References for Al-Samawal

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  1. A Anouba, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).


  1. S Ahmad and R Rashed (eds.), 'Al-Bahir' en algèbre d'As-Samaw'al (Damascus, 1972).
  2. R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).
  3. R Rashed, Entre arithmétique et algèbre: Recherches sur l'histoire des mathématiques arabes (Paris, 1984).


  1. Y Dold-Samplonius, The solution of quadratic equations according to al-Samaw'al, in Mathemata, Boethius : Texte Abh. Gesch. Exakt. Wissensch. XII (Wiesbaden, 1985), 95-104.
  2. F Rosenthal, Al-Asturlabi and as-Samaw'al on scientific progress, Osiris 9 (1950), 555-564.
  3. R Rashed, L'extraction de la racine n-ième et l'invention des fractions décimales (XIe--XIIe siècles), Arch. History Exact Sci. 18 (3) (1977/78), 191-243.
  4. W C Waterhouse, Note on a method of extracting roots in as-Samaw'al, Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 19 (4) (1978/79), 383-384.

JOC/EFR November 1999

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