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1514

Vander Hoecke uses the + and - signs.

1515

Del Ferro discovers a formula to solve cubic equations. (See this History Topic.)

1522

Tunstall publishes *De arte supputandi libri quattuor* (*On the Art of Computation*), an arithmetic book based on Pacioli's *Summa*.

1525

Rudolff introduces a symbol resembling √ for square roots in his *Die Coss* the first German algebra book. He understands that *x*^{0} = 1.

1525

Dürer publishes *Unterweisung der Messung mit dem Zirkel und Richtscheit*, the first mathematics book published in German. It is a work on geometric constructions.

1533

Frisius publishes a method for accurate surveying using trigonometry. He is the first to propose the triangulation method.

1535

Tartaglia solves the cubic equation independently of del Ferro. (See this History Topic.)

1536

Hudalrichus Regius finds the fifth perfect number. The number 2^{12}(2^{13} - 1) = 33550336 is the first perfect number to be discovered since ancient times. (See this History Topic.)

1540

Ferrari discovers a formula to solve quartic equations. (See this History Topic.)

1541

Rheticus publishes his trigonometric tables and the trigonometrical parts of Copernicus's work.

1543

Copernicus publishes *De revolutionibus orbium coelestium* (*On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres*). It gives a full account of the Copernican theory, namely that the Sun (not the Earth) is at rest in the centre of the Universe.

1544

Stifel publishes *Arithmetica integra* which contains binomial coefficients and the notation +, -, √.

1545

Cardan publishes *Ars Magna* giving the formula that will solve any cubic equation based on Tartaglia's work and the formula for quartics discovered by Ferrari. (See this History Topic.)

1550

Ries publishes his famous arithmetic book *Rechenung nach der lenge, auff den Linihen vnd Feder*. It taught arithmetic both by the old abacus method and the new Indian method.

1551

Recorde translates and abridges the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid's *Elements* as *The Pathewaie to Knowledge*.

1555

J Scheybl gives the sixth perfect number 2^{16}(2^{17} - 1) = 8589869056 but his work remains unknown until 1977. (See this History Topic.)

1557

Recorde publishes *The Whetstone of Witte* which introduces = (the equals sign) into mathematics. He uses the symbol "bicause noe 2 thynges can be moare equalle".

1563

Cardan writes his book *Liber de Ludo Aleae* on games of chance but it would not be published until 1663.

1571

Viète begins publishing the *Canon Mathematicus* which he intends as a mathematical introduction to his astronomy treatise. It covers trigonometry, containing trigonometric tables and the theory behind their construction.

1572

Bombelli publishes the first three parts of his *Algebra*. He is the first to gives the rules for calculating with complex numbers.

1575

Maurolico publishes *Arithmeticorum libri duo* which contains examples of inductive proofs.

1585

Stevin publishes *De Thiende* in which he presents an elementary and thorough account of decimal fractions.

1586

Stevin publishes *De Beghinselen der Weeghconst* containing the theorem of the triangle of forces.

1590

Cataldi uses continued fractions in finding square roots.

1591

Viète writes *In artem analyticam isagoge* (*Introduction to the analytical art*), using letters as symbols for quantities, both known and unknown. He uses vowels for the unknowns and consonants for known quantities. Descartes, later, introduces the use of letters *x*, *y* ... at the end of the alphabet for unknowns.

1593

Van Roomen calculates π to 16 decimal places. (See this History Topic.)

1595

Pitiscus becomes the first to employ the term trigonometry in a printed publication.

1595

Clavius writes *Novi calendarii romani apologia* justifying calendar reforms.

List of mathematicians alive in 1500.

List of mathematicians alive in 1600.

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