, Leipzig, Berlin and Chicago. He returned to Scotland to work at Edinburgh but then moved to a post at Princeton where he spent the rest of his career except for a break for service in World War I. He made far-reaching discoveries in the theory of rings, algebras and matrices. He became an honorary member of the EMS in 1946.
Longer biography

Edmund Whittaker
Born 1873 at Southport, Lancashire; Died 1956
EMS membership: 1912 1937 (Hon)
Edmund Whittaker graduated from Cambridge and stayed on with a fellowship. He became Royal Astronomer of Ireland and moved to Dublin before being appointed to the Chair of Mathematics at Edinburgh where he spent the rest of his career. His best known work is in analysis, in particular numerical analysis, but he also worked on celestial mechanics and the history of applied mathematics and physics. He became President of the EMS in 1914 and an honorary member in 1937.
Longer biography

John Whittaker
Born 1905 at Cambridge; Died 1984
EMS membership: 1925
John Whittaker was the son of Edmund Whittaker. He studied at Edinburgh University and Cambridge. After posts at Edinburgh and Cambridge he became Professor at Liverpool though his tenure was interrupted by service in World War II. He left Liverpool to become Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. He worked in Quantum Mechanics and Complex Analysis.
Longer biography

John Williamson
Born 1901 at Kinross; Died 1949
EMS membership: 1924
John Williamson graduated from Edinburgh University and then had an appointment at St Andrews. He spent some time in Chicago and eventually moved to the USA to a post at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. His most important work was in Algebra.
Longer biography

Bertram Wilson
Born 1896 at London; Died 1935
EMS membership: 1933
Bertram Wilson graduated from Cambridge and had posts at Liverpool and Dundee. He died very young.
Longer biography

John Wilson
Born 1847 at Montrose, Angus; Died 1896
EMS membership: 1885
John Wilson graduated from Edinburgh University and trained as a Free Church minister. He took over the Rectorship of his father's Academy in Bannockburn but later moved to Edinburgh as a tutor in mathematics and physics. He became Treasurer of the EMS in 1888 and President in 1896.
Longer biography

John Raymond Wilton
Born 1884 at Belfast (Port Fairy), Victoria, Australia; Died 1944
EMS membership: 1928
John Raymond Wilton studied at Adelaide and Cambridge. He lectured at Sheffield before returning to Adelaide as a Professor. He worked in Analysis and Number Theory.
Longer biography

Aurel Wintner
Born 1903 at Budapest, Hungary; Died 1958
EMS membership: 1935
Aurel Wintner studied at Budapest and Leipzig. He spent most of his career in Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA. He published on Number Theory, Differential Equations, Probability and Celestial Mechanics.
Longer biography

Edward Maitland Wright
Born 1906 at Farnley, near Leeds; Died 2005
EMS membership: 1935
Edward Maitland Wright was initially self-taught in Mathematics but was able to go and study at Oxford. He spent a year at Göttingen and returned to Oxford. He was appointed to the Char at Aberdeen where he stayed for the rest of his career, eventually becoming Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University. He is best known for the standard work on Number Theory he wrote with G H Hardy.
Longer biography

Andrew Young
Born 1891 at Lanton, Jedburgh, Roxburghshire; Died 1968
EMS membership: 1913
Andrew Young graduated from Edinburgh and taught at St Andrews and London Universities. He then trained as a lawyer and worked as a solicitor in Edinburgh for the rest of his career.
Longer biography

George Udny Yule
Born 1871 at Morham (near Haddington); Died 1951
EMS membership: 1935
George Udny Yule graduated in Engineering from University College London and then studied in Bonn. He worked with Karl Pearson on the statistics of regression and correlation. He took a post with an examinations board before being appointed to a Cambridge fellowship. He is best known for his book: Introduction to the Theory of Statistics.
Longer biography